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Several scholars across the globe identified the present lack of high quality damage data as the main constraint to efficient risk mitigation. The need for a systematic collection of damage data in the aftermath of flood events come into light, thus the aim being the creation of complete and reliable databases. Flood damage data collected in the aftermath of a disastrous event can support a variety of actions, which include: (i) the identification of priorities for intervention during emergencies, (ii) the creation of complete event scenarios on the basis of which understanding the fragilities of the flooded areas and tailoring risk mitigation strategies, (iii) the definition of victims compensation schemes, and (iv) the validation/definition of damage models to feed cost-benefit analysis of structural and non-structural mitigation actions (including insurance schemes). Volume highlights include: * A good compilation of real world case studies elaborating on the survey experiences and best practices associated with flood damage data collection, storage and analysis, that can help strategize flood risk mitigation in an efficient manner * Valuable contributions covering different flooding phenomena such as riverine and mountain floods, different spatial level of analysis from local to global scales, and different stakeholders perspectives, e.g. public decision makers, researchers, private companies * Contributions from leading experts in the field, researchers and practitioners, including civil protection actors working at different spatial and administrative level, insurers and professionals working in the field of natural hazards mitigation Flood Damage Survey and Assessment: New Insights from Research and Practice will be a valuable resource to all earth scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, geologists, geographers, civil engineers, insurers and policy decision makers.
The primary goals of this brief are to invoke alertness and solidarity among the public in earthquake prone areas of India, and to empower the community to prepare themselves to face and manage the aftermath of an earthquake. The work presented here sheds new light on the action plans to be taken by the common public and public agencies, before, during and after earthquakes to safeguard lives of people and minimize loss of assets. This carefully presented book articulates various factors related to earthquake preparedness, and develops guidelines and useful tips for communicating them to relevant stakeholders. The book has been divided into three parts: (i) the first providing background which explains earthquakes in general and seismicity of India (ii) the second explores earthquake preparedness intended for individuals, families and various stakeholders, and (iii) the final section which describes various strategies for communities to prepare themselves for a future earthquake.
This book offers a systematic investigation of the ecological and environmental issues related to the land cover changes in Nepal by researchers from both China and Nepal. It discusses the eco-environmental issues faced by Nepal, particularly in the hills and mountain regions. It also sheds light on the global concerns regarding the eco-environment issues of mountains, and analyzes the various causes and potential consequences of eco-environmental degradation in Nepal. The book is of particular interest to students, researchers, experts, and decision-makers wanting to gain a general overview of land cover in Nepal and its dynamics, environment and natural resources, as well as mountain hazards.
This book sheds new light on improved methods for the study of the initiation and run-out of earthquake-induced landslides. It includes an initiation study method that considers tension-shear failure mechanism; an improved, rigorous, dynamic sliding-block method based on dynamic critical acceleration; and a run-out analysis of earthquake-induced landslides that takes account of the trampoline effect, all of which add to the accuracy and accessibility of landslide study. The book includes abundant illustrations, figures and tables, making it a valuable resource for those looking for practical landslide research tools.
This book examines the reasons behind the resonant amplification of seismic and ocean waves that have the capacity to destroy cities and ocean-going vessels. Using Charles Darwin's important geophysical research as a starting point, it provides insights into the interaction between earthquakes with volcanoes, seaquake, and tsunami formation. In particular, the author details the observations that Darwin made on a powerful earthquake that occurred in Chile in 1835, noting how the famous naturalist and geologist used the concept of earthquake-induced vertical shock to explain the event's devastating impact. The book then goes on to show how Darwin's concept relates to the catastrophic results of the shallow quakes that recently destroyed Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 2010) and severely damaged Christchurch (New Zealand, 2011). In addition, the author asks whether Darwin's ideas are endorsed by the discoveries of modern science and whether the results of destructive earthquakes can be modeled using strongly nonlinear wave equations. Coverage also proposes that similar equations can be used to simulate the dynamics of many objects on the surface of the Earth, and to model the origin of the Universe, dark matter, and dark energy as strongly nonlinear wave phenomena. The book will appeal to students as well as researchers and engineers in geophysics, seismology, nonlinear wave studies, cosmology, physical oceanography, and ocean and coastal engineering. It will also be of use to those who are interested in the phenomena of natural catastrophes as well as those who want to learn more about the life and work of Charles Darwin.
The scope of disasters ranges from man-made emergency to natural calamity, from a kitchen grease fire to a hurricane or volcanic eruption. It may be just one house that is destroyed, or perhaps a whole infrastructure system is threatened. While each type of event requires a very different scale and type of immediate response, the project management challenges that face restoration and reconstruction professionals after the emergency phase is complete are remarkably similar. Using insights acquired through decades of real-world experience, as well as from his academic research and teaching responsibilities, the author explains pertinent requirements and methods for the contractors and other professionals who bring order from chaos. The first section of the book surveys the managerial skills required to confront the range of disasters that might be encountered and the different project environments involved. The second section examines the details of recovery project management and administration, from materials management to health and safety. The third and final section provides an overview of restoration techniques, from restorative drying to debris management and demolition. This is the first systematic presentation of the tools and skills needed for disaster recovery project management. It is designed primarily for contractors (both large and small firms), although it will also be of value for those who might hire them, the communities they serve, and their organizational partners in the disaster recovery effort. Those who are new to disaster restoration and reconstruction will find the volume particularly useful. Focused on informing the management of projects that recover the built environment, after emergency conditions sufficiently stabilize, the volume supplements and complements books devoted to conventional construction or emergency relief management.
This book reflects the latest research results in computer modelling of landslide-induced debris flows. The book establishes an understanding of the initiation and propagation mechanisms of landslides by means of numerical simulations, so that mitigation strategies to reduce the long-term losses from landslide hazards can be devised. In this context, the book employs the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to investigate the mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of granular materials involved in landslides - an approach that yields meaningful insights into the flow mechanisms, concerning e.g. the mobilization of sediments, the generation and dissipation of excess pore water pressures, and the evolution of effective stresses. As such, the book provides valuable information, useful methods and robust numerical tools that can be successfully applied in the field of debris flow research.
This book discusses in detail the science and morphology of powerful hurricane detection systems. It broadly addresses new approaches to monitoring hazards using freely available images from the European Space Agency's (ESA's) Sentinel-1 SAR satellite and benchmarks a new interdisciplinary field at the interface between oceanography, meteorology and remote sensing. Following the launch of the first European Space Agency (ESA) operational synthetic aperture radar satellite, Sentinel-1, in 2014, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has been freely available on the Internet hub in real-time. This advance allows weather forecasters to view hurricanes in fine detail for the first time. As a result, the number of synthetic aperture radar research scientists working in this field is set to grow exponentially in the next decade; the book is a valuable resource for this large and budding audience.
This volume applies the science of complexity to study coupled human-environment systems (CHES) and integrates ideas from the social sciences of climate change into a study of rural development amid flooding and urbanization in the Poyang Lake Region (PLR) of China. Author Qing Tian operationalizes the concept of sustainability and provides useful scientific analyses for sustainable development in less developed rural areas that are vulnerable to climatic hazards. The book uses a new sustainability framework that is centered on the concept of well-being to study rural development in PLR. The PLR study includes three major analyses: (1) a regional assessment of human well-being; (2) an empirical analysis of rural livelihoods; and (3) an agent-based computer model used to explore future rural development. These analyses provide a meaningful view of human development in the Poyang Lake Region and illustrate some of the complex local- and macro-level processes that shape the livelihoods of rural households in the dynamic process of urbanization. They generate useful insights about how government policy might effectively improve the well-being of rural households and promote sustainable development amid social, economic, and environmental changes. This case study has broader implications. Rural populations in the developing world are disproportionally affected by extreme climate events and climate change. Furthermore, the livelihoods of rural households in the developing world are increasingly under the influences of macro-level forces amid urbanization and globalization. This case study demonstrates that rural development policies must consider broader development dynamics at the national (and even global) level, as well as specific local social and environmental contexts. By treating climate as one of many factors that affect development in such places, we can provide policy recommendations that synergistically promote development and reduce climatic impacts and therefore facilitate mainstreaming climate adaptation into development.
This book presents a multiregional input-output model for the metropolitan area of Southern California, which helps to estimate the economic impact of simulated terrorist attacks on seaports, malls etc. as well as of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis. The authors also analyze the economic and social effects of metropolitan policies such as growth controls, neighborhood gentrification or road-congestion charges. The model presented in the book has evolved over a period of 25 years and requires a very substantial computer capacity.
In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused widespread flood-related property damage in coastal areas of states throughout the Northeast and the mid-Atlantic region. The storm exposed vulnerabilities in the region's public transportation and infrastructure and underscored the nation's growing exposure to extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and coastal flooding. Although the full economic cost of Sandy will not be known for years, the storm has resulted in substantial federal disaster recovery assistance, including tens of billions for flood and hurricane protection and coastal restoration, and the rebuilding of mass transit systems and housing. Government payouts under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) are estimated to be between $12 billion and $15 billion in flood insurance claims. In the immediate aftermath of Sandy, this amount quickly exceeded the $4 billion in cash and remaining borrowing authority from the Treasury Department. By January 2013, the NFIP had processed more than 140,000 claims for Sandy-related damages totalling about $1.7 billion. To protect the financial integrity of the NFIP and ensure that the NFIP has the financial resources to cover its existing commitments following the devastation caused by Sandy, the Obama Administration requested that Congress pass legislation to increase the NFIP's borrowing authority. On January 4, 2013, Congress passed, and the President two days later signed into law, H.R. 41 to provide a $9.7 billion increase in the NFIP's borrowing authority, from $20.725 billion to $30.425 billion, to pay flood claims related to Hurricane Sandy. This book provides an analysis of flood risk management, summarises major challenges facing the NFIP, and outlines key reforms enacted in the Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012. The report identifies and presents some key remaining flood management issues for congressional consideration, and concludes with a discussion of policy options for the future financial management of flood hazards in the United States.
This book explores the common language of politics, ecology and risk, and crosses their conceptual divides. It seeks to shed light on the underlying structural factors, processes, players and interactions in the risk scenario, all of which influence decision-making that both increases and reduces disaster risk. The first section explores risk governance under conditions of increasing complexity, diversity and change. The discussion includes chapters on The problem of governance in the risk society; Making sense of decentralization; Understanding and conceptualizing risk in large-scale social-ecological systems; The disaster epidemic and Structure, process, and agency in the evaluation of risk governance. Part II, focused on governance in regions and domains of risk, includes nine chapters with discussion of Climate governance and climate change and society; Climate change and the politics of uncertainty; Risk complexity and governance in mountain environments; On the edge: Coastal governance and risk and Governance of megacity disaster risks, among other important topics. Part III discusses directions for further advancement in risk governance, with ten chapters on such topics as the transition From risk society to security society; Governing risk tolerability; Risk and adaptive planning for coastal cities; Profiling risk governance in natural hazards contexts; Confronting the risk of large disasters in nature and Transitions into and out of a crisis mode of socio-ecological systems. The book presents a comprehensive examination of the complexity of both risk and environmental policy-making and of their multiple-and not always visible-interactions in the context of social-ecological systems. Just as important, it also addresses unseen and neglected complementarities between regulatory policy-making and ordinary individual decision-making through the actions of nongovernmental actors. A range of distinguished scholars from a diverse set of disciplines have contributed to the book with their expertise in many areas, including disaster studies, emergency planning and management, ecology, sustainability, environmental planning and management, climate change, geography, spatial planning, development studies, economy, political sciences, public administration, communication, as well as physics and geology.
This volume discusses the general physics of debris flows and various approaches to modeling - including the SEGMENT-Landslide approach - as well as the pros and cons of these approaches and how other approaches are sub-sets of the SEGMENT-Landslide approach. In addition, this volume will systematically unify the concepts of vadose zone hydrology and geotechnical engineering, with special emphasis on quantifying ecosystem consequences of storm-triggered landslides in a warmer climate setting. The reader will find a comprehensive coverage of concepts ranging from hillslope hydrology, porous granular material rheology and the fundamentals of soil properties, to state-of-the-art concepts of enhanced hydrological cycle with climate warming and a discussion of new approaches for future research.
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