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Credit is essential in the modern world and creates wealth, provided it is used wisely. The Global Credit Crisis during 2008/2009 has shown that sound understanding of underlying credit risk is crucial. If credit freezes, almost every activity in the economy is affected. The best way to utilize credit and get results is to understand credit risk. Advanced Credit Risk Analysis and Management helps the reader to understand the various nuances of credit risk. It discusses various techniques to measure, analyze and manage credit risk for both lenders and borrowers. The book begins by defining what credit is and its advantages and disadvantages, the causes of credit risk, a brief historical overview of credit risk analysis and the strategic importance of credit risk in institutions that rely on claims or debtors. The book then details various techniques to study the entity level credit risks, including portfolio level credit risks. Authored by a credit expert with two decades of experience in corporate finance and corporate credit risk, the book discusses the macroeconomic, industry and financial analysis for the study of credit risk. It covers credit risk grading and explains concepts including PD, EAD and LGD. It also highlights the distinction with equity risks and touches on credit risk pricing and the importance of credit risk in Basel Accords I, II and III. The two most common credit risks, project finance credit risk and working capital credit risk, are covered in detail with illustrations. The role of diversification and credit derivatives in credit portfolio management is considered. It also reflects on how the credit crisis develops in an economy by referring to the bubble formation. The book links with the 2008/2009 credit crisis and carries out an interesting discussion on how the credit crisis may have been avoided by following the fundamentals or principles of credit risk analysis and management. The book is essential for both lenders and borrowers. Containing case studies adapted from real life examples and exercises, this important text is practical, topical and challenging. It is useful for a wide spectrum of academics and practitioners in credit risk and anyone interested in commercial and corporate credit and related products.
Businesses take on many forms ranging from sole proprietorships, partnerships, and close corporations to companies. The ability of these forms of business ownership to obtain and service credit depends not only on their financial circumstances, but also the knowledge and ability of the credit provider to assess the business' creditworthiness. For a business to be successful it must make a profit. The profit on a sale is not earned unless the money for the sale is in the bank on due date. It is also true that the longer it takes to collect the money from a debtor, the more difficult it becomes. Applied credit management teaches the learner all aspects of the credit management function of an organisation, from the evaluation of the new application, the investigation of the creditworthiness of the customer, the final approval or rejection to the collection and ultimate litigation of an account. All aspects of the National Credit Act (Act 34 of 2006) have been incorporated in the principles of this book.
This title focuses on the supervisor of the credit management function of an organisation and teaches the learner how to plan, organise, lead and control the routine activities in the department, and how to set, measure and achieve performance standards. The supervisor and the learner are also taught how to detect irregularities in the handling of debtors' accounts and cash receipts, and how to initiate and apply corrective action. All aspects of the National Credit Act (Act 34 of 2006) have been incorporated in the principles of this title.
Since the late 1980s the law affecting consumers has undergone fundamental change. There is now a significant body of new law designed to protect consumers.;This publication covers all aspects of that law and examines the issues which have become pertinent to modern society. It begins with an overview of consumers and consumerism and goes on to deal with important aspects of consumer law. Contentious issues such as consumer credit, debt-collection procedures and practices, and consumer protection bodies and mechanisms are discussed. In each instance, the theory of the law is explained and its practical application illustrated.;This book should be of interest to lawyers, legal advisors, as well as those in industry and commerce.
An account of the significant though gradual, uneven, disconnected, ad hoc, and pragmatic innovations in global financial governance and developmental finance induced by the global financial crisis. In When Things Don't Fall Apart, Ilene Grabel challenges the dominant view that the global financial crisis had little effect on global financial governance and developmental finance. Most observers discount all but grand, systemic ruptures in institutions and policy. Grabel argues instead that the global crisis induced inconsistent and ad hoc discontinuities in global financial governance and developmental finance that are now having profound effects on emerging market and developing economies. Grabel's chief normative claim is that the resulting incoherence in global financial governance is productive rather than debilitating. In the age of productive incoherence, a more complex, dense, fragmented, and pluripolar form of global financial governance is expanding possibilities for policy and institutional experimentation, policy space for economic and human development, financial stability and resilience, and financial inclusion. Grabel draws on key theoretical commitments of Albert Hirschman to cement the case for the productivity of incoherence. Inspired by Hirschman, Grabel demonstrates that meaningful change often emerges from disconnected, erratic, experimental, and inconsistent adjustments in institutions and policies as actors pragmatically manage in an evolving world. Grabel substantiates her claims with empirically rich case studies that explore the effects of recent crises on networks of financial governance (such as the G-20); transformations within the IMF; institutional innovations in liquidity support and project finance from the national to the transregional levels; and the "rebranding" of capital controls. Grabel concludes with a careful examination of the opportunities and risks associated with the evolutionary transformations underway.
WITH HUNDREDS OF MORTGAGES NOW AVAILABLE, HOW DO YOU CHOOSE THE ONE THAT'S RIGHT FOR YOU?. .
Congratulations! Chances are you're buying a new home or refinancing an old one and are now in the process of applying for a mortgage loan. Before making any decisions that could affect the next 30 years of your life, arm yourself with this edition of "Tips And Traps When Mortgage Hunting," . .
There are so many loans now available for practically every situation. America's leading real estate authority, Robert Irwin, will help you cut through the confusion and find the mortgage that fits your needs and is right for your budget. If one of your biggest concerns is paying too high an interest rate, or shelling out excessive cash for closing costs, this book will save you money by showing you how to find the lowest rates available. In easy-to-understand language, Irwin explains.... . . When to use a mortgage broker and how to find the right one. How to use the latest technology to conduct a mortgage search online. How to shop for and lock in the lowest interest rate. How to avoid being denied a mortgage because of a credit problem. . .
This clear and comprehensive guide will provide you with the most up-to-date information and insider tips to help you avoid the traps of mortgage hunting and find the right mortgage at the right, /p>.
Modelling credit risk accurately is central to the practice of mathematical finance. The majority of available texts are aimed at an advanced level, and are more suitable for PhD students and researchers. This volume of the Mastering Mathematical Finance series addresses the need for a course intended for master's students, final-year undergraduates, and practitioners. The book focuses on the two mainstream modelling approaches to credit risk, namely structural models and reduced-form models, and on pricing selected credit risk derivatives. Balancing rigorous theory with examples, it takes readers through a natural development of mathematical ideas and financial intuition.
This title deals with the three important branches of the law relating to security. Within a small compass it analyses in critical detail the governing rules. In particular, it is a practical guide to current practice.
How the American government has long used financial credit programs to create economic opportunities Federal housing finance policy and mortgage-backed securities have gained widespread attention in recent years because of the 2008 financial crisis, but issues of government credit have been part of American life since the nation (TM)s founding. From the 1780s, when a watershed national land credit policy was established, to the postwar foundations of our current housing finance system, American Bonds examines the evolution of securitization and federal credit programs. Sarah Quinn shows that since the Westward expansion, the U.S. government has used financial markets to manage America (TM)s complex social divides, and politicians and officials across the political spectrum have turned to land sales, home ownership, and credit to provide economic opportunity without the appearance of market intervention or direct wealth redistribution. Highly technical systems, securitization, and credit programs have been fundamental to how Americans determined what they could and should owe one another. Over time, government officials embraced credit as a political tool that allowed them to navigate an increasingly complex and fractured political system, affirming the government (TM)s role as a consequential and creative market participant. Neither intermittent nor marginal, credit programs supported the growth of powerful industries, from railroads and farms to housing and finance; have been used for disaster relief, foreign policy, and military efforts; and were promoters of amortized mortgages, lending abroad, venture capital investment, and mortgage securitization. Illuminating America (TM)s market-heavy social policies, American Bonds illustrates how political institutions became involved in the nation (TM)s lending practices.
Only our limited idea of money is keeping us poor. David Boyle introduces us to alternative cash and people who can conjure money - that is, spending power - out of nothing. Until recently, the growth of alternative cash had been the province of big business: phone cards, stamps, air miles and Tesco's clubcard points all have purchasing power, yet are not cash as we know it. Now, locally created money systems like `time dollars', `Womanshare' and `Ithaca hours' are being invented by communities for communities. With clarity and great humour, Boyle tells the story of this extraordinary revolution: he travels to the USA to visit the people behind local money systems; relates their vision of the future; and describes how to set up your own currency. This is no dry theoretical tome: Boyle writes about his subject in a way that is concrete, illuminating, often very funny and always highly readable. This paperback edition includes a new epilogue with an update on the latest alternative currency ideas: `You just have to cast doubt on the real existence of the money markets and they could just shrivel away. Anything could happen.' A revolution is underway now: this book tells the story of its leaders and the ideas that inspired them.
Adair Turner became chairman of Britain's Financial Services Authority just as the global financial crisis struck in 2008, and he played a leading role in redesigning global financial regulation. In this eye-opening book, he sets the record straight about what really caused the crisis. It didn't happen because banks are too big to fail--our addiction to private debt is to blame. Between Debt and the Devil challenges the belief that we need credit growth to fuel economic growth, and that rising debt is okay as long as inflation remains low. In fact, most credit is not needed for economic growth--but it drives real estate booms and busts and leads to financial crisis and depression. Turner explains why public policy needs to manage the growth and allocation of credit creation, and why debt needs to be taxed as a form of economic pollution. Banks need far more capital, real estate lending must be restricted, and we need to tackle inequality and mitigate the relentless rise of real estate prices. Turner also debunks the big myth about fiat money--the erroneous notion that printing money will lead to harmful inflation. To escape the mess created by past policy errors, we sometimes need to monetize government debt and finance fiscal deficits with central-bank money. Between Debt and the Devil shows why we need to reject the assumptions that private credit is essential to growth and fiat money is inevitably dangerous. Each has its advantages, and each creates risks that public policy must consciously balance.
Make your money make a difference and enjoy attractive returns Small Money, Big Impact explores and explains the globally growing importance of impact investing. Today, the investor's perspective has become as important as the actual social impact. Based on their experience with over 25 million micro borrowers, the authors delve into the mechanics, considerations, data and strategies that make microloans and impact investing an attractive asset class. From the World Bank to the individual investor, impact investing is attracting more and more attention. Impact investing is a global megatrend and is reshaping the way people invest as pension funds, insurance companies, foundations, family offices and private investors jump on board. This book explains for the first time how it works, why it works and what you should know if you're ready to help change the world. Impact investing has proven over the last 20 years as the first-line offense against crushing poverty. Over two billion people still lack access to basic financial services, which are essential for improving their livelihood. Investors have experienced not only social and environmental impact, but have received attractive, stable and uncorrelated returns for over 15 years. This guide provides the latest insights and methodologies that help you reap the rewards of investing in humanity. * Explore the global impact investing phenomenon * Learn how microloans work, and how they make a difference * Discover why investors are increasingly leaning into impact investing * Consider the factors that inform impact investing decisions Part social movement and part financial strategy, impact investing offers the unique opportunity for investors to power tremendous change with a small amount of money expanding their portfolios as they expand their own global impact. Microfinance allows investors at any level to step in where banks refuse to tread, offering opportunity to those who need it most. Small Money, Big Impact provides the expert guidance you need to optimize the impact on your portfolio and the world.
This text provides an in-depth look at the impact of stochastic volatility on the pricing and hedging of options. It also examines how trees and lattices provide an alternative to the more complicated implicit finite difference method when valuing derivative instruments.
A rigorous but practical introduction to the economic, financial, and political principles underlying commodity markets. Commodities have become one of the fastest growing asset classes of the last decade and the object of increasing attention from investors, scholars, and policy makers. Yet existing treatments of the topic are either too theoretical, ignoring practical realities, or largely narrative and nonrigorous. This book bridges the gap, striking a balance between theory and practice. It offers a solid foundation in the economic, financial, and political principles underlying commodities markets. The book, which grows out of courses taught by the author at Columbia and Johns Hopkins, can be used by graduate students in economics, finance, and public policy, or as a conceptual reference for practitioners. After an introduction to basic concepts and a review of the various types of commodities-energy, metals, agricultural products-the book delves into the economic and financial dynamics of commodity markets, with a particular focus on energy. The text covers fundamental demand and supply for resources, the mechanics behind commodity financial markets, and how they motivate investment decisions around both physical and financial portfolio exposure to commodities, and the evolving political and regulatory landscape for commodity markets. Additional special topics include geopolitics, financial regulation, and electricity markets. The book is divided into thematic modules that progress in complexity. Text boxes offer additional, related material, and numerous charts and graphs provide further insight into important concepts.
We live in a culture of credit. As wages have stagnated, we've seen a dramatic surge in private borrowing across the western world; increasing numbers of households are sucked into a hopeless vortex of spiralling debt, fuelled by exploitative lending. In this book Johnna Montgomerie argues that the situation is chronically dysfunctional, both individually and collectively. She shows that abolishing household debts can put an end to austerity and to the unsustainable forward march of debt-dependent growth. She combines astute economic analysis with the elements of an accessible guide to practical policy solutions such as extending unconventional monetary policy to the household sector, providing pragmatic and affordable refinancing options, and writing off the most pernicious elements of household debt. This framework, she contends, can help us to make our economy fairer and to tackle both the housing crisis and accelerating inequality.
A detailed, expert-driven guide to today's major financial point of interest The xVA Challenge: Counterparty Credit Risk, Funding, Collateral, and Capital is a practical guide from one of the leading and most influential credit practitioners, Jon Gregory. Focusing on practical methods, this informative guide includes discussion around the latest regulatory requirements, market practice, and academic thinking. Beginning with a look at the emergence of counterparty risk during the recent global financial crisis, the discussion delves into the quantification of firm-wide credit exposure and risk mitigation methods, such as netting and collateral. It also discusses thoroughly the xVA terms, notably CVA, DVA, FVA, ColVA, and KVA and their interactions and overlaps. The discussion of other aspects such as wrong-way risks, hedging, stress testing, and xVA management within a financial institution are covered. The extensive coverage and detailed treatment of what has become an urgent topic makes this book an invaluable reference for any practitioner, policy maker, or student. Counterparty credit risk and related aspects such as funding, collateral, and capital have become key issues in recent years, now generally characterized by the term 'xVA'. This book provides practical, in-depth guidance toward all aspects of xVA management. * Market practice around counterparty credit risk and credit and debit value adjustment (CVA and DVA) * The latest regulatory developments including Basel III capital requirements, central clearing, and mandatory collateral requirements * The impact of accounting requirements such as IFRS 13 * Recent thinking on the applications of funding, collateral, and capital adjustments (FVA, ColVA and KVA) The sudden realization of extensive counterparty risks has severely compromised the health of global financial markets. It's now a major point of action for all financial institutions, which have realized the growing importance of consistent treatment of collateral, funding, and capital alongside counterparty risk. The xVA Challenge: Counterparty Credit Risk, Funding, Collateral, and Capital provides expert perspective and real-world guidance for today's institutions.
An authoritative, in-depth guide to all aspects of credit analysis from the experts at Standard & Poor's
Credit analysis--gauging an issuer's ability to repay interest and principal on a bond issue--plays an essential role in determining how bond issues are rated and priced. "Fundamentals of Corporate Credit Analysis "provides both analysts and investors with the practical, up-to-date information they need, backed by Standard & Poor's research, data, and experience, to properly assess the credit risk of virtually any entity.
Whether used as a handy all-in-one guide or as a comprehensive training tool, it will give anyone the knowledge and tools needed to dig beneath standard ratings and determine an organization's true creditworthiness.
The long-awaited, comprehensive guide to practical credit risk modeling Credit Risk Analytics provides a targeted training guide for risk managers looking to efficiently build or validate in-house models for credit risk management. Combining theory with practice, this book walks you through the fundamentals of credit risk management and shows you how to implement these concepts using the SAS credit risk management program, with helpful code provided. Coverage includes data analysis and preprocessing, credit scoring; PD and LGD estimation and forecasting, low default portfolios, correlation modeling and estimation, validation, implementation of prudential regulation, stress testing of existing modeling concepts, and more, to provide a one-stop tutorial and reference for credit risk analytics. The companion website offers examples of both real and simulated credit portfolio data to help you more easily implement the concepts discussed, and the expert author team provides practical insight on this real-world intersection of finance, statistics, and analytics. SAS is the preferred software for credit risk modeling due to its functionality and ability to process large amounts of data. This book shows you how to exploit the capabilities of this high-powered package to create clean, accurate credit risk management models. * Understand the general concepts of credit risk management * Validate and stress-test existing models * Access working examples based on both real and simulated data * Learn useful code for implementing and validating models in SAS Despite the high demand for in-house models, there is little comprehensive training available; practitioners are left to comb through piece-meal resources, executive training courses, and consultancies to cobble together the information they need. This book ends the search by providing a comprehensive, focused resource backed by expert guidance. Credit Risk Analytics is the reference every risk manager needs to streamline the modeling process.
The new edition of a comprehensive treatment of monetary economics, including the first extensive coverage of the effective lower bound on nominal interest rates. This textbook presents a comprehensive treatment of the most important topics in monetary economics, focusing on the primary models monetary economists have employed to address topics in theory and policy. Striking a balance of insight, accessibility, and rigor, the book covers the basic theoretical approaches, shows how to do simulation work with the models, and discusses the full range of frictions that economists have studied to understand the impacts of monetary policy. For the fourth edition, every chapter has been revised to improve the exposition and to reflect recent research. The new edition offers an entirely new chapter on the effective lower bound on nominal interest rates, forward guidance policies, and quantitative and credit easing policies. Material on the basic new Keynesian model has been reorganized into a single chapter to provide a comprehensive analysis of the model and its policy implications. In addition, the chapter on the open economy now reflects the dominance of the new Keynesian approach. Other new material includes discussions of price adjustment, labor market frictions and unemployment, and moral hazard frictions among financial intermediaries. References and end-of-chapter problems allow readers to extend their knowledge of the topics covered. Monetary Theory and Policy continues to be the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of monetary economics, not only the leading text in the field but also the standard reference for academics and central bank researchers.
How a vast network of shadow credit financed European growth long before the advent of banking Prevailing wisdom dictates that, without banks, countries would be mired in poverty. Yet somehow much of Europe managed to grow rich long before the diffusion of banks. Dark Matter Credit draws on centuries of cleverly collected loan data from France to reveal how credit abounded well before banks opened their doors. This incisive book shows how a vast system of shadow credit enabled nearly a third of French families to borrow in 1740, and by 1840 funded as much mortgage debt as the American banking system of the 1950s. Dark Matter Credit traces how this extensive private network outcompeted banks and thrived prior to World War I--not just in France but in Britain, Germany, and the United States--until killed off by government intervention after 1918. Overturning common assumptions about banks and economic growth, the book paints a revealing picture of an until-now hidden market of thousands of peer-to-peer loans made possible by a network of brokers who matched lenders with borrowers and certified the borrowers' creditworthiness. A major work of scholarship, Dark Matter Credit challenges widespread misperceptions about French economic history, such as the notion that banks proliferated slowly, and the idea that financial innovation was hobbled by French law. By documenting how intermediaries in the shadow credit market devised effective financial instruments, this compelling book provides new insights into how countries can develop and thrive today.
A guide on how Predictive Analytics is applied and widely used by organizations such as banks, insurance providers, supermarkets and governments to drive the decisions they make about their customers, demonstrating who to target with a promotional offer, who to give a credit card to and the premium someone should pay for home insurance.
An introduction to economic applications of the theory of continuous-time finance that strikes a balance between mathematical rigor and economic interpretation of financial market regularities. This book introduces the economic applications of the theory of continuous-time finance, with the goal of enabling the construction of realistic models, particularly those involving incomplete markets. Indeed, most recent applications of continuous-time finance aim to capture the imperfections and dysfunctions of financial markets-characteristics that became especially apparent during the market turmoil that started in 2008. The book begins by using discrete time to illustrate the basic mechanisms and introduce such notions as completeness, redundant pricing, and no arbitrage. It develops the continuous-time analog of those mechanisms and introduces the powerful tools of stochastic calculus. Going beyond other textbooks, the book then focuses on the study of markets in which some form of incompleteness, volatility, heterogeneity, friction, or behavioral subtlety arises. After presenting solutions methods for control problems and related partial differential equations, the text examines portfolio optimization and equilibrium in incomplete markets, interest rate and fixed-income modeling, and stochastic volatility. Finally, it presents models where investors form different beliefs or suffer frictions, form habits, or have recursive utilities, studying the effects not only on optimal portfolio choices but also on equilibrium, or the price of primitive securities. The book strikes a balance between mathematical rigor and the need for economic interpretation of financial market regularities, although with an emphasis on the latter.
As the credit bubble fallout plagues the institutional finance sector--and will continue to do so in coming years--a strategic approach to credit portfolio management has never been more critical. "The Handbook of Credit Portfolio Management" provides all the information you'll need to successfully rebalance and manage your credit portfolios. . .
Together with co-author Christian Hoppe and a team of thirty-five international contributors, Greg N. Gregoriou provides strategies for calculating risk-weighted assets, reevaluating hedging strategies, and implementing Basel II standards. Providing a thoroughly global perspective of the subject, this comprehensive guide includes input from Moorad Choudhry (Group Head of Treasury at Europe Arab Bank plc, London); Christophe Godlewski (Universit Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg, France); Roland Fuss (University of Freiburg, Germany); and Valerio Pot (Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland), who shed light on such key topics as: . . Investment opportunities of hedge funds. Basis arbitrage trading strategies. Issues regarding securitization of a sector basket . Cost-saving aspects of portfolio hedging with credit futures. .
"The Handbook of Credit Portfolio Management" covers the latest developments and most current portfolio management techniques to help you implement strategies that best suit your institution's needs.
Secured transactions reform, also known as collateral or pledge law reform, is increasingly seen as an important building block for economic development. The commonly held view is that the availability and cost of credit, as well as the efficiency of the market for secured credit, are directly influenced by the laws affecting secured transactions and their implementation. However, there is still a lot of confusion about this relatively complex and technical area of the law and its role in promoting access to credit and economic growth. The chapters presented here provide, for the first time, a comprehensive and cutting-edge view of the subject - from both a legal and economic perspective. They start at the macro level of financial systems, moving towards the behaviours of lenders (commercial banks and micro-lenders), policy options for government and the mechanisms of collateral law reform. By approaching the subject from different angles and experiences, the work advocates an inclusive approach to the subject where all stakeholders' interests can be taken into account. It addresses the question of what role laws and institutions can play to encourage access to credit. This book will be of primary interest to those involved in economic development and the interaction between law and economics, either for practical reasons (for example, working on reform or providing advice on investment in transition economies) or for research purposes.
Utilizing research from the U.S., Italy, and the Netherlands, Place, Exclusion and Mortgage Markets presents an in depth examination of the practice of redlining and the broader implications of contemporary urban exclusion processes. * Covers exclusion in mortgage markets in three different countries - the U.S., Italy, and the Netherlands * Presents an interdisciplinary perspective to the practice of redlining * Connects the literature on social exclusion and financial exclusion
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