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Bestselling guide to all 1,073 UNESCO World Heritage sites. Fully updated to include the latest sites added to the World Heritage List in July 2017. The List is managed by the World Heritage Committee and each site is judged under strict criteria - only the world's most spectacular and extraordinary sites make it on to the List. UNESCO World Heritage sites include some of the most famous places in the world, such as the ancient Nabatean city of Petra in Jordan, the legendary Acropolis in Athens, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and Machu Picchu, the `Lost City of the Incas', in Peru. 26 sites were added to the List by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee in July 2017. These included the first sites inscribed for Eritrea (Asmara: a Modernist City of Africa) and Angola (Mbanza Kongo, Vestiges of the Capital of the former Kingdom of Kongo). Other sites included The English Lake District (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), Los Alerces National Park (Argentina), Aphrodisias (Turkey), and extensions to 5 existing sites. * Descriptions of all 1073 UNESCO World Heritage sites * Location map for every site * Over 750 colour photographs Background The World Heritage List includes properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee considers as having outstanding universal value. In 1972 the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) adopted the Convention concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage. Since then, 1073 sites in 167 State Parties have been inscribed onto the list, 832 of which are cultural, 206 natural and 35 mixed properties.
Amphibian Conservation is the fourth in the series of Synopses of Conservation Evidence, linked to the online resource www.ConservationEvidence.com. This synopsis is part of the Conservation Evidence project and provides a useful resource for conservationists. It forms part of a series designed to promote a more evidence-based approach to biodiversity conservation. Others in the series include bee, bird, farmland and bat conservation and many others are in preparation. Approximately 32% of the 7,164+ amphibian species are currently threatened with extinction and at least 43% of species are declining. Despite this, until recently amphibians and their conservation had received little attention. Although work is now being carried out to conserve many species, often it is not adequately documented. This book brings together and summarises the available scientific evidence and experience relevant to the practical conservation of amphibians. The authors consulted an international group of amphibian experts and conservationists to produce a thorough summary of what is known, or not known, about the effectiveness of amphibian conservation actions across the world. "The book is packed with literature summaries and citations; a veritable information goldmine for graduate students and researchers. It also admirably provides decision makers with a well-researched resource of proven interventions that can be employed to stem/reverse the decline of amphibian populations." -John G Palis, Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society
The aptly named giant otter is exceptionally well adapted to life in rivers, lakes and wetlands in tropical South America. Known in Spanish as lobo del rio or 'river wolf', it can be as long as a human is tall, and is the most social of the world's thirteen otter species. Each individual is identifiable from birth by its pale throat pattern, as unique as your fingerprint. Giant otters are top carnivores of the Amazon rainforest and have little to fear... except man. There are many reasons why scientists and tourists alike are fascinated by this charismatic species. Spend a day in the life of a close-knit giant otter family and you'll realise why. Learn about their diet and hunting techniques, marking and denning behaviour, and breeding and cub-rearing strategies, including shared care of the youngest members. Become familiar with the complex life histories of individual otters over their 15-year lifespans. And accompany a young disperser during the trials and tribulations of a year spent looking for a mate and a home of its own. Although giant otters have few natural enemies, they became the target of the international pelt trade in the 1940s, and by the early 1970s had been hunted to the brink of extinction. Today, illegal hunting is a minor hazard. So why is the giant otter still endangered? Find out about current threats to the species and discover how a variety of conservation actions are benefiting the otters over the last decades. Then be a part of the solution by acting on the steps we can all take to help further giant otter conservation.
Raptors are an unusual success story of wildness thriving in the heart of our cities--they have developed substantial populations around the world in recent decades. But there are deeper issues around how these birds make their urban homes. New research provides insight into the role of raptors as vital members of the urban ecosystem and future opportunities for protection, management, and environmental education. A cutting-edge synthesis of over two decades of scientific research, Urban Raptors is the first book to offer a complete overview of urban ecosystems in the context of bird-of-prey ecology and conservation. This comprehensive volume examines urban environments, explains why some species adapt to urban areas but others do not, and introduces modern research tools to help in the study of urban raptors. It also delves into climate change adaptation, human-wildlife conflict, and the unique risks birds of prey face in urban areas before concluding with real-world wildlife management case studies and suggestions for future research and conservation efforts. Boal and Dykstra have compiled the go-to single source of information on urban birds of prey. Among researchers, urban green space planners, wildlife management agencies, birders, and informed citizens alike, Urban Raptors will foster a greater understanding of birds of prey and an increased willingness to accommodate them as important members, not intruders, of our cities.
"Saltmarshes are often remote, inhospitable places, neither land nor sea, as hard to pin down as they are to navigate. In this saline odyssey, Clive Chatters has explored his favourite creeks, pools and mudflats to bring us an absorbing celebration of the ecology, biology, geology and history of this scarce and mysterious habitat. There are Tadpole Shrimps, and rare sedges, waders and Wild Celery - even inland saltmarshes - in this tour de force by a superb naturalist and writer." BRETT WESTWOOD, naturalist, author and radio presenter Saltmarshes are among Britain's most diverse and dynamic landscapes. They abound around our shores but may also be found inland and at altitude - wherever water, salt and vegetation combine. The species they support range from extreme rarities of specialised habitats to the less demanding denizens of coastal wetlands. Here is a landscape of international importance for migratory birds, endemic plants and an exceptional variety of invertebrates. Clive Chatters has a lifetime's affinity with saltmarshes. In this fifth volume of the British Wildlife Collection, he celebrates their natural history and diversity, from the highly distinctive marshes in the Scottish Highlands to the urban remnants of the Thames estuary now engulfed within the capital. By examining the past of these complex habitats, we can gain an insight into how they have developed, and an understanding of their relationship with people. In addition to their exceptionally diverse natural history, saltmarshes are sources of food and medicine, they play a pivotal role in flood defence and carbon sequestration, and have inspired artistic endeavour.
Understanding the complex relationships between humans and the natural world is essential for achieving environmental sustainability and improving human well-being, yet many studies are unable to reveal complex interactions and hidden trends. This is the first book to synthesize the findings and approaches of long-term integrated research in a model coupled human and natural system, and to illustrate their applications to regional, national, and global scales. It features a classic long-term interdisciplinary research project in the Wolong Nature Reserve of China, which contains one of the largest wild populations of the world-famous endangered giant pandas. Bringing together a team of contributors from both the natural and social sciences, this book explores how a long-term interdisciplinary and model system approach is essential to uncover the common patterns and mechanisms of coupled systems, to develop ideas and methods for studying and managing other coupled systems, and ultimately to contribute to the development of theories about coupled systems for sustainability. Pandas and People will be essential reading for scholars interested in the interface of the natural and social sciences, including ecologists, conservation biologists, environmental scientists, sustainability scientists, wildlife biologists, forest scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, economists, and political scientists. It will also be a valuable reference for policy makers, natural resource managers, and graduate students.
In this intensely practical handbook, a team of leading
ornithologists describe a wide range of standard methods that can
be applied to the study of avian ecology and conservation. Topics
covered range from surveys and tracking and handling to breeding
biology, foraging behavior, and migration. Chapters on conservation
techniques describe how to assess species over-exploitation, the
methods available for the intensive conservation of endangered
species, and the principles involved in the maintenance and
restoration of habitats. This comprehensive synthesis will be
essential reading for graduate students and researchers as well as
a valuable resource for environmental consultants and professional
In 2006, Julianne Lutz Warren (nee Newton) asked readers to rediscover one of history's most renowned conservationists. Aldo Leopold's Odyssey was hailed by The New York Times as a "biography of ideas," making "us feel the loss of what might have followed A Sand County Almanac by showing us in authoritative detail what led up to it." Warren's astute narrative quickly became an essential part of the Leopold cannon, introducing new readers to the father of wildlife ecology and offering a fresh perspective to even the most seasoned scholars. A decade later, as our very concept of wilderness is changing, Warren frames Leopold's work in the context of the Anthropocene. With a new preface and foreword by Bill McKibben, the book underscores the ever- growing importance of Leopold's ideas in an increasingly human-dominated landscape. Drawing on unpublished archives, Warren traces Leopold's quest to define and preserve land health. Leopold's journey took him from lowa to Yale to the Southwest to Wisconsin, with fascinating stops along the way to probe the causes of early land settlement failures, contribute to the emerging science of ecology, and craft a new vision for land use. Leopold's life was dedicated to one fundamental dilemma: how can people live prosperously on the land and keep it healthy, too? For anyone compelled by this question, the Tenth Anniversary Edition of Aldo Leopold's Odyssey offers insight and inspiration.
The biology of the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii Brandt 1869, has become a very attractive subject of investigation for biologists since the 1980s. This volume 1 is part of a two-volume set devoted to the species, the second of which focuses on farming. The present volume is divided into three parts: Biology and ecology, Biology and physiology of reproduction, and Ecophysiology, i.e. adaptation to the environment. The first part addresses a broad range of topics, such as: the ecology, including a new approach to species-specificity, a new insight on the mineralization of vertebral elements, two approaches to sex determination, transposable elements in the gonads, early ontogeny, olfaction and gustation, nutrition and swimming. The second part includes neurochemical and anatomical descriptions of the central nervous system and an updated version of the oogenesis, the characteristics of both sperm and spermatozoa, and a synthesis on gonadal steroids (synthesis, plasmatic levels and biological activities). In turn, the third part reveals how the physiology of the species changes depending on environmental factors such as oxygen, ammonia, and nitrite. Some fundamental consequences of ammonia are developed (sublethal and lethal levels, effects on gill epithelium and haematology, acid-base balance, on AA and adenyl nucleotides levels in plasma, brain and muscle tissue). In addition, the book includes two methodological chapters dealing with fish dorsal aortic cannulation and respiration physiology.
This book provides a snapshot of representative modeling analyses of coastal hypoxia and its effects. Hypoxia refers to conditions in the water column where dissolved oxygen falls below levels that can support most metazoan marine life (i.e., 2 mg O2 l-1). The number of hypoxic zones has been increasing at an exponential rate since the 1960s; there are currently more than 600 documented hypoxic zones in the estuarine and coastal waters worldwide. Hypoxia develops as a synergistic product of many physical and biological factors that affect the balance of dissolved oxygen in seawater, including temperature, solar radiation, wind, freshwater discharge, nutrient supply, and the production and decay of organic matter. A number of modeling approaches have been increasingly used in hypoxia research, along with the more traditional observational and experimental studies. Modeling is necessary because of rapidly changing coastal circulation and stratification patterns that affect hypoxia, the large spatial extent over which hypoxia develops, and limitations on our capabilities to directly measure hypoxia over large spatial and temporal scales. This book consists of 15 chapters that are broadly organized around three main topics: (1) Modeling of the physical controls on hypoxia, (2) Modeling of biogeochemical controls and feedbacks, and, (3) Modeling of the ecological effects of hypoxia. The final chapter is a synthesis chapter that draws generalities from the earlier chapters, highlights strengths and weaknesses of the current state-of-the-art modeling, and offers recommendations on future directions.
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