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This book provides the critical knowledge and technological bases required for meeting one of the ultimate engineering challenges: the design and construction of smart structures and systems. Research in smart materials and structures seeks to apply multifunctional capabilities of new and existing materials to develop structures and systems that are capable of self-sensing and monitoring, self-diagnosis and prognosis with intelligence, self-healing and repair, and adaptive response to prevent loss of human life and catastrophe, to minimize maintenance and life-cycle costs, and to prolong service life. The papers contained herein, representing the state-of-the-art in the field, were presented at the World Forum on Smart Materials and Smart Structures Technology (SMSS) held in Chongqing and Nanjing, China on May 22-27, 2007.
The book provides suggestions on how to start using bionic optimization methods, including pseudo-code examples of each of the important approaches and outlines of how to improve them. The most efficient methods for accelerating the studies are discussed. These include the selection of size and generations of a study's parameters, modification of these driving parameters, switching to gradient methods when approaching local maxima, and the use of parallel working hardware. Bionic Optimization means finding the best solution to a problem using methods found in nature. As Evolutionary Strategies and Particle Swarm Optimization seem to be the most important methods for structural optimization, we primarily focus on them. Other methods such as neural nets or ant colonies are more suited to control or process studies, so their basic ideas are outlined in order to motivate readers to start using them. A set of sample applications shows how Bionic Optimization works in practice. From academic studies on simple frames made of rods to earthquake-resistant buildings, readers follow the lessons learned, difficulties encountered and effective strategies for overcoming them. For the problem of tuned mass dampers, which play an important role in dynamic control, changing the goal and restrictions paves the way for Multi-Objective-Optimization. As most structural designers today use commercial software such as FE-Codes or CAE systems with integrated simulation modules, ways of integrating Bionic Optimization into these software packages are outlined and examples of typical systems and typical optimization approaches are presented. The closing section focuses on an overview and outlook on reliable and robust as well as on Multi-Objective-Optimization, including discussions of current and upcoming research topics in the field concerning a unified theory for handling stochastic design processes.
One of the world's currently largests tunnel projects is under construction at the Yangtze River estuary: the Shanghai Yangtze River Tunnel project, with its length of 8950 m and a diameter of 15.43 m. The Shanghai Yangtze River Tunnel. Theory, Design and Construction, which was presented as a special issue at the occasion of the 6th International Symposium Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground (IS-Shanghai, China, 10-12 April 2008), contains a comprehensive collection of papers dedicated to one of the most complex underground works recently undertaken, and covers a variety of topics:
a " Experiment and design;
a " Construction and monitoring;
a " Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation;
a " Risk assessment, and
a " Project management.
This book will be invaluable to scientists and engineers working in the analysis, design, construction and management of tunnels in soft ground.
This book provides the readers with a timely guide to the application of biomimetic principles in architecture and engineering design. As a result of a combined effort by two internationally recognized authorities, the biologist Werner Nachtigall and the architect Goeran Pohl, the book describes the principles which can be used to compare nature and technology, and at the same time it presents detailed explanations and examples showing how biology can be used as a source of inspiration and "translated" in building and architectural solutions (biomimicry). Even though nature cannot be directly copied, the living world can provide architects and engineers with a wealth of analogues and inspirations for their own creative designs. But how can analysis of natural entities give rise to advanced and sustainable design? By reporting on the latest bionic design methods and using extensive artwork, the book guides readers through the field of nature-inspired architecture, offering an extraordinary resource for professional architects, engineers, designers and urban planners, as well as for university teachers, researchers and students. Natural evolution is seen throughout the book as a powerful resource that can serve architecture and design by providing innovative, optimal and sustainable solutions.
The book focuses on the recent innovations in computational techniques, material and digital fabrication technology that are revolutionizing the design, analysis and construction of surface structures. Powerful analysis tools now enable the accurate prediction of structural behaviour and manufacturing processes. Material innovations in the area of cementitious and other composites, glass, or smart materials, to just name a few, are challenging architects to find appropriate forms and applications. Digitally supported fabrication technology has taken a quantum leap since the time of the master shell builders 40 years ago, unfolding new potential to realize complex structural shapes in new and innovative ways. These innovations are presented in the context of an in-depth introduction to the fundamentals of surface structures providing the necessary knowledge for the successful design of shells and tensile systems in a broad variety of materials. Many of the principles are demonstrated using new material of some of the masterpieces in surface architecture. The book is structured into three parts. The first part familiarizes the reader with the topic of surface structures. It provides a historic overview and explains the underlying structural principles and traditional construction techniques. Part II introduces design methods, emphasizing recent developments in computational design and analysis that have greatly facilitated the design and construction of surface structures. Part III presents case studies demonstrating use of innovative and emerging materials.
Today, architecture in China is at a watershed. Over the last decade, rapid urbanisation and the burgeoning economy turned the country into a playground for the world's signature architects, making it possible to realise extravagant forms and structures at a vast scale. The Chinese government has now drawn a line under this phenomenon by issuing a directive calling an end to the 'oversized, xenocentric, weird' buildings devoid of character or cultural heritage that have sprung up across the country, requiring that urban architecture be 'suitable, economic, green and pleasing to the eye'. This government directive comes at a time when homegrown architecture has become increasingly self-assured and reflective in its approach. A new generation of architects in China in their 30s and 40s are emerging, and in a wholly contemporary way they are exploring local responses to often bewildering urban and rural conditions and serious social and environmental challenges. This is often expressed through a revival of interest in traditional street patterns, courtyards and gardens. At the same time, architects are also recognising the opportunities to harness the potential of China's established manufacturing base to develop prefabricated building systems. Innovative practices are employing new modes of working, such as research-based studio teaching and exhibitions, field workshops, cross-disciplinary collaboration, laboratory-based practice, design think-tanks and collective projects, generating a vibrant culture of design research. Contributors: Lu Feng, Murray Fraser, Xiao Fu and Wei You, Xiahong Hua and Shen Zhuang, Xinggang Li, Yichun Liu, James Shen, Yehao Song, Hui Wang, Shuo Wang, Xin Wang and Qiuye Jin, Philip F Yuan and Xiang Wang, Li Zhang, Xin Zhang and Jingxiang Zhu. Featured architects: Archi-Union Architects, Atelier Archmixing, Atelier Deshaus, Atelier Li Xinggang, Integrated Architecture Studio, LanD Studio, META-Project, People's Architecture Office, SUP Atelier, URBANUS and Zaoyuan Gardening Studio
This new edition of the popular handbook is a practical companion for Clerks of Works, Site Inspectors and anyone with the responsibility of managing construction works on site. Clerk of Works and Site Inspector Handbook, 2018 edition the book explains the traditional site inspector/clerk of works role and their liabilities, as well as duties and responsibilities linked to a more contemporary construction setting. It explores the relationship between inspectors, architects and other construction professionals, whilst providing valuable insight into reporting and what to look for, check and test every step of the way. It's an essential reference book for Clerks of Works and Site Inspectors, containing important lessons for newly qualified architects, those who carry out site inspections or act as resident site architects and Part 3 students.
Focussing on structural reliability methods, reliability-based optimization, structural system reliability and risk analysis, lifetime performance and various applications in civil engineering. Invaluable to all concerned with structural system reliability and optimization, especially students, engineers, and workers in research and development.
A new type of handbook for bridge building, which deals with design and detailing for all types of structure, construction and material. Design according to the Eurocodes of road and rail bridges, including a special chapter on pedestrian bridges. With numerous examples.
New Trends in Fracture Mechanics of Concrete contains Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures (FraMCoS-6, Catania, Italy, 17-22 June 2007). It is divided into four parts: (1) Theoretical and Numerical Methods in Fracture Mechanics of Concrete; (2) Experimental Methods in Fracture Mechanics of Concrete; (3) Constitutive Damage Modelling of Concrete; (4) Time Effects in the Damage and Fracture of Concrete. Over the last twenty years, many theoretical, numerical and experimental methods have evolved in the field of Fracture Mechanics of Concrete. These have led to practical applications in reinforced-concrete design, assessment, monitoring and retrofitting, as well as innovative high-performance and durable cementitious materials. Although Fracture Mechanics of Concrete is now mature as a framework for defining and solving a variety of engineering problems, there is still much work to be done in improving previous theoretical and numerical models, and for re-interpreting established phenomena. In particular, there are new developments in the treatment of scale effects; the implementation of 3D-discretisation; and the combination of continuous and discontinuous models. Other areas of rapid progress are the development of innovative testing techniques; the proposal of non-local and anisotropic constitutive laws; the formulation of lattice and multiscale models, and the development of coupled multifield theories. The other two volumes comprising the Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures are Design, Assessment and Retrofitting of RC Structures; and High-Performance Concrete, Brick-Masonry and Environmental Aspects. The set presents a wealth of information, and will be useful to professional civil engineers, postgraduate students and researchers.
Design, Assessment and Retrofitting of RC Structures is the second volume of the Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures (FraMCoS-6, Catania, Italy, 17-22 June 2007), and is divided into four parts: (1) Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Behaviour of RC Structures; (2) Practical Problems in RC Structural Applications; (3) Monitoring and Assessment of RC Structures; (4) Maintenance and Retrofitting of RC Structures.
Fracture Mechanics is used to interpret different problems: anchor fastening; plastic rotation capacity in RC beams; minimum reinforcement and ductility. It is also relevant to questions of size effect; flexural-shear-crushing failure mode transition; cohesive crack modelling; and rebar corrosion. Traditional problems arising in RC structures are also reconsidered and re-interpreted: crack width evaluation; dynamic and impact loading; fire and thermal degradation; fatigue strength assessment; as well as punching and spalling. Monitoring and assessment issues in RC structures come under discussion, such as acoustic emission and ultra sound. Maintenance and retrofitting techniques are treated, including the increasingly popular technique of fibre-reinforced polymer sheets used as wrapping around cracked structures, for example, to strengthen beams and columns.
The other two volumes comprising the Proceedings of the 6th
International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and
Concrete Structures are: New Trends in Fracture Mechanics of
Concrete; and High-Performance Concrete, Brick-Masonry and
Environmental Aspects. They present a wealth of information, and
will be useful to professional civil engineers, postgraduate
students and researchers.
Design, Assessment and Retrofitting of RC Structures
Activity Based Cotsting for Construction Companies provides guidelines on how overhead costs can be managed for using Activity Based Costing (ABC), providing gains in contractor competiveness. Illustrated with a range of case studies and examples it also presents a map that shows construction contractors how to implement ABC to calculate overhead costs accurately, identifying non or low-value added operations which can then be improved.
#1 New Release in Civil Engineering & Environmental and Urban Planning and Development The New Orleans Flood, U.S. Corruption, and Other Types of DisastersIn the aftermath of one of the worst disasters in U.S. history, Words Whispered in Water tells the story of one woman's fight-against all odds-to expose a mammoth federal agency-and win. It's a horror story, a mystery, and David and Goliath story all in one. In 2005, the entire world watched as a major U.S. city was nearly wiped off the map. The levees ruptured and New Orleans drowned. But while newscasters attributed the New Orleans flood to "natural catastrophes" and other types of disasters, citizen investigator Sandy Rosenthal set out to expose the true culprit and compel the media and government to tell the truth. This is her story. When the protective steel flood-walls broke, the Army Corps of Engineers-with cooperation from big media-turned the blame on natural types of disasters. In the chaotic aftermath, Rosenthal uncovers the U.S. corruption, and big media at root. Follow this New Orleans hero as she exposes the federal agency's egregious design errors and eventually changes the narrative surrounding the New Orleans flood. In this engaging and revealing tale of man versus nature and man versus man, Words Whispered in Water proves that the power of a single individual is alive and well. If you enjoyed books like The Johnstown Flood, Breach of Faith, or The Great Deluge, then Words Whispered in Water is your next read!
Although the use of composites has increased in many industrial, commercial, medical, and defense applications, there is a lack of technical literature that examines composites in conjunction with concrete construction. Fulfilling the need for a comprehensive, explicit guide, Reinforced Concrete Design with FRP Composites presents specific information necessary for designing concrete structures with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites as a substitute for steel reinforcement and for using FRP fabrics to strengthen concrete members. In a reader-friendly, design-oriented manner, this book discusses the analysis, design, durability, and serviceability of concrete members reinforced with FRP. The authors first introduce the elements that constitute composites-the structural constituent and matrix-and discuss how composites are manufactured. Following an examination of the durability of FRP composites that contain fibers, such as glass, carbon, or aramid, the book illustrates how FRP external reinforcement systems (FRP-ER) can be used for enhancing the strength and stiffness of concrete structures using theory and design principles. The concluding chapter concentrates on serviceability aspects of concrete members internally reinforced with FRP. An excellent resource of design and construction practices, Reinforced Concrete Design with FRP Composites is a state-of-the-art reference on concrete members reinforced with FRP.
This book supplies an overview of recent developments in constitutive modeling, numerical implementation issues, and coupled and dynamic analysis. There is a special section dedicated to the numerical modeling of ground improvement techniques, with applications of numerical methods for solving practical boundary value problems, such as deep excavations, tunnels, shallow and deep foundations, embankments, and slopes. The book not only contains the latest scientific research, it also provides valuable insight into the applications of numerical methods in solving practical engineering problems, thus narrowing the gap between advanced academic research and practical application.
This volume presents the proceedings of an international symposium held by the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in August 2006. In this book, the contributors emphasize the role of physical modeling in developing a sustainable environment. In addition to this main theme, the contributors also address modernization and new developments in physical modeling, numerical versus physical modeling, soil dynamics and geotechnical earthquake engineering, soil-structure interaction, model studies versus field performance, natural hazard mitigation, process modeling, and a host of other important related topics.
Water resources stored by dams and reservoirs play an essential role in water resource management, hydropower and flood control. Where there is an extensive network of dam infrastructures, dams have made a major contribution to economic and social development, providing considerable storage capacity per capita. However, dams and reservoirs may also have an important social and environmental impact, and should be studied within the framework of integrated water resource management and sustainable development. Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century presents the latest research on the role played by dams and reservoirs in 21st century societies, in developed, emergent and developing countries. It analyses the viability of dams and suggests alternative solutions from a holistic perspective, considering the technical, economic, social and environmental aspects. Other issues covered include the social acceptability of dams, public involvement and dam awareness. The book covers subjects ranging from dam engineering, through the benefits and drawbacks of dams, to their social and environmental impact, and contains numerous case studies of the constructive contributions that reservoirs have made to water development and management. The book is a valuable resource for professional and dam engineers, water managers, governmental organizations and commercial enterprises responsible for dam development and management.
This conference proceedings brings together the work of researchers and practising engineers concerned with computational modelling of complex concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures in engineering practice. The subjects considered include computational mechanics of concrete and other cementitious materials, including masonry. Advanced discretisation methods and microstructural aspects within multi-field and multi-scale settings are discussed, as well as modelling formulations and constitutive modelling frameworks and novel experimental programmes. The conference also considered the need for reliable, high-quality analysis and design of concrete structures in regard to safety-critical structures, with a view to adopting these in codes of practice or recommendations. The book is of special interest to researchers in computational mechanics, and industry experts in complex nonlinear simulations of concrete structures.
Just like building physics, performance based building design was hardly an issue before the energy crises of the 1970ies. With the need to upgrade energy efficiency, the interest in overall building performance grew. The term "performance" encompasses all building-related physical properties and qualities that are predictable during the design stage and controllable during and after construction. The term "predictable" demands calculation tools and physical models that allow evaluating a design, whereas "controllable" presumes the existence of measuring methods available on site. The basis for a system of performance arrays are the functional demands, the needs for accessibility, safety, well-being, durability, energy efficiency and sustainability and the requirements imposed by the usage of a building. In continuation of Vol. 1 this second volume discusses light-weight construction with wooden and metal elements, roofing systems, facades, and ends with finishes and the overall risk analysis. Most chapters build on a same scheme: overview, overall performance evaluation, design and construction. The work is absolutely recommended to undergraduates and graduates in architectural and building engineering, though also building engineers, who want to refresh their knowledge, may benefit. The level of discussion assumes the reader has a sound knowledge of building physics, along with a background in structural engineering, building materials and building construction. Where and when needed, input and literature from over the world was used, reason why each chapter ends listing references and literature.
This valuable second edition provides important extensions of unique techniques of numerical analyses of beams, long strips, circular plates, and circular-cylindrical tanks resting on elastic foundations and/or unyielding/elastic supports. Emphasis is placed upon simplicity of analysis without compromising the accuracy of results and a large number of examples are included for illustration. These also provide help for users of the easy-to-use software included. The fully revised software runs smoothly under current Windows operating systems. Employing the numerical techniques outlined in the book, this powerful tool makes design analysis of the related structures easy and time-efficient. The applicability of the software is extended to analysis of laterally loaded piles and bending analysis of retaining walls. A bonus suite of complementary software containing programmes for elastic-plastic soil - structure interaction analyses of beams/strips, laterally loaded piles/sheet-piles, and long retaining walls is also included. engineers engaged in design of beams, strips, circular plates, circular-cylindrical tanks and silos. Postgraduate students and researchers working in the soil-structure interaction area should also find the book-software package of great value.
SHMII-2'2005 provided international scientists, engineers, enterprisers and young researchers with a forum for exchange about recent advances, potential international cooperation and multi-disciplinary activities. Ideas were pooled about the state-of-the-art, state-of-the-practice, and future trends of smart sensors, advanced sensor networks and integrated systems for structural health monitoring of intelligent infrastructures, and "real-time monitored data" based damage identification and localization, model updating, safety evaluation and reliability forecast and also damage control, maintenance and retrofit decision-making, and life-cycle performance-based design of infrastructures. Topics covered in these proceedings include: Smart and Advanced Sensors, Wireless and Advanced Sensor Networks, Data Acquisition, Processing and Management, Damage Identification and Localization, Model Updating, Safety Evaluation and Reliability Forecasting, Damage Control, Repair and Strengthening, Smart Materials and Structures, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Systems Analysing Wind and Earthquake, Hazard Mitigation of Civil Infrastructure, Remote Monitoring Systems, Integrated Systems and Implementations of SHM.
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