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The goals of the workshop were to exchange experiences and good practices and identify financial and institutional support services and facilities to sustain livelihoods and micro-enterprises in coastal areas. The discussions at the workshop showed that livelihoods diversification and the improvement of income and employment opportunities in coastal fishing communities are crucial for their participation in the conservation and management of aquatic resources. Key elements of sustainable micro-enterprise development as identified by the workshop include capability building of fisherfolk organizations such as cooperatives and associations to implement livelihood projects, the preparation of feasibility studies and business plans, technical skills development, sound financial management practices, development of innovative and high quality products, access to new markets including urban and regional markets and the full participation of fisherfolk in the identification of livelihood activities and micro-enterprises.
Aquaculture is a rapidly growing, successful approach to improving diets by providing more high quality fish and shellfish protein. It is also an industry with major unresolved issues because of its negative impact on the environment. This book is a pioneering effort in the development of environmentally benign aquaculture methods.
Basing this work on his ethnographic fieldwork in mountain villages of Japan's Kii Peninsula in the late 1980s (for a doctoral thesis submitted in 1992 to the London School of Economics), Knight (Queens U. Belfast) examines an issue relevant to any locale debating whether to re-introduce wolves. His analysis draws on the observation from structural
This book explores how NGOs have been influential in shaping global biodiversity, conservation policy, and practice. It encapsulates a growing body of literature that has questioned the mandates, roles, and effectiveness of these organizations-and the critique of these critics. This volume seeks to nurture an open conversation about contemporary NGO practices through analysis and engagement.
Bridging the fields of ecosystem science and landscape ecology, this book integrates Dr. Carol Johnston's research on beaver ecosystem alteration at Voyageurs National Park. The findings about the vegetation, soils, and chemistry of beaver impoundments synthesized in the text provide a cohesive reference useful to wetland scientists, ecosystems and landscape ecologysts, wildlife managers, and students. The beaver, Castor canadensis, is an ecosystem engineer unequaled in its capacity to alter landscapes through browsing and dam building, whose population recovery has re-established environmental conditions that probably existed for millenia prior to its near extirpation by trapping in the 1800s and 1900s. Beavers continue to regain much of their natural range throughout North America, changing stream and forest ecosystems in ways that may be lauded or vilified. Interest in beavers by ecologists remains keen as new evidence emerges about the ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical effects of beaver browsing and construction. There is a critical need for ecologists and land managers to understand the potential magnitude, persistence, and ecosystem services of beaver landscape transformation. The 88-year record of beaver landscape occupation and alteration documented by Dr. Carol Johnston and colleagues from aerial photography and field work provides a unique resource toward understanding the ecosystem effects and sustainability of beaver activity.
Marine mammal conservation presents a number of challenges for scientists and other stakeholders, especially using natural resources in ways that avoid crisis management. Scientists play the special role of providing vital information to decision makers to help them understand long-term consequences of their actions and avoid crises before they develop. The contributors to this visionary work look beyond the current crises to present a compelling argument about how science, if conducted properly, can provide insights that minimize crisis management and implement more anticipatory action.
Despite the significant reduction of marine mammal harvesting, stocks of some species remain greatly reduced or are in decline. This volume provides an overview of the current state of marine mammal populations and identifies the major obstacles facing marine mammal conservation, including fisheries, sonar and other noise pollution, disease, contaminants, algal booms, and habitat loss. The contributors chart a scientifically-supported plan to direct marine management toward a well-defined recovery protocol.
This comprehensive resource will be indispensable for marine mammal biologists, oceanographers, conservation program managers, government regulators, policy makers, and anyone who is concerned about the future of these captivating species.
Monterey began as a natural paradise, but became the poster child for industrial devastation in John Steinbeck's "Cannery Row", and is now one of the most celebrated shorelines in the world. It is a remarkable story of life, death, and revival - told here for the first time in all its stunning colour and bleak greys. The "Death and Life of Monterey Bay" begins in the eighteenth century when Spanish and French explorers encountered a rocky shoreline brimming with life - raucous sea birds, abundant sea otters, barking sea lions, halibut the size of wagon wheels, waters thick with whales. A century and a half later, many of the sea creatures had disappeared, replaced by sardine canneries that sickened residents with their stench but kept the money flowing. When the fish ran out and the climate turned, the factories emptied and the community crumbled. But today, both Monterey's economy and wildlife are resplendent. How did it happen? The answer is deceptively simple: through the extraordinary acts of ordinary people. The "Death and Life of Monterey Bay" is the biography of a place, but also of the residents who reclaimed it. Monterey is thriving because of an eccentric mayor who wasn't afraid to use pistols, axes, or the force of law to protect her coasts. It is because of fishermen who love their livelihood, scientists who are fascinated by the sea's mysteries, and philanthropists and community leaders willing to invest in a world-class aquarium. The shores of Monterey Bay revived because of human passion - passion that enlivens every page of this hopeful book.
Marine mammals attract human interest - sometimes this interest is benign or positive - whale watching, conservation programmes for whales, seals, otters, and efforts to clear beaches of marine debris are seen as proactive steps to support these animals. However, there are many forces operating to affect adversely the lives of whales, seals, manatees, otters and polar bears - and this book explores how the welfare of marine mammals has been affected and how they have adapted, moved, responded and sometimes suffered as a result of the changing marine and human world around them. Marine mammal welfare addresses the welfare effects of marine debris, of human traffic in the oceans, of noise, of hunting, of whale watching and tourism, and of some of the less obvious impacts on marine mammals - on their social structures, on their behaviours and migration, and also of the effects on captivity for animals kept in zoos and aquaria. There is much to think and talk about - how marine mammals respond in a world dramatically influenced by man, how are their social structures affected and how is their welfare impacted?
Population ecology has matured to a sophisticated science with astonishing potential for contributing solutions to wildlife conservation and management challenges. And yet, much of the applied power of wildlife population ecology remains untapped because its broad sweep across disparate subfields has been isolated in specialized texts. In this book, L. Scott Mills covers the full spectrum of applied wildlife population ecology, including genomic tools for non-invasive genetic sampling, predation, population projections, climate change and invasive species, harvest modeling, viability analysis, focal species concepts, and analyses of connectivity in fragmented landscapes. With a readable style, analytical rigor, and hundreds of examples drawn from around the world, "Conservation of Wildlife Populations (2nd ed)" provides the conceptual basis for applying population ecology to wildlife conservation decision-making. Although targeting primarily undergraduates and beginning graduate students with some basic training in basic ecology and statistics (in majors that could include wildlife biology, conservation biology, ecology, environmental studies, and biology), the book will also be useful for practitioners in the field who want to find - in one place and with plenty of applied examples - the latest advances in the genetic and demographic aspects of population ecology.Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/mills/wildlifepopulations.
“A thoughtful examination of the machinery of extinction . . . By turns harrowing and elegiac, thrilling and informative.” —Michiko Kakutani, The New York Times
`Ireland's heritage is being steadily whittled away by human exploitation, pollution and other aspects of modern development. This could represent a serious loss to the nation.' Irish Government Report, June 1969 Nature in Ireland is disappearing at an alarming rate. Overfishing, industrial-scale farming and pollution have decimated wildlife habitats and populations. In a single lifetime, vast shoals of herring, rivers bursting with salmon, and bogs alive with flocks of curlew and geese have all become folk memories. Coastal and rural communities are struggling to survive; the foundations of our tourism and agricultural sectors are being undermined. The lack of political engagement frequently sees the state in the European Court of Justice for environmental issues. Padraic Fogarty authoritatively charts how this grim failure to manage our natural resources has impoverished our country. But all is not lost: he also reveals possibilities for the future, describing how we can fill our seas with fish, farm in tune with nature, and create forests that benefit both people and wildlife. He makes a persuasive case for the return of long-lost species like wild boar, cranes and wolves, showing how the interests of the country and its nature can be reconciled. A provocative call to arms, Whittled Away presents an alternative path that could lead us all to a brighter future.
This is a book about delight...about love and laughter and saving the planet, and saving money at the same time. It is about enriching the soul and strengthening the body. It is about ducks and how to live in harmony in a productive organic garden: building a shed, fencing, establishing a pond or two and stocking it all with happy, healthy ducks -- and all of it based on the author's own experience.
Many endangered species of wild animals are managed in captivity through studbooks. In this book these data-rich resources are mined in innovative, integrated and statistically tested ways to maximise information gain for conservation practice - whether for captive or released/reintroduced or managed wild populations. This book is thus an important tool for all species managers, and for students and researchers in small population biology and wildlife conservation. The book's studbook analyses are grouped in three interrelated sections: natural history, demography and genetics. Statistical tests to determine the significance of results or to compare results between subgroups are undertaken throughout. Real studbooks of a variety of species, e.g. cranes, wolverines, blesbok, illustrate the practical applications and interpretations of the analyses and statistics. The "natural history" section presents analyses to determine baseline species information such as litter size, inter-birth interval, longevity and seasonality. "Demography" covers census(-style) analyses, age-class based life tables, comparative survival analyses and population projections. Solutions for dealing with small sample sizes are included.Inbreeding depression and unconscious selection form the main focus of the "genetics" section. Survival and life table analyses are used to assess inbreeding effects. Quantitative genetics methods are applied to natural history traits as a tool to monitor genetic variation. A fourth section on "conservation" shows how data from captive populations can be used where natural history data from wild populations are missing. A real example uses studbook data to inform Population Viability Analysis. The final section deals with issues related to incomplete and missing data and statistical topics. The purpose-written open-source software programs "Population Management Library (PML)" and "studbookR" used for analyses in the book, are available at www.princee.com.
This authoritative book presents the results of important new research into the economics of biodiversity conservation in sub-Saharan Africa. The contributors offer case studies of the economic causes of biodiversity loss in a range of ecosystem types - wetlands, montane forests, tropical moist forests, semi-arid savannas and lakes - and discuss the policy options for biodiversity conservation in each case. They also provide an in-depth analysis of the environmental consequences of policy reform at the macro- and micro- levels and offer practical recommendations for the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Economics of Biodiversity Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa will prove invaluable to scholars and policymakers working within the areas of environmental economics, environmental science and sustainable development.
Beavers are widely recognised as a keystone species which play a pivotal role in riparian ecology. Their tree felling and dam building behaviours coupled with a suite of other activities create a wealth of living opportunities that are exploited by a range of other species. Numerous scientific studies demonstrate that beaver-generated living environments that are much richer in terms of both biodiversity and biomass than wetland environments from which they are absent. Emerging contemporary studies indicate clearly that the landscapes they create can afford sustainable, cost-effective remedies for water retention, flood alleviation, silt and chemical capture. Beaver activities, especially in highly modified environments, may be challenging to certain land use activities and landowners. Many trialled and tested methods to mitigate against these impacts, including a wide range of non-lethal management techniques, are regularly implemented across Europe and North America. Many of these techniques will be new to people, especially in areas where beavers are newly re-establishing. This handbook serves to discuss both the benefits and challenges in living with this species, and collates the wide range of techniques that can be implemented to mitigate any negative impacts. The authors of this handbook are all beaver experts and together they have a broad range of scientific knowledge and practical experience regarding the ecology, captive husbandry, veterinary science, pathology, reintroduction and management of beavers in both continental Europe and Britain.
Crop wild relatives (CWR) are plant species which are more or less closely related to crops. They are a vital resource by providing a pool of genetic variation that can be used in breeding new and better adapted varieties of crops that are resistant to stress, disease, drought and other factors. They will be increasingly important in allowing crops to adapt to the impacts of climate, thus safeguarding future agricultural production. Until recently, the main conservation strategy adopted for CWR has been ex situ - through the maintenance of samples as seed or vegetative material in various kinds of genebank or other facilities. Now the need to conserve CWR in their natural surroundings (in situ) is increasingly recognized. Recent research co-ordinated by Bioversity International has produced a wealth of information on good practices and lessons learned for their effective conservation. This book captures the important practical experiences of countries participating in this work and describes them for the wider conservation community. It includes case studies and examples from Armenia, Bolivia, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Uzbekistan, which are important centres of diversity for crop wild relatives, and covers four geographical regions - the Caucasus, South America, Africa and the Asia-Pacific Region. It provides practical, relevant information and guidance for the scaling-up of actions targeting CWR conservation around the world.
This book represents an introductory review of disturbance ecology and threat analysis, providing schematic concepts and approaches useful for work on sites that are affected by the impact of human actions. It is aimed at conservation and environmental practitioners, who will find tips for choosing methods and approaches when there are conflicts between the natural components and human activity. It is also addressed to students of applied ecology, ecosystem management, land-use planning and environmental impact assessment. It discusses a number of topics covered in the programs of many university courses related to basic ecology and ecology of disturbance, the latter constituting a field of great interest because of its implications and repercussions in applied territorial science. The book is divided into two parts: the first focuses on the theoretical and disciplinary framework of the ecology of disturbance, while the second is devoted to the analysis of anthropogenic threats. This, in particular, discusses the most recent approach, which uses a conventional nomenclature to allow a coarse-grained quantification and objective assessment of threat impact on different environmental components. Such an approach facilitates the comparison of hierarchically different events and, therefore, helps define the priorities for management and conservation strategies.
In this impressively researched, alarming book, Rosaleen Duffy investigates the world of nature conservation, arguing that the West's attitude to endangered wildlife is shallow, self-contradictory, and ultimately very damaging. Analyzing the workings of the black-market wildlife industry, Duffy points out that illegal trading is often the direct result of Western consumer desires, from coltan for cellular phones to exotic meats sold in London street markets. She looks at the role of ecotourism, showing how Western travelers contribute--often unwittingly--to the destruction of natural environments. Most strikingly, she argues that the imperatives of Western-style conservation often result in serious injustice to local people, who are branded as "problems" and subject to severe restrictions on their way of life and even extrajudicial killings.
Until now, information on mammals in South Asia has never been brought together on a single platform providing all inclusive knowledge on the subject. This book is the most up to date comprehensive resource on the mammalian diversity of South Asia. It offers information on the diversity, distribution and status of 504 species of terrestrial and aquatic mammals found in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This work is unique being the first of its kind that deals with diversity and distribution at the subspecies level. The book is divided in to three chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the subject and takes off from the recent works on mammals at the global level, provides an historical perspective on mammal studies in South Asia and concludes with a note on recent phylogenetic changes at supraordinal levels. Chapter 2 summarizes the information on the diversity of South Asian Mammals, provides analysis by country of mammalian diversity (supported by data in tabular form) dealing with species richness, endemism and possibly occurring species, separate analysis for each country with details on endemic and threatened species, extinct mammals, domestic mammals, and finally the IUCN status of mammals with special emphasis on threatened mammals. Chapter 3 is a comprehensive checklist that provides information oneach species, including its scientific name, type details, standardized English name, synonyms, subspecies, distribution and comments on taxonomic status. Country wise listings and analysis of species richness with emphasis on subspecies distribution Most of the analysis is supported by data in tabular forms for better understanding Notes on extinct and domesticated mammals as well as their IUCN Red List Status with criteria for such status A very comprehensive bibliography that would help readers track down specific literature
For more than two decades, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, known as CITES, has been one of the largest and most effective conservation agreements in the world. By regulating international commerce in certain species -- from African elephants and exotic birds to hardwoods and bulbs -- the treaty limits trade in species that are in genuine need of protection while allowing controlled trade in species that can withstand some level of exploitation.In addition to explaining how CITES operates, this definitive reference includes: the full text of the CITES treatyCITES Appendices I, II, and III a list of Parties as of March 1994 a list of reservations by Parties as of October 1993 Chapters address the status of highly threatened species such as elephants, rhinos, and tigers as well as other heavily exploited species including parrots, primates, and bears."International Wildlife Trade" provides a valuable overview of wildlife trade issues, and of the strengths and weaknesses of the current treaty.
This is the first ever monumental and scientific documentation of the faunal wealth of the Indian Desert state of Rajasthan. This volume, the first of two, provides background on Rajasthan and covers species diversity and distribution of fauna. A scholarly contribution to the field of knowledge, it provides novel and vital information on the vertebrate faunal heritage of India's largest state. Broadly falling under the Indo-Malaya Ecozone, the three major biomes of Rajasthan include deserts and xeric shrublands, tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, and tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests. The corresponding ecoregions to the above biomes are, respectively, the Thar Desert and northwestern thorn scrub forests, the Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests, and the Upper Gangtic Plains moist deciduous forests. Contrary to popular belief, the well-known Thar or Great Indian Desert occupies only a part of the state. Rajasthan is diagonally divided by the Aravalli mountain ranges into arid and semi-arid regions. The latter have a spectacular variety of highly diversified and unique yet fragile ecosystems comprising lush green fields, marshes, grasslands, rocky patches and hilly terrains, dense forests, the southern plateau, fresh water wetlands, and salt lakes. Apart from the floral richness, there is faunal abundance from fishes to mammals. In this volume, the various flagship and threatened species are described in the 24 chapters penned by top notch wildlife experts and academics. The world famous heronry, tiger reserves, wildlife sanctuaries and some threat-ridden biodiversity rich areas shall certainly draw the attention of readers from around the world.
"This story, told by a master teller of such things, does more than
take you inside the cages, fences, and walls of a zoo. It takes you
inside the human heart, and an elephant's, and a primate's, and on
and on. Tom French did in this book what he always does. He took
real life and wrote it down for us, with eloquence and feeling and
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