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"This story, told by a master teller of such things, does more than
take you inside the cages, fences, and walls of a zoo. It takes you
inside the human heart, and an elephant's, and a primate's, and on
and on. Tom French did in this book what he always does. He took
real life and wrote it down for us, with eloquence and feeling and
This book presents the results from the Japanese Fisheries Research Agency's 3-year intensive monitoring of radionuclides in a variety of fish, plankton, benthos, and their living environments after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident in March 2011. The book reveals the dynamics of contamination processes in marine and freshwater fish, mediated by the contamination of water, sediments, and food organisms; it also clarifies the mechanisms by which large variations in the level of contamination occurs among individual fish. Most importantly, the book includes a large amount of original measurement data collected in situ and for the first time assesses diffusion of radiocesium across the Pacific using both in situ data and a numerical simulation model. Also introduced are several new approaches to evaluate the impact of the release of radionuclides, including the measurement of radiation emission from an otolith section to identify the main period of contamination in fish. The FNPP accident represents a rare instance where the environmental radioactivity level was elevated steeply through atmospheric fallout and direct discharge of radioactive water into the sea over a short period of time. Replete with precise scientific data, this book will serve as an important resource for research in fields such as fishery science, oceanography, ecology, and environmentology, and also as a solid basis for protecting fisheries from damage resulting from harmful rumors among the general public.
Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) comprise 12 species of leaf-eating New World monkeys that range from southern Mexico through northern Argentina. This genus is the most widespread of any New World primate and can be found to inhabit a range of forest types from undisturbed rainforest to severely anthropogenically-impacted forest fragments. Although there have been many studies on individual species of howler monkeys, this book is the first comprehensive volume that places information on howler behavior and biology within a theoretical framework of ecological and social adaptability. This is the first of two companion volumes devoted to the genus Alouatta. This volume: * Provides new and original empirical and theoretical research on howler monkeys * Presents evolutionary and adaptive explanations for the ecological success of howler monkeys * Examines howler behavior and ecology within a comparative framework These goals are achieved in a collection of chapters written by a distinguished group of scientists on the evolutionary history, paleontology, taxonomy, genetics, morphology, physiology, and anatomy of howlers. The volume also contains chapters on howlers as vectors of infectious diseases, ethnoprimatology, and conservation.
Hawai`i is like no other place on earth. Raised above the sea by volcanic action, the islands are home to a fascinating array of animals, most of which are found nowhere else in the world. Because the Hawaiian islands are so isolated-more than 2000 miles from any large land mass-many of its native animals have developed unusual adaptations that help them survive. For example, Hawai`i has whales that sing dolphins that spin through the air bats that turn somersaults as they feed shrimp that climb waterfalls killer caterpillars a tiny blood-sucking bug that survives on the summit of Mauna Kea Hawai`i's habitats are fragile, however, and many of its native species are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are the most dangerous threats to these threatened animals. Habitat destruction, pollution, development, and introduced species have all contributed to the loss or diminishment of Hawai`i's native species. Hawai`i is the extinction capital of the United States. Only through education and thoughtful conservation can we prevent the disappearance of any more of Hawai`i's unique animals. The first step is to learn about these animals and begin to appreciate their special characteristics.
The proposed book focuses on one of the most important issues affecting humankind in this century - Peak Oil or the declining availability of abundant, cheap energy-and its effects on our industrialized economy and wildlife conservation. Energy will be one of the defining issues of the 21st Century directly affecting wildlife conservation wherever energy extraction is a primary economic activity and indirectly through deepening economic recessions. Since cheap, abundant energy has been at the core of our industrial society, and has resulted in the technological advancements we enjoy today, the peak in world oil extraction would potentially have major impacts on civilization unless we prepare well in advance. One potential economic solution covered in the book would be a Steady State Economy with a stable population and per capita consumption, particularly in such industrialized countries as the United States. Furthermore, the lack of cheap, abundant energy directly and indirectly affects conservation efforts by professional societies and federal and state agencies, and NGOs concerned with wildlife issues. We need to recognize these potential problems and prepare, as much as possible, for the consequences stemming from them.
Pursuing a multidisciplinary approach, this book highlights current challenges in, and potential solutions to, environmental water management in Mexico. It includes an essential review of current literature and state of the art research, providing a one-stop resource for researchers, graduate students and environmental water managers alike. The result of a cooperation between 35 researchers from seven Mexican academic institutions, two Federal Commissions and one international organization, the book links science to practice for living organisms and their environment, while also addressing anthropogenic effects on our water ecosystems. Particularly the book addresses the following subjects: Biodiversity in inland waters, physical and chemical characterization of inland waters, physico-chemical characterization of Mexican coastal lagoons, microbiota in brackish ecosystems, diversity associated with southern Mexico's pacific coral reefs, fry fish stockings in aquatic epicontinental systems, a review of tuna fisheries in Mexico, fishery resource management challenges stemming from climate change, aquatic invasive alien species, harmful algal blooms, and aquatic protected areas, related ecological and social problems and the importance for fisheries' yield.
Despite the wealth of natural historical research conducted on
migration over decades, there is still a dearth of
hypothesis-driven studies that fully integrate theory and empirical
analyses to understand the causes and consequences of migration,
and a taxonomic bias towards birds in much migration research. This
book takes a comparative, integrated view of animal migration,
linking evolution with ecology and management, theory with
empirical research, and embracing all the major migratory taxa
(including human pastoralists). The scope extends beyond the target
organism to consider the ecosystem-level dynamics of migration. The
emphasis is on exciting new research avenues that are now opening
up, whether due to advances in our understanding of migration as a
biological phenomenon or through the availability of a range of new
This is a practical gardener's guide for animal lovers, including planting advice, designs and 90 step-by-step projects, with 1700 photographs. Turn your garden into a wildlife haven by growing the right plants to encourage beneficial insects, aquatic life, birds and animals. It includes illustrated directories of over 200 plant species, from annuals to climbers, with practical advice on cultivation and uses, plus 80 of the most common garden bird species, with identification illustrations and natural history information on distribution, size, distinguishing characteristics, behaviour, nesting, eggs and feeding habits. It includes practical step-by-step projects that show you how to make all kinds of birdhouses, bird tables, birdbaths, wildlife stacks and more. It features all the basic gardening techniques such as plant propagation, soil preparation, composting and general maintenance. Itis illustrated throughout with over 1700 practical colour artworks and photographs. One of the most enjoyable aspects of creating and maintaining a garden lies in the feeling of closeness to nature. Now, with this new book box set, you can encourage hidden birds, animal and insects to proliferate in your very own back garden. These two books, written by award-winning gardening experts, give clear advice on how to create a range of wildlife gardens, showing how adopting a few simple methods will produce a dazzling display of colour while helping native animal species. There are suggestions for the best flowers, shrubs, hedges and trees to attract birds, including a design for a garden border that will provide food throughout the seasons. Comprehensive directories explore over 200 beautiful garden plants, plus over 80 of the most common birds, insects and animals, from woodland and countryside locations to town and city environments. With its helpful practical advice and over 1700 photographs and illustrations, this is the ideal source book for gardeners, bird lovers and wildlife enthusiasts.
"Very few people have spent as much time as William E. Glassley in such deep wilderness. So it would behoove us to pay attention even if he had not brought back such a fascinating, lovely, and useful set of observations. This is a remarkable book." Bill McKibben, author of The End of Nature and Oil and Honey "The profound mystery of our living Earth saturates this memorable book." John Elder, coeditor of The Norton Book of Nature Writing and author of Picking Up the Flute Greenland, one of the last truly wild places, contains a treasure trove of information on Earth's early history embedded in its pristine landscape. Over numerous seasons, William E. Glassley and two fellow geologists traveled there to collect samples and observe rock formations for evidence to prove a contested theory that plate tectonics, the movement of Earth's crust over its molten core, is a much more ancient process than some believed. As their research drove the scientists ever farther into regions barely explored by humans for millennia if ever Glassley encountered wondrous creatures and natural phenomena that gave him unexpected insight into the origins of myth, the virtues and boundaries of science, and the importance of seeking the wilderness within. An invitation to experience a breathtaking place and the fascinating science behind its creation, A Wilder Time is nature writing at its best. William E. Glassley is a geologist at the University of California, Davis, and an emeritus researcher at Aarhus University, Denmark, focusing on the evolution of continents and the processes that energize them. He lives in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
The oceans cover over 70% of our planet. They are host to a biodiversity of tremendous wealth. Its preservation is now a global priority featuring in several international conventions and a confirmed objective of European policies and national strategies. Understanding the dynamics and the uses of the marine biodiversity is a genuine scientific challenge. Fourteen international experts have got together and identified five priority research themes to address the problem, based on analysing the state of knowledge.
This book is about conflicts between different stakeholder groups triggered by protected species that compete with humans for natural resources. It presents key ecological features of typical conflict species and mitigation strategies including technical mitigation and the design of participatory decision strategies involving relevant stakeholders. The book provides a European perspective, but also develops a global framework for the development of action plans.
The National Vegetation Classification (NVC) has become the standard classification used for describing vegetation in Britain. It is a 'phytosociological' classification, classifying vegetation solely on the basis of the plant species of which it is composed. The NVC breaks down each broad vegetation type into communities. Many of these communities contain two or more sub-communities, in a few cases further divided into variants. The second volume of British Plant Communities (Rodwell, 1991) provides a detailed account of 38 mire communities and 22 heath communities, with information on their composition, structure and distribution. The summary descriptions here are derived directly from the full accounts prepared by John Rodwell but are in no way a substitute for them. Rather they are intended as an aide-memoire to assist surveyors in the field or for anyone else wishing to familiarise themselves with the overall scheme of classification for mires and heaths. This is a reprint edition (with no amendments) of ISBN 1-86107-526-X.
Penguins, among the most delightful creatures in the world, are also among the most vulnerable. The fragile status of most penguin populations today mirrors the troubled condition of the southern oceans, as well as larger marine conservation problems: climate change, pollution, and fisheries mismanagement. This timely book presents the most current knowledge on each of the eighteen penguin species--from the majestic emperor penguins of the Antarctic to the little blue penguins of New Zealand and Australia, from the northern rockhopper penguins of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans to the Galapagos penguins of the equator--written by the leading experts in the field.
The discussion of each species includes the life history, distribution, population sizes and trends, and International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status, as well as threats to survival and legal protections, if any. The book also provides information on current conservation efforts, outlines the most important actions to be taken to increase each population's resilience, and recommends further research needed to protect penguins along with the living creatures that share their environment.
Beautifully illustrated with color photographs of each species in their natural habitats and detailed charts and graphs, "Penguins" will be an invaluable tool for researchers, conservation groups, and policy makers. It will also enchant anyone interested in the lives or the plight of these fascinating animals.
Pablo Garcia Borboroglu is a researcher at the National Research
Council of Argentina, president of the Global Penguin Society, and
affiliate professor at the University of Washington. P. Dee Boersma
is professor of biology and Wadsworth Endowed Chair in Conservation
Science at the University of Washington. She is coeditor of
"Invasive Species in the Pacific Northwest" and executive editor of
This book examines the contents, influence, and potential of a personal selection of modern books published over the last fifty years that have been relevant to improving welfare. The works selected comprise three earlier classics that mainly deal with animal experimentation and intensive farming, as well as five that concentrate on specific subject areas, namely history, science, applied ethics, politics and law, that are important to protecting the welfare of animals against suffering inflicted by humans. The books are arranged in the order of their publication date, and for each one a few related works are also mentioned or discussed. This collection provides a broad understanding of animal protection issues, and provides the necessary basis for an informed and comprehensive approach to improving the welfare of animals. The books selected have been influential and they have the potential to improve animal welfare in the future.
Henipaviruses form a new genus of emerging paramyxoviruses that are the deadliest human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. This volume deals with the many facets of henipavirus biology, and covers our current understanding regarding the ecology, molecular virology, and pathogenesis of henipavirus infections. It is an international effort written by a multidisciplinary panel of experts at the front lines of research into this lethal emerging group of paramyxoviruses. The first section introduces the epidemiology and ecology of Nipah and Hendra viruses in their respective endemic areas, including a first-hand account of the discovery of Nipah virus during its initial outbreak in Malaysia; the next section documents the molecular virology of henipaviruses, and the substantial advances made towards understanding the unique features of henipavirus entry and tropism; and this is followed by accounts of the clinical and pathologic features of henipavirus infections in their human and naturally infected animal hosts. The next sections on pathogenesis provide a comprehensive reference on how henipaviruses counteract the innate immune system, and the relevant pathogenic features in animal challenge models developed to test potential therapeutic strategies. The final sections describe our current and future capabilities for diagnosis and control, including an account of potentially effective immunization strategies that are currently being tested. This book will not only serve as a useful reference for the henipavirus field; it will be useful to basic and animal virologists, ecologists, epidemiologists, physicians, and others interested in emerging infectious viral diseases, as it showcases the multidisciplinary efforts required to understand the genesis, spread and hopefully, control, of a group of lethal emerging zoonotic pathogens.
For centuries, borders have been central to salmon management customs on the Salish Sea, but how those borders were drawn has had very different effects on the Northwest salmon fishery. Native peoples who fished the Salish Sea - which includes Puget Sound in Washington State, the Strait of Georgia in British Columbia, and the Strait of Juan de Fuca - drew social and cultural borders around salmon fishing locations and found ways to administer the resource in a sustainable way. Nineteenth-century Euro-Americans, who drew the Anglo-American border along the forty-ninth parallel, took a very different approach and ignored the salmon's patterns and life cycle. As the canned salmon industry grew and more people moved into the region, class and ethnic relations changed. Soon illegal fishing, broken contracts, and fish piracy were endemic - conditions that contributed to rampant overfishing, social tensions, and international mistrust. The Nature of Borders is about the ecological effects of creating cultural and political borders on this critical West Coast salmon fishery. This transnational view provides an understanding of the modern Pacific salmon crisis and is particularly instructive as salmon conservation practices increasingly approximate those of the pre-contact Native past. The Nature of Borders reorients borderlands studies toward the Canada-U.S. border and also provides a new view of how borders influenced fishing practices and related management efforts over time.
The history of interest and practice in insect conservation is summarised and traced through contributions from many of the leaders in the discipline, to provide the first broad global account of how insects have become incorporated into considerations of conservation. The essays collectively cover the genesis and development of insect conservation, emphasising its strong foundation within the northern temperate regions and the contrasts with much of the rest of the world. Major present-day scenarios are discussed, together with possible developments and priorities in insect conservation for the future.
This book presents essential learning approaches. It introduces educational and training activities, as well as various innovative methods aiming at the development of practical skills, in order to strengthen the continuous process of environmental education, and in particular the education for sustainable development (ESD). In doing so, it focuses on three dimensions (social, economic and environmental) as a means of achieving an effective change of behaviour and "tries to bridge the gap between science and environmental education by describing a set of projects, initiatives and field activities". A special emphasis is put on teacher training programmes, conception, and implementation, highlighting the problems and barriers, which prevent development as far as integration of sustainability issues in higher education is concerned.
By the turn of the millennium, it had become painfully apparent that the United States had made some serious misjudgments in its interactions with the natural world. The country's treasured national parks, while remaining immensely popular tourist destinations, were not immune to the damage. Preservation alone would no longer be enough; by this time, repair and restoration were necessary.
Can the United States reverse the mistaken policies that severely damaged the crown jewels of its national park system? This thoughtful and hopeful book, in turns analytical and personal, investigates that critical question by focusing on four of America's most-loved public paces. In "Repairing Paradise," William Lowry, an eminent expert on U.S. natural resource policy, details and assesses four ambitious efforts to reverse environmental damage in the national parks:
- The reintroduction of wolves in Yellowstone
- Reducing the impact of vehicle traffic in Yosemite
- Restoring fresh water to the Everglades
- Removing structural impairments to river flows in the Grand Canyon
"Repairing Paradise" combines authoritative research with extensive personal experience. Lowry has spent time in all four of the parks --observing conditions, talking to the most informed decisionmakers, and taking photos. He deftly combines his field research with solid public policy analysis to paint an instructive portrait of the mission to restore the natural health and glory of some of the world's most wondrous places.
Reef fish spawning aggregations, ranging from small groups to many tens of thousands of individuals, are spectacular but poorly known natural phenomena whereby fish assemble at specific times and locations to spawn. For some species these large groups may be the only form of reproduction, the high fish numbers briefly giving a false impression of stability and abundance-an `illusion of plenty'. They are often a focus for intensive seasonal fishing because of their predictability and because many important commercial fishes form them. Highly vulnerable to overexploitation, many aggregations and their associated fisheries, have disappeared or are in decline. Few are effectively managed or incorporated into protected areas. Aggregations are not well understood by fishery scientists, managers and conservationists and their significance little appreciated by fishers or the wider public. To ensure their persistence to replenish important fisheries in coral ecosystems, maintain their ecosystem function and continue to delight divers, a significant change in perspective is needed to foster protection and management. This book provides comprehensive and practical coverage of the biology, study and management of reef fish aggregations, exploring their how, when, where, and why. It explores ways to better protect, study, manage and conserve them, while identifying key data gaps and questions. The text is extensively illustrated with many unique, never before published, photographs and graphics. Case studies on over 20 interesting and important fishes are included, outlining their biology and fisheries and highlighting major concerns and challenges.
The book aims at synthesizing our current knowledge of Acipenser sturio and its management. This species, one of the most widespread sturgeon species all over Western Europe ranging from the Black Sea to the Baltic, is now on the verge of extinction. Major aspects of its biology and management, including mismanagement, are provided in a historic perspective. Similarly, the changes in the restoration programs (in situ and ex situ) initiated in France and Germany are presented. As the species occurred in sympatry with Acipenser oxyrinchus in Germany and Poland and very recently in France as well, a brief outlook on restoration-management programs of A. oxyrinchus are also provided for both North America and Northern European countries, namely Germany and Poland. As conservation-restoration actions go beyond scientific issues, non-governmental stakeholders and marine professional fishermen's organizations have also been asked to contribute, and the key role of a French-German cooperation plan is underlined. A part of the book is devoted to perspectives. Illustrations of the European sturgeon, mainly in photographs, but also in stamps and paintings, are presented.
This edited volume addresses a rising concern among natural resource scientists and management professionals about decline of the many plant and animal species associated with early-successional habitats, especially within the Central Hardwood Region of the USA. These open habitats, with herbaceous, shrub, or young forest cover, are disappearing as abandoned farmland, pastures, and cleared forest patches return to forest. There are many questions about "why, what, where, and how" to manage for early successional habitats. In this book, expert scientists and experienced land managers synthesize knowledge and original scientific work to address questions on such topics as wildlife, water, carbon sequestration, natural versus managed disturbance, future scenarios, and sustainable creation and management of early successional habitat in a landscape context.
The book will cover the entire range of the Painted Stork--beyond its stronghold in India and Sri Lanka to other countries--E Asia as well. For the sake of comparison, relevant information will be included about the other species of storks--both solitary as well as colonial, of Asia, as well as those in other parts of the world. Certainly plenty of references will be made about the work done on the American Wood Stork.
Studies are underway in order to better understand the role of the monsoon rains on the nesting pattern of Painted Stork, besides attempting a review of the global status of the species. The former is likely to be of interest in augmenting our understanding about how global climate change is going to affect birds across India and the second is likely to raise interesting points about the distribution of species and their ranges. Both these studies will be carried through 2009 and should hopefully be included in the proposed book.
Naturally, the focused interest in field research on the Painted Stork has resulted in accumulation of considerable information on this particular species, which is beyond the information contained on some standard Indian and international works and ornithological texts.
The author hopes to include the entire spread of information of this species--from its systematics, evolution, distribution, ecology to its role in human culture as well as its association with mythologies. In other words, topics have not been restricted to the areas of the author s research but have spilled over into areas of anthropology, ecology, conservation, etc. "
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