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Why aren't we investing more in disaster resilience, despite the rising costs of disaster events? This book argues that decision-makers in governments, businesses, households, and development agencies tend to focus on avoiding losses from disasters, and perceive the return on investment as uncertain - only realised if a somewhat unlikely disaster event actually happens. This book develops a new business case for investment based on the multiple dividends of resilience. This looks beyond only avoided losses (the first dividend) to the wider benefits gained independently of whether or not the disaster event occurs. These include unleashing entrepreneurial activities and productive investments by lowering the looming threat of losses from disasters and enabling businesses, farmers and homeowners to take positive risks (the second dividend); and co-benefits of resilience measures beyond just disaster risk (the third dividend), such as flood embankments in Bangladesh that double as roads, or wetlands in Colombo that reduce urban heat extremes.
This book is based on more than a decade of research the authors have pursued on the pseudo-seismic migration imaging of the transient electromagnetic method, and provides a series of important findings on the theory and applications in this area. It present and analyzes transforming principles, TEM wave field methods, characteristics of the TEM virtual wave field and studies on many significant related technologies. The coverage is supplemented by a wealth of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D figures to illustrate pseudo-seismic theory. The book offers a valuable resource for teachers, students, researchers and engineers in the fields of geophysics, earth exploration and information technology.
This book introduces a methodology for solving the seismic inverse problem using purely numerical solutions built on 3D wave equations and which is free of the approximations or simplifications that are common in classical seismic inversion methodologies and therefore applicable to arbitrary 3D geological media and seismic source models. Source codes provided allow readers to experiment with the calculations demonstrated and also explore their own applications.
This book is about what happened in the southern district of Hambantota during the disaster, and in the relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction process after the Indian Ocean Tsunami.
Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala are both shield volcanoes in the southwest Indian Ocean. This publication summarizes the work done on these very active basaltic volcanoes. Piton de la Fournaise has a long history of scientific research and monitoring, with many data collected during recent eruptions. It is certainly one of the most studied volcanoes in the world. The work presented in this monograph includes geological, geophysical, geochemical and petrological aspects, but also studies on physical geography, natural hazards and the sociological and behavioural approaches.' The Karthala volcano may be less well known, but it serves as an interesting comparison to Piton de la Fournaise. Although situated close to the volcanoes of Hawaii, it differs from them by its more alkaline magmas and less frequent activity. It was also monitored for more than 25 years, producing extraordinary eruptions in recent years.
This book presents a series of numerical simulation studies of the earthquake generation process and the evaluation of the hazards caused by large earthquakes and tsunamis, drawn from three distinct topical areas. First, recent research results on earthquake source physics are introduced, which can be used as input for hazard evaluation studies. Then, propagation of seismic waves and tsunamis is discussed, connecting what happens at the source with the resulting damage. Finally, earthquake statistics for forecasting are discussed, a practical application of our knowledge for the mitigation of earthquake and tsunami disasters. This book is suitable for graduate students who are interested in the earthquake generation process and its application in the future. It also will serve researchers who want or need to know how to evaluate the damage due to earthquakes and tsunamis.
This book documents the outcomes of a study designed to explore ways of increasing resilience in a complex city system against disasters by focusing on the transportation system in London. A survey was undertaken comprising interviews with upper level decision makers as well as questionnaires to personnel in the field and the general public. The results of this survey are presented, together with a brief description of the past and current situation in the city with respect to transportation, flood risk and other vulnerabilities. The sources of problems in responding adequately to disasters are analyzed and important lessons drawn. In particular, it is explained how failures derive from insistence upon the application of written plans in preference over redefinition of strategies and priorities and how flexible systems represent a better approach to crisis situations. The book will be of interest to all who are concerned with disaster planning and management and the societal response to disasters.
This book documents the state of the art in the use of remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements. Specifically, it brings together a group of authors who are both researchers and practitioners, who work toward or are currently using remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements with the goal of advancing the effective use of remote sensing to supply time-sensitive information. The book addresses the theoretical implications of time-sensitivity on the remote sensing process, assessments or descriptions of methods for expediting the delivery and improving the quality of information derived from remote sensing, and describes and analyzes time-sensitive remote sensing applications, with an emphasis on lessons learned. This book is intended for remote sensing scientists, practitioners (e.g., emergency responders or administrators of emergency response agencies), and students, but will also be of use to those seeking to understand the potential of remote sensing to address a range of pressing issues, particularly natural and anthropogenic hazard response.
This doctoral thesis presents a novel approach to landslide risk assessment that explores the various dimensions of landslide risk in an integrated perspective. The research approach introduced here is tailored for use with landslide databases and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A landslide susceptibility model is at the heart of this new approach, enabling to identify and delineate areas at risk of landslides and to assess infrastructure exposure. Landslide risk is a pressing societal issue that is still poorly understood. Temporal landslide hazard is derived from landslide frequency statistics and a hydrological simulation approach to estimate triggering thresholds. These methods are integrated into a powerful toolset for cost modeling that uses historical data to compile, model, and extrapolate damage costs on different spatial scales over time. The combination of this toolset with techniques to analyze fiscal cost impacts supports integrated risk assessment by quantifying the economic relevance of landslide losses.
This book provides a practical strategy for obtaining a more complete and accurate geologic site characterization. The strategy and methods to characterize complex geologic settings are readily available. The strategy utilizes readily available technology, basic science and good, old-fashioned common sense resulting in a solid understanding of geologic and even karst or pseudokarst conditions. We provide an introduction to many off-the-shelf methods available for site characterization as well as examples of their application throughout the book. The purpose of a geologic site characterization is to understand the 3-dimensional geologic framework, along with the engineering and hydrologic properties of a site including any man-made impacts. A well-done site characterization is the cornerstone of all geotechnical, groundwater and environmental projects. The geologic conditions, particularly karst conditions, can significantly impact a site including its structural stability, groundwater pathways and potential for rapid transport or traps for contaminants. Once we have adequately characterized the geologic conditions can we carry our remediation, design and construction, model flow, and make risk assessments that are accurate and reliable.
This book is an original and novel contribution to flood hazard assessment, climate change and land use change and is intended to serve both as an effective source of information and a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood hazard assessment. The study area is located on the floodplain of the Ubaye River in the Barcelonnette area, part of the Alpes de Haute Provence in southeast France. The book offers a comparative overview of the major challenges faced when dealing with flood hazards. The research presented is intended to promote a deeper understanding of how climate change and land use change processes have evolved from past to present, and how they affect the flow regime of the Ubaye River based on sound and reproducible scientific arguments. The methodology implemented ranges from remote sensing interpretation to hydrodynamic modeling and includes the application of spatial and statistical modeling. The results of this research provide essential information for policymaking, decision-making support and flood hazard planning in the Barcelonnette area.
This book examines old and new data on some of the 18th and 19th century earthquakes that either occurred or were clearly felt in southern regions of Poland. Particular emphasis is put on a detailed study and reinterpretation of the unusually severe Outer Western Carpathians earthquake on December 3, 1786 (7 I0, 5.3 Mw, 35 km depth), which was the last in a series of seismic events in the years 1785 and 1786. An assessment is also made of what we presently know about the seismicity of the Western Carpathians in Poland based on to instrumental data. The book also presents material relating to earthquakes of 6-9 I0 that affected south Poland and the surrounding regions: Zilina in Slovakia (1858), Gera in Thuringia (1872), the Sudetes on the Czech-Polish border (1883, 1901), and Lower Silesia, Poland (1895). These are analyzed and illustrated by 17 contemporary macroseismic intensity maps, some of which are considered to be remarkable for those times. A new seismic catalog for Poland is provided with amendments and updates up to the end of 2014. Noteworthy is the data on two unforeseen events: one about 60 km NE of the Polish border in 2004 and one in central Poland in 2012. It shows how important it is, not least for practical engineering purposes, to perform seismic monitoring even in seemingly aseismic regions.
This book presents a multiregional input-output model for the metropolitan area of Southern California, which helps to estimate the economic impact of simulated terrorist attacks on seaports, malls etc. as well as of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis. The authors also analyze the economic and social effects of metropolitan policies such as growth controls, neighborhood gentrification or road-congestion charges. The model presented in the book has evolved over a period of 25 years and requires a very substantial computer capacity.
This book is devoted to current advances in the field of nonlinear mathematical physics and modeling of critical phenomena that can lead to catastrophic events. Pursuing a multidisciplinary approach, it gathers the work of scientists who are developing mathematical and computational methods for the study and analysis of nonlinear phenomena and who are working actively to apply these tools and create conditions to mitigate and reduce the negative consequences of natural and socio-economic disaster risk. This book summarizes the contributions of the International School and Workshop on Nonlinear Mathematical Physics and Natural Hazards, organized within the framework of the South East Europe Network in Mathematical and Theoretical Physics (SEENET MTP) and supported by UNESCO. It was held at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences from November 28 to December 2, 2013. The contributions are divided into two major parts in keeping with the scientific program of the meeting. Among the topics covered in Part I (Nonlinear Mathematical Physics towards Critical Phenomena) are predictions and correlations in self organized criticality, space-time structure of extreme current and activity events in exclusion processes, quantum spin chains and integrability of many-body systems, applications of discriminantly separable polynomials, MKdV-type equations, and chaotic behavior in Yang-Mills theories. Part II (Seismic Hazard and Risk) is devoted to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, seismic risk mapping, seismic monitoring, networking and data processing in Europe, mainly in South-East Europe. The book aims to promote collaboration at the regional and European level to better understand and model phenomena that can cause natural and socio-economic disasters, and to contribute to the joint efforts to mitigate the negative consequence of natural disasters. This collection of papers reflects contemporary efforts on capacity building through developing skills, exchanging knowledge and practicing mathematical methods for modeling nonlinear phenomena, disaster risk preparedness and natural hazards mitigation. The target audience includes students and researchers in mathematical and theoretical physics, earth physics, applied physics, geophysics, seismology and earthquake danger and risk mitigation.
This book offers a broad perspective on important topics in earthquake geotechnical engineering and gives specialists and those that are involved with research and application a more comprehensive understanding about the various topics. Consisting of eighteen chapters written by authors from the most seismic active regions of the world, such as USA, Japan, Canada, Chile, Italy, Greece, Portugal, Taiwan, and Turkey, the book reflects different views concerning how to assess and minimize earthquake damage. The authors, a prominent group of specialists in the field of earthquake geotechnical engineering, are the invited lecturers of the International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering from Case History to Practice in the honour of Professor Kenji Ishihara held in Istanbul, Turkey during 17-19 June 2013.
This book contains peer-reviewed papers from the Second World Landslide Forum, organised by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), that took place in September 2011. The entire material from the conference has been split into seven volumes, this one is the second: 1. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility and Hazard Zoning, 2. Early Warning, Instrumentation and Monitoring, 3. Spatial Analysis and Modelling, 4. Global Environmental Change, 5. Complex Environment, 6. Risk Assessment, Management and Mitigation, 7. Social and Economic Impact and Policies.
The classical field dealing with earthquakes is called "earthquake engineering" and considered to be a branch of structural engineering. In projects dealing with strategies for earthquake risk mitigation, urban planning approaches are often neglected. Today interventions are needed on a city, rather than a building, scale. This work deals with the impact of earthquakes, including also a broader view on multihazards in urban areas. Uniquely among other works in the field, particular importance is given to urban planning issues, in conservation of heritage and emergency management. Multicriteria decision making and broad participation of those affected by disasters are included.
Plant tissue culture is an essential component of Biotechnology which has gained unbeatable recognition in plant sciences for successful micropropagation and improvement of plant species, leading to the commercial application. A number of plant species have been investigated around the globe. This book presents current research on the application of in vitro technology in the improvement of Balanites aegyptiaca Del., a medicinal plant of semi-arid tropics. The worldwide importance of forestry, summed to the lengthy generation cycles of tree species, makes unavoidable development of new technologies that complement conventional tree breeding programmes in order to obtain improved genotypes. Recently, a new set of tools has become available in the past 20 years that combined with traditional plant breeding will allow scientists to generate products that are genetically improved varieties of the future. These set of tools come under the general title of 'Biotechnology'. The three specific biotechnological tools have been successfully used in several programmes of plant conservation, namely, tissue culture techniques for in vitro propagation, the use of molecular markers to assess the degree of variability among population and techniques of long-term conservation such as encapsulation and cryopreservation. Plant tissue culture techniques are particularly relevant and become an alternative not only for large scale propagation of individuals that are threatened, reduce production costs and increase gains to the industry, but also to provide ecological advantages as in phytoremediation or in the establishment of artificial plantings in weed infested site. The book gives a complete documentation of the results and demonstration of Balanites aegyptiaca conducted by the authors over the past 5 years. The end-to-end approach developed through plant tissue culture techniques is reflected in the book and there has been a successful transfer of technology from lab to field. The authors hope that this information would provide valuable data and also be a reference material for future research activities in this area.
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