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Journalist and photographer Lili Holzer-Glier's (born 1988) Rockabye provides a glimpse of post-Hurricane Sandy Queens--its damaged landscape and debris, as well as its residents, who continue to pay the emotional, financial and physical toll of the storm. The volume pays homage to the resilience of a rebuilding community.
Rebounding after disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods can be daunting. Communities must have residents who can not only gain access to the resources that they need to rebuild but who can also overcome the collective action problem that characterizes post-disaster relief efforts. Community Revival in the Wake of Disaster argues that entrepreneurs, conceived broadly as individuals who recognize and act on opportunities to promote social change, fill this critical role. Using examples of recovery efforts following Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Hurricane Sandy on the Rockaway Peninsula in New York, the authors demonstrate how entrepreneurs promote community recovery by providing necessary goods and services, restoring and replacing disrupted social networks, and signaling that community rebound is likely and, in fact, underway. They argue that creating space for entrepreneurs to act after disasters is essential for promoting recovery and fostering resilient communities.
Scientific disciplines have their own view on catastrophes. Here, natural scientists, engineers, physicians as well as historians and social scientists define and discuss geo-hazards and associated technical disasters, natural disasters as a business case, medicine and its catastrophes. After war aspects of the Shoah are described with Gershom Sholems Concept of Jewish Totality, and the situation of Displaced Persons in Germany as well as the Nakba for Palestinians related to the happiness of Jews celebrating their new State of Israel. The book also reminds of Hamburg's Flood Disaster in 1962, the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 and other historical catastrophes in Japan, the Lisbon earthquake in 1755 and the Age of Enlightenment, and the eruption of the Tambora in 1815 followed by the "year without summer".
This pioneering work deals with the parameterization of rockfalls in the context of 3D run-out modelling at a study site in the Bavarian Alps. The main objective was to cover not only low-magnitude, high-frequency rockfalls (<10 m3) but also Mid-Magnitude events, which involve rock volumes of between 10 and 100 m3 (boulder falls) and between 100 and 10,000 m3 (block falls). As Mid-Magnitude events have been insufficiently covered in terms of rockfall modelling up to now, a geomechanical approach has been developed to characterize those events by means of a case study. For a 200 m3 limestone block a potential failure scenario was analysed by combining a deterministic failure analysis with a numerical process-based run-out model. To model potential run-out scenarios of the 200 m3 block, the beta version of the code RAMMS::Rockfall, developed by the Swiss Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research (SLF), was applied. RAMMS::Rockfall makes it possible to include the block shape and thus consider the effects of varying block shapes on the run-out distance. The run-out modelling for the entire project site was performed using the scientific code Rockyfor3D (Dorren/ecorisQ). To provide quantitative information in terms of input parameters, a field recording of block sizes at the talus slope, as well as a detailed discontinuity analysis at the source area, were conducted. The book successfully demonstrates how detailed and quantitative field investigation can contribute to 3D rockfall modelling.
Anja Schmidt's thesis is a unique and comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of tropospheric volcanic aerosol on the atmosphere, climate, air quality and human health. Using a state-of-the-art global microphysics model, the thesis describes and quantifies the impact of volcanic sulphur emissions on global aerosol, clouds and the radiative forcing of climate. The advanced model enables the first ever estimate of the impact of the emissions on aerosol microphysical properties such as particle number concentrations and sizes, and therefore a considerably improved ability to quantify the climate and air quality effects. There are several important discoveries in this thesis. Firstly, it is shown that continuously degassing volcanoes exert a major effect on global clouds and climate. Secondly, the impact of the 1783 Laki eruption in Iceland is re-examined to show that this long-lasting flood lava eruption would have had major effects on clouds and climate. Thirdly, by combining her research on volcanism, atmospheric science and epidemiology, she shows that a present-day Laki-like eruption would seriously affect European air quality and cause over 100000 premature deaths in the first year.
ADRIANO DE MAIO IReR President This publication originated from the workshop on "Control and risk prevention of dangerous materials and crisis management" that took place in Sofia, Bulgaria, in March 2009. The basic idea is that international scientific cooperation can effectively contribute to security, stability and solidarity among nations, through increased collaboration, networking and capacity-building and supporting democratic growth and economic development in Partner Countries. We are all facing new needs and threats, deriving from a world changing constantly its social, political and economic dimension and, for this reason, the international dialogue through civil science represents a way forward to comm- ment to global common issues. In fact, the Lombardy Regional Institute for Research has developed some international activities aiming at establishing networks of scientists and experts in defined areas and subjects. Through one of these activities, the Institute entered in touch with the Science for Peace and Security Programme. In this framework, we decided to share the experience of Lombardy Region on transportation of dangerous materials (half of their total transport in Italy): research and studies in civil area conducted in Lombardy Region are considered the most innovative in Europe for the results obtained. Comparison with diverse international experiences is a great opportunity of implementing present results and applying them to different applications (from civil to anti-terrorism) and extending them to countries other than Italy.
Why the word Meltdown in the title of the book? With the world heating up, bush fires wiping out whole communities, money markets and economic systems collapsing, mining operations replacing quality farming land, factory chemicals poisoning the waterways, the natural environment being destroyed, and whole societies being displaced, we are indeed witnessing a meltdown. People are now very concerned and some are afraid for their futures. Does the human race, or at least sections of the populations in different countries of the world hold beliefs about, and attitudes towards, social and ecological issues such as climate change and futurist scenarios that are apocalyptic? In a completely different vein, are they prepared to take action about their environmentally unfriendly behaviours? Are all the natural disasters that have beset the world in the past decade an indicator that the world is about to end, particularly coupled with famine, war and pestilence, and lately the breakdown in the global economic systems, all having been prophesised by different seers and religious leaders? This book is timely and in some ways timeless; the issues discussed within its pages are matters that are of interest to all people across the world and really across time. In this book, there are a number of chapters that focus on the theoretical positions and cognition about fears and concerns for the future, in different segments of the world's population. There are other chapters that describe nature's situation as it is today, with water shortages, threats of sea-level rise, loss of forests, habitats and wildlife in various parts of the globe. These chapters demonstrate the complexities involved in attempting to understand which aspects relate to climate change, which aspects are distinct from climate change, and indeed which aspects were already in existence, but have been, and will be, exacerbated by climate change influences. The four basic elements of life - fire, water, earth and air - are covered by contributions on bush fires, floods, drought, water shortages, and air pollution.
This book seeks to provide a comprehensive reconstruction of the 1667 Dalmatia earthquake phenomenon on the basis of eyewitness testimony. At the same time, one of the distinctive features of this book is that the earthquake observations are treated and arranged in time and space so as to provide earthquake data on the macroseismic intensity, which might be used in seismic hazard and risk studies. On April 6, 1667 a devastating earthquake struck the southernmost region of Dalmatia (Croatia). Most of the affected area at that time belonged to the independent Republic of Ragusa, the capital of which was the town of Ragusa, today Dubrovnik. The 1667 earthquake left behind a lasting scar on the history and life of the Republic, as it was the catalyst of a serious financial crisis. Both the economic and more general consequences of this earthquake have been discussed in historiographical and seismological essays in late 20th-century works. This book seeks to provide a comprehensive reconstruction of the 1667 Dalmatia earthquake phenomenon on the basis of eyewitness testimony. At the same time, one of the distinctive features of this book is that the earthquake observations are treated and arranged in time and space so as to provide earthquake data on the macroseismic intensity, which might be used in seismic hazard and risk studies. The book is also intended as an extensive case history, which allows the author to include some guidelines on how to approach the study of a past earthquake and proceed to its full seismological interpretation. In this respect, a unique feature of the book is the comprehensive and detailed analysis of the original documentary sources in their proper context, effectively combining the interpretative approaches of history and seismology.
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