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The last twenty years have seen a rapid increase in scholarly activity and publications dedicated to environmental migration and displacement, and the field has now reached a point in terms of profile, complexity, and sheer volume of reporting that a general review and assessment of existing knowledge and future research priorities is warranted. So far, such a product does not exist. The Routledge Handbook of Environmental Displacement and Migration provides a state-of-the-science review of research on how environmental variability and change influence current and future global migration patterns and, in some instances, trigger large-scale population displacements. Drawing together contributions from leading researchers in the field, this compendium will become a go-to guide for established and newly interested scholars, for government and policymaking entities, and for students and their instructors. It explains theoretical, conceptual, and empirical developments that have been made in recent years; describes their origins and connections to broader topics including migration research, development studies, and international public policy and law; and highlights emerging areas where new and/or additional research and reflection are warranted. The structure and the nature of the book allow the reader to quickly find a concise review relevant to conducting research or developing policy on particular topics, and to obtain a broad, reliable survey of what is presently known about the subject.
This monograph provides valuable lessons in building disaster resilience for rural communities and beyond. With a focus on Florida, the authors present a comprehensive review of the current debates surrounding the study of resilience, from federal frameworks, state plans and local initiatives. They also review evaluation tools and feature first-hand accounts of county emergency managers as well as non-profit and community groups on key issues, including perspectives on vulnerable groups such as the elderly, children and farm workers. Readers will find insightful answers to such questions as: How can the concept of resilience be used as a framework to investigate the conditions that lead to stronger, more sustainable communities? What factors account for the variation across jurisdictions and geographic units in the ability to respond to and recover from a disaster? How does the recovery process impact the social, political and economic institutions of the stricken communities? How do communities, especially rural ones, collaborate with multiple stakeholders (local, regional, state, national) during the transition from recovery to resilience? Can the collaborative nature of disaster recovery help build resilient communities?. The primary audiences of this book are scholars in emergency and crisis management, planning and policy, disaster response and recovery, disaster sociology and environmental management and policy. This book can also be used as a textbook in graduate and advanced undergraduate programs / courses on disaster management, disaster studies, emergency and crisis management, environmental policy and management and public policy and administration.
With the major growth of the world's population over the past century, as well as rapid urbanisation, people increasingly live in crowded cities. This trend is often accompanied by proliferation of poorly built housing, uncontrolled use of land, occupation of unsafe environments and overstretched services. When a natural hazard strikes such a city many people are vulnerable to loss of life and property. This book explores what these people think and feel about the threats that they face. How do they live with perils ranging from earthquakes to monsoons, from floods to hurricanes, in the 21st century? The authors are drawn from a large range of disciplines: Psychology, Engineering, Geography, Anthropology and Urban Planning. They also reflect on how perils are represented in multiple cultures: the United States, Japan, Turkey, Bangladesh, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. The book therefore not only brings to light the ways that different cultures represent natural hazards but also the different ways in which various disciplines write about living with perils in the 21st century. The book is addressed both to researchers and to organizations involved with risk management and risk mitigation.
This book highlights research in flood related areas and sustainable management conducted by researchers around the world, compiling their innovative work in order to share best practices for managing floods and recommended flood solutions. The individual papers cover the fundamentals and latest advances in the areas of flood research and management, providing in-depth coverage complemented by illustrations, diagrams and tables. The book offers a valuable source of information on methods and state-of-the art technology for effective flood management.
In May 12, 2008, the Wenchuan County earthquake caused devastating loss of human life and property. Applying all the remote sensing technology available, the Chinese Academy of Sciences immediately launched into action, making full use of its state-of-the-art facilities, remote sensing planes, and satellites to amass invaluable optical and radar data. This unprecedented use of comprehensive remote sensing techniques provided accurate, up to the minute information for disaster management and has left us with a visually stunning and beautiful record that is as much a scientific achievement as it is an artistic one.
Based on the accumulated data and images collected by the Project Team of Remote Sensing Monitoring and Assessment of the Wenchuan Earthquake, Atlas of Remote Sensing of the Wenchuan Earthquake documents the events as they happened in real time. The book covers the disaster from six aspects: geological, barrier lakes, collapsed buildings, damaged roads, destroyed farmland and forests, and demolished infrastructure. It also demonstrates that the Dujiangyan Irrigation Project, which has been standing for 2000 years, remains fully functioning, and keeps the Chengdu Plain operating optimally even after the earthquake.
Translated into English for the first time, the Atlas presents a pictorial summation of this unique project. It chronicles the event with over 280 before and after color images from a range of perspectives. This volume dramatically demonstrates the value of remote sensing for understanding how an earthquake unfolds and the potential of remote sensing in helping coordinate emergency relief. A pictorial record of events as they unfolded, this book provides a systematic documentation of earthquake damage that can be used to prepare for future seismic events.
In the recent past a marked increase of the damages caused by natural hazard processes has been documented, for example by the Munich Re-Insurance. On a regional scale, a similar development can be observed in mountain regions such as the Alps, where it is particularly a rise in flood events that has caused the maximum amount of economic damage. Three major aspects may help to explain this phenomenon: The changing frequency-magnitude relationship of the natural hazard processes, the multiplication of the damage potential due to the socio-economic change, and the non-adequate way of coping with the changing risk by the official authorities. As a consequence, this book tries to address key questions related to these developments and to give answers to these problems. Question 1: How can the strategies for coping with the rise in extreme flooding be improved? Question 2: How can the damage potential and other socio-economic aspects be quantified? Question 3: How can new computer based technologies contribute to minimizing the risks related to alpine natural hazards? An initial chapter gives an overview of the global change aspects of natural hazards and their related risks. While three chapters outline answers to question 1, four chapters discuss question 2. Five chapters give examples of new technologies.
How do and how did people perceive, manage and respond to natural disasters? How are the causes of natural disasters explained in history, how are they explained today? This volume investigates relationships between forces of nature and human culture in a multidisciplinary context bridging science and the humanities. Forces of nature and cultural responses is divided into four sections: (1) ball lightnings, (2) earthquakes and tsunamis, (3) volcanic eruptions and plagues, and (4) hurricanes and floodings. Specifically, Section 1 investigates theories and case studies of ball lightning phenomena. Section 2 includes a psychological study on the impact of earthquakes on academic performance, a study on tsunami vulnerability and recovery strategies in Thailand and a study on the social and economic aftermaths of a tsunami and a hurricane in Hawaii. Section 3 consists of a chapter on volcanic eruptions and plagues as well as cultural responses in Ancient Times and a study on contemporary vulnerability and resilience under chronic volcanic eruptions. Section 4 investigates the impact of hurricane Katrina on the current jazz scene in New Orleans and cultural responses to floodings in The Netherlands in Early Modern Times.
Efficient and equitable policies for managing disaster risks and adapting to global environmental change are critically dependent on development of robust options supported by integrated modeling. The book is based on research and state-of-the art models developed at IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis) and within its cooperation network. It addresses the methodological complexities of assessing disaster risks, which call for stochastic simulation, optimization methods and economic modeling. Furthermore, it describes policy frameworks for integrated disaster risk management, including stakeholder participation facilitated by user-interactive decision-support tools. Applications and results are presented for a number of case studies at different problem scales and in different socio-economic contexts, and their implications for loss sharing policies and economic development are discussed. Among others, the book presents studies for insurance policies for earthquakes in the Tuscany region in Italy and flood risk in the Tisza river basin in Hungary. Further, it investigates the economic impact of natural disasters on development and possible financial coping strategies; and applications are shown for selected South Asian countries. The book is addressed both to researchers and to organizations involved with catastrophe risk management and risk mitigation policies.
This monograph especially emphasises the importance of the scope, by which forest fires, from year to year endanger the environment, including casualties. Fire seized areas in 2000 in Europe only were over 920,000 ha. Cases relating to relatively small locations, but which burned in unsettled areas, are often unidentified, because the satellite sensors have limited possibilities in the view of the size of the area they can detect. It is similar to those situations on the fires with relatively short temporal range, and during that interval thick clouds are above such area for example and other admixtures stirring the atmosphere. It is necessary to point out that all those fire seized places, spatially limited on smaller localities, often cause fire spreading by their wideness and a sort of a plant mass, relief and geologic surface, humidity and precipitation or by suitable combinations. On the other side, especially in the last few years, we are witnesses to events when fire has seized tens of thousands hectares just in a "wave", also penetrating through the urban areas.
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