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Following the destruction of 95% of meadows during the twentieth century, there is an urgent need to understand what little unspoiled habitat remains in order to plan the management and restoration of existing sites, as well as re-creating future grassland habitats. This book is a much-needed guide to grassland restoration and management. Providing a thorough overview of recent research on grassland restoration and its implications for practical grassland restoration and management, it introduces grassland communities and the wildlife they support, including examples of species of conservation concern, and considers the management of semi-natural grassland habitats with particular emphasis on drier grassland habitats. Chapters cover: - Grassland character and communities - Introduction to grassland wildlife - Managing semi-natural grassland - Grassland restoration - threats and challenges - Opportunities in grassland restoration - Plant material for grassland restoration - Defining success in grassland restoration. A variety of management techniques are examined, including soil amendment, cultivation, harvesting and maintenance in creating suitable conditions for the successful restoration of species-rich grasslands. It is essential reading for conservationists, site owners or managers, practitioners, conservation organizations and students of ecological restoration with an interest in the creation of new grassland habitats, the restoration of semi-natural grassland, as well as the continuing management of semi-natural (unimproved) grassland communities.
"Saltmarshes are often remote, inhospitable places, neither land nor sea, as hard to pin down as they are to navigate. In this saline odyssey, Clive Chatters has explored his favourite creeks, pools and mudflats to bring us an absorbing celebration of the ecology, biology, geology and history of this scarce and mysterious habitat. There are Tadpole Shrimps, and rare sedges, waders and Wild Celery - even inland saltmarshes - in this tour de force by a superb naturalist and writer." BRETT WESTWOOD, naturalist, author and radio presenter Saltmarshes are among Britain's most diverse and dynamic landscapes. They abound around our shores but may also be found inland and at altitude - wherever water, salt and vegetation combine. The species they support range from extreme rarities of specialised habitats to the less demanding denizens of coastal wetlands. Here is a landscape of international importance for migratory birds, endemic plants and an exceptional variety of invertebrates. Clive Chatters has a lifetime's affinity with saltmarshes. In this fifth volume of the British Wildlife Collection, he celebrates their natural history and diversity, from the highly distinctive marshes in the Scottish Highlands to the urban remnants of the Thames estuary now engulfed within the capital. By examining the past of these complex habitats, we can gain an insight into how they have developed, and an understanding of their relationship with people. In addition to their exceptionally diverse natural history, saltmarshes are sources of food and medicine, they play a pivotal role in flood defence and carbon sequestration, and have inspired artistic endeavour.
The Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii Brandt 1869 is the most widely farmed sturgeon species. Continuing from Volume 1, which focuses on the biology of the species, the present Volume 2 in turn examines farming aspects. It is divided into six parts, the first of which deals with reproduction and early ontogenesis, i.e. reproductive cycles, controlled reproduction, sperm cryoconservation, and weaning of larvae. The second covers the growing phase with a focus on food and feeding (management, fish meal replacement, potential endocrine disruptions, usefulness of prebiotics and immunostimulants, and nitrogen excretion). Production-related data are the focus of the third part and include: characteristics (countries, structures of production, evolution in production, economic features) of the gross production of the species (meat and caviar) worldwide, a method for assessing the quality of caviars, off-flavors management, and an example of production of fingerlings for restocking. Part four addresses selected long-term management issues: genetic variability of brood stocks, genome manipulation and sex control, and the advantages of hybrids. The next three chapters constitute the fifth part, which is devoted to health status (immunology and welfare). In closing, the absence of ecological risks of introducing the species in non-native waters is shown using two long-term documented examples (Russia and France). Three methodological chapters round out the volume, covering: in vitro incubation of ovarian follicles, a richly illustrated library of echographies and photos, and a detailed presentation of oxygen demand studies.
In her wise and elegant new book, Jane Goodall blends her experience in nature with her enthusiasm for botany to give readers a deeper understanding of the world around us. Long before her work with chimpanzees, Goodall's passion for the natural world sprouted in the backyard of her childhood home in England, where she climbed her beech tree and made elderberry wine with her grandmother. The garden her family began then, she continues to enjoy today. SEEDS OF HOPE takes us from England to Goodall's home-away-from-home in Africa, deep inside the Gombe forest, where she and the chimpanzees are enchanted by the fig and plum trees they encounter. She introduces us to botanists around the world, as well as places where hope for plants can be found, such as The Millennium Seed Bank, where one billion seeds are preserved. She shows us the secret world of plants with all their mysteries and potential for healing our bodies as well as Planet Earth. Looking at the world as an adventurer, scientist, and devotee of sustainable foods and gardening-and setting forth simple goals we can all take to protect the plants around us-Jane Goodall delivers an enlightening story of the wonders we can find in our own backyards.
This book discusses the beneficial and harmful effects of insects and explains their development and significance for biodiversity.Threatening pests or threatened beneficials? Biting midges are wonderful insects. The animals are so tiny and uniquely shaped that they are particularly good at pollinating the small and tight flowers of the cocoa tree. Without them, there would be much less chocolate. We associate other insects more with the damage that they cause. Mosquitoes and wasps bite us. Moth larvae damage textiles and contaminate foods. Ants undermine our paths and flies are just a pain.But what exactly is our relationship with insects? Are they more beneficial or harmful? What role do they play in the world? What are the effects of climate change: Will the number of insects continue to increase?
Considered an essential conservation tool, plant reintroductions have been conducted for many of the world's rarest plant species. The expertise and knowledge gained through these efforts constitute an essential storehouse of information for conservationists faced with a rapidly changing global climate. This volume presents a comprehensive review of reintroduction projects and practices, the circumstances of their successes or failures, lessons learned, and the potential role for reintroductions in preserving species threatened by climate change. Contributors examine current plant reintroduction practices, from selecting appropriate source material and recipient sites to assessing population demography. The findings culminate in a set of "Best Reintroduction Practice Guidelines", included in an appendix. These guidelines cover stages from planning and implementation to long-term monitoring, and offer not only recommended actions but also checklists of questions to consider that are applicable to projects around the world. Traditional reintroduction practice can inform managed relocation - the deliberate movement of species outside their native range - which may be the only hope for some species to persist in a natural environment. Included in the book are discussions of the history, fears, and controversy regarding managed relocation, along with protocols for evaluating invasive risk and proposals for conducting managed relocation of rare plants. "Plant Reintroduction in a Changing Climate" is a comprehensive and accessible reference for practitioners to use in planning and executing rare plant reintroductions.
This book provides new research on the perceptions, threats and conservation of wildlife. Chapter One reviews the distribution of Arabian gazelles on Farasan Islands. Chapter Two studies forest native and non-native plant species along an elevational gradient in a western Himalayan reserve. Chapter Three intertwines the socially constructed meaning of the wild horse with that of protected areas. Chapter Four focuses on bat conservation.
This is a practical gardener's guide for animal lovers, including planting advice, designs and 90 step-by-step projects, with 1700 photographs. Turn your garden into a wildlife haven by growing the right plants to encourage beneficial insects, aquatic life, birds and animals. It includes illustrated directories of over 200 plant species, from annuals to climbers, with practical advice on cultivation and uses, plus 80 of the most common garden bird species, with identification illustrations and natural history information on distribution, size, distinguishing characteristics, behaviour, nesting, eggs and feeding habits. It includes practical step-by-step projects that show you how to make all kinds of birdhouses, bird tables, birdbaths, wildlife stacks and more. It features all the basic gardening techniques such as plant propagation, soil preparation, composting and general maintenance. Itis illustrated throughout with over 1700 practical colour artworks and photographs. One of the most enjoyable aspects of creating and maintaining a garden lies in the feeling of closeness to nature. Now, with this new book box set, you can encourage hidden birds, animal and insects to proliferate in your very own back garden. These two books, written by award-winning gardening experts, give clear advice on how to create a range of wildlife gardens, showing how adopting a few simple methods will produce a dazzling display of colour while helping native animal species. There are suggestions for the best flowers, shrubs, hedges and trees to attract birds, including a design for a garden border that will provide food throughout the seasons. Comprehensive directories explore over 200 beautiful garden plants, plus over 80 of the most common birds, insects and animals, from woodland and countryside locations to town and city environments. With its helpful practical advice and over 1700 photographs and illustrations, this is the ideal source book for gardeners, bird lovers and wildlife enthusiasts.
In this intensely practical handbook, a team of leading
ornithologists describe a wide range of standard methods that can
be applied to the study of avian ecology and conservation. Topics
covered range from surveys and tracking and handling to breeding
biology, foraging behavior, and migration. Chapters on conservation
techniques describe how to assess species over-exploitation, the
methods available for the intensive conservation of endangered
species, and the principles involved in the maintenance and
restoration of habitats. This comprehensive synthesis will be
essential reading for graduate students and researchers as well as
a valuable resource for environmental consultants and professional
The Handbook identifies all aspects of Regulatory Plant Biosecurity and discusses them from the standpoint of preventing the international movement of plant pests, diseases and weeds that negatively impact production agriculture, natural plant-resources and agricultural commerce.
Amphibian Conservation is the fourth in the series of Synopses of Conservation Evidence, linked to the online resource www.ConservationEvidence.com. This synopsis is part of the Conservation Evidence project and provides a useful resource for conservationists. It forms part of a series designed to promote a more evidence-based approach to biodiversity conservation. Others in the series include bee, bird, farmland and bat conservation and many others are in preparation. Approximately 32% of the 7,164+ amphibian species are currently threatened with extinction and at least 43% of species are declining. Despite this, until recently amphibians and their conservation had received little attention. Although work is now being carried out to conserve many species, often it is not adequately documented. This book brings together and summarises the available scientific evidence and experience relevant to the practical conservation of amphibians. The authors consulted an international group of amphibian experts and conservationists to produce a thorough summary of what is known, or not known, about the effectiveness of amphibian conservation actions across the world. "The book is packed with literature summaries and citations; a veritable information goldmine for graduate students and researchers. It also admirably provides decision makers with a well-researched resource of proven interventions that can be employed to stem/reverse the decline of amphibian populations." -John G Palis, Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society
What is happening in our oceans? By describing their main elements, this book shows how and why the oceans are being transformed, and suggests possible future scenarios to address this complex, yet often-asked, question. The ocean is being dramatically transformed, but the magnitude of this transformation remains unclear since the ocean is largely inaccessible and still unknown: there is more information about the outer universe than about the deepest parts of our oceans. The author, a marine biologist with extensive research experience, offers a holistic view of our oceans. Focusing on fishing, pollution and the effects of climate change, he identifies and describes the changes occurring in all marine ecosystems, and discusses the long-passed state of equilibrium.
Untouched since 1953, the Korean DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) has transformed itself into one of the few ecologically pristine zones and a vital habitat for endangered species. Often cited as a potential "peace park", it could one day be a common ground for reconciliation and harmony. A wealth of data and information has been produced over time, documenting significant aspects of the DMZ and its implications for human and ecological security, both in Korea and worldwide. However, there is no single book in English that brings together the findings on the mechanism of evolution, the ecology and biodiversity of the DMZ. "The DMZ of Korea", by Kwi-Gon Kim, is the first step in this direction. It seeks to link scientific information and policy making for the future DMZ ecosystem management, taking into account the fact that the area has become, over the years, a natural treasure as a habitat for rare birds and other wildlife and a fertile environment for a thriving plant community. It also provides a framework for ensuring the long-term sustainability of the DMZ. The book holistically describes the current environmental status of the DMZ, and identifies bioregions, resources, habitats, and species. By outlining the current scientific data and information needed to classify the different wetland types, assess the biological integrity, understand the threat factors, and to suggest conservation and management strategies, the book provides a "one stop shop" scientific and policy source of information, which will undoubtedly be of great interest to students, researchers, practitioners, and policy decision-makers, in the areas of planning, natural resource management, public management, ecology, landscape architecture, geography, and the life sciences. Prof.Dr.Kwi-Gon Kim obtained his Ph.D. at UCL, University of London, UK. He is a professor emeritus at Seoul National University and the Co- President of the Korea DMZ Council in Seoul, Korea.
Bridging the fields of ecosystem science and landscape ecology, this book integrates Dr. Carol Johnston's research on beaver ecosystem alteration at Voyageurs National Park. The findings about the vegetation, soils, and chemistry of beaver impoundments synthesized in the text provide a cohesive reference useful to wetland scientists, ecosystems and landscape ecologysts, wildlife managers, and students. The beaver, Castor canadensis, is an ecosystem engineer unequaled in its capacity to alter landscapes through browsing and dam building, whose population recovery has re-established environmental conditions that probably existed for millenia prior to its near extirpation by trapping in the 1800s and 1900s. Beavers continue to regain much of their natural range throughout North America, changing stream and forest ecosystems in ways that may be lauded or vilified. Interest in beavers by ecologists remains keen as new evidence emerges about the ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical effects of beaver browsing and construction. There is a critical need for ecologists and land managers to understand the potential magnitude, persistence, and ecosystem services of beaver landscape transformation. The 88-year record of beaver landscape occupation and alteration documented by Dr. Carol Johnston and colleagues from aerial photography and field work provides a unique resource toward understanding the ecosystem effects and sustainability of beaver activity.
This book explores how the state can foster collective action by fisher's communities in fisheries management. It presents a different perspective from Elinor Ostrom's classic work on the eight institutional conditions that foster collective action in natural resource management and instead emphasizes the role of the state in fisheries co-management, engaging a state-centric notion of 'meta-governance'. It argues that first, the state is required to foster collective action by fishers; and secondly, that the current fisheries co-management arrangements are state-centric. The study develops these arguments through the analysis of three case studies in Japan, Vietnam and Norway. The author also makes a theoretical contribution to governance literature by developing Ostrom's 'society-centric' framework in a way which makes it more amenable to the analysis of state capacity and government intervention in a comparative context. This book will appeal to students and scholars of global governance, fisheries management, co-management, and crisis management, as well as practitioners of fisheries management.
"Makes you feel as if you're part of an engaging dinnertime conversation." --Science News Krill--it's a familiar word that conjures oceans, whales, and swimming crustaceans. Scientists say they are one of most abundant animals on the planet. But when pressed, few people can accurately describe krill or explain their ecological importance. Antarctic krill have used their extraordinary adaptive skills to survive and thrive for millions of years in a dark, icy world far from human interference. But with climate change melting ice caps at the top and bottom of the world, and increased human activity and pollution, their evolutionary flexibility to withstand these new pressures may not be enough. Eminent krill scientist Stephen Nicol wants us to know more about this enigmatic creature of the sea. He argues that it's critical to understand krill's complex biology in order to protect them as the krill fishing industry expands. This account of Antarctic krill-one of the largest of eighty-five krill species-takes us to the Southern Ocean to learn firsthand the difficulties and rewards of studying krill in its habitat. Nicol lays to rest the notion that krill are simply microscopic, shrimplike whale food but are in fact midway up the food chain, consumers of phytoplankton and themselves consumed by whales, seals, and penguins. From his early education about the sex lives of krill in the Bay of Fundy to a krill tattoo gone awry, Nicol uses humor and personal stories to bring the biology and beauty of krill alive. In the final chapters, he examines the possibility of an increasingly ice-free Southern Ocean and what that means for the fate of krill-and us. Ocean enthusiasts will come away with a newfound appreciation for the complex ecology of a species we have much to learn from, and many reasons to protect.
Amphibian species around the world are unusually vulnerable to a variety of threats, by no means all of which are properly understood. Volume 11 in this major series is published in parts devoted to the causes of amphibian decline and to conservation measures in regions of the world. This volume, Part 5 in the series, is concerned with Northern Europe (Luxembourg, Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Denmark). Each chapter has been written by experts from each country, describing the ecological background and the conservation status of affected species, with an emphasis on native species. As well as infectious diseases and parasites, threats take the form of introduced and invasive species, pollution, destruction and alteration of habitat, and climatic change. These are discussed as they affect each species. All these countries have monitoring schemes and conservation programs, whose origins and activities are described. Recommendations for action are also made. Edited by leading scholars in the field, Volume 11, when complete, will provide a definitive survey of the amphibian predicament and a stimulus to further research with the objective of arresting the global decline of an entire class of animal.
Beaked whales have been shrouded in mystery for most of the twentieth century. Denizens of deep, remote ocean waters and highly resistant to life in captivity, they have proven notoriously difficult for humans to observe. Over the past few decades, however, scientists have gained a better understanding of this distinct group of cetaceans, deciphering the natural history of the twenty-two beaked whale species. Here, famed artist and naturalist Richard Ellis and leading beaked whale researcher James G. Mead bring these elusive marine mammals into the limelight. Beaked whales' generous life spans can extend well past 70 years. They spend their decades diving to extreme depths in search of prey, which they capture by expanding their oral cavity suddenly to suck in the squid or fish they are hunting. It appears that these sleek predators may engage in fierce, clandestine aquatic battles, as the bodies of many males are covered in scars. Because many species are only somewhat larger than dolphins, they are often confused with porpoises; however, some larger beaked whale species may grow to 40 feet. These enigmatic and compelling creatures need our help; their numbers are declining, perhaps due to the damaging effects of naval sonar on their sophisticated auditory systems. In Ellis and Mead's book, the beaked whales finally get their due. The duo provides a combination of captivating stories about the species, original Richard Ellis art, and photos from leading natural history photographers. The result is an accessible, beautiful book-the first of its kind on this unusual group of cetaceans. Meet the beaked whales, and enjoy the fascinating and mysterious world in which they live.
For this second edition all chapters have been thoroughly revised, and the book is now published in A4 format. Most woodland management has been highly beneficial for wildlife over the centuries, creating habitats which have supported a diverse flora and fauna. These range from the temporary open areas created by coppicing to veteran trees in grazed parkland, Sadly, the second part of the 20th century witnessed a period of neglect resulting in the reversion of large areas of coppice, under-thinned plantations and the loss of open space; and little active conservation of old-growth features. As a consequence we have seen a serious decline in woodland diversity. Many people and organisations are now in a position to do something actively to help, either as owners or custodians of woodland. This beautifully illustrated book aims to offer practical advice for those managing smaller areas of woodland for wildlife. The authors begin by introducing different woodland types - woodland plants, insects, birds, mammals, reptiles, fungi and lichens and how different management strategies will affect them. The creation of woodland open space is given particular prominence, together with other ways of improving woodland for wildlife, from conserving deadwood to putting up bat boxes. This book will appeal to small woodland owners and others with an interest in woodland management, including land owners, conservation organisations, foresters, consultants, planners, local authorities and community groups.
The author proposed the satoumi concept, analogous to the satoyama concept on land, as coastal sea with high biodiversity and productivity in harmony with human interaction in 1998. The concept for environmental conservation in the coastal seas has been widely accepted and was included in the Japanese national policy of Strategy for Establishment of an Environmental Nation in 2007. This book is a translation of the author s Japanese book (2010) in response to concerns and questions about satoumi, including: Does biodiversity increase as a result of human interaction in coastal seas? Do the economics of fishing villages need to be considered in detail? What legal support is necessary for the creation of satoumi? Is there a relation between the concepts of God and Nature in satoumi? What is the relationship between fishermen and city dwellers? Chapter 1 presents the basic concept of satoumi. In Chapter 2 the relation between biodiversity and human interaction, economic problems related to satoumi, legal support for satoumi creation, satoumi" "from the point of view of landscape ecology, and the relation between society and science with regard to the satoumi movement are discussed. In Chapter 3 examples of satoumi creation in Japan are presented, andin Chapter 4 the overseas dissemination of the satoumi concept is introduced, with Chapter 5 providing the conclusion. Chapter 1 presents the basic concept of satoumi. In Chapter 2 the relation between biodiversity and human interaction, economic problems related to satoumi, legal support for satoumi creation, satoumi" "from the point of view of landscape ecology, and the relation between society and science with regard to the satoumi movement are discussed. In Chapter 3 examples of satoumi creation in Japan are presented, andin Chapter 4 the overseas dissemination of the satoumi concept is introduced, with Chapter 5 providing the conclusion. "
The conservation of biological diversity depends on people's knowledge and actions. This book presents the theory and practice for creating effective education and outreach programmes for conservation. The authors describe an exciting array of techniques for enhancing school resources, marketing environmental messages, using social media, developing partnerships for conservation, and designing on-site programmes for parks and community centres. Vivid case studies from around the world illustrate techniques and describe planning, implementation, and evaluation procedures, enabling readers to implement their own new ideas effectively. Conservation Education and Outreach Techniques, now in its second edition and updated throughout, includes twelve chapters illustrated with numerous photographs showing education and outreach programmes in action, each incorporating an extensive bibliography. Helpful text boxes provide practical tips, guidelines, and recommendations for further exploration of the chapter topics. This book will be particularly relevant to conservation scientists, resource managers, environmental educators, students, and citizen activists. It will also serve as a handy reference and a comprehensive text for a variety of natural resource and environmental professionals.
Updated, with stunning new photographs At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the impossible was delivered. From the sterile depths of a disused china clay pit in Cornwall rose one of the most remarkable and ambitious ventures in recent memory. The Eden Project's Biomes, the world's largest conservatories, are the symbol of a living theatre of plants and people and their interdependence, of regeneration and of a pioneering forum for the exploration of possible futures. This is the extraordinary story of the Eden Project, of its conception, design and construction, of the larger-than-life personalities who made it happen and of all that has happened since its doors were first opened to the public in 2001. It is now undisputedly one of the world's great gardens with more than 17 million visitors flocking there and projects and partnerships all over the world.
We are living in the early stages of a looming worldwide extinction crisis. Abundant evidence shows that the current rate of species extinctions is nearing its highest level since the asteroid collision 65 million years ago, and that humans are largely responsible. This book addresses the urgent need to understand and find solutions to this crisis. Written by an international team of contributors who are among the best-known and most active experimental biologists working in the field of conservation biology today, it provides a unique approach by focusing on individual species rather than whole plant and animal communities. Emphasizing throughout how conservation biology can benefit from an experimental approach, the book looks at a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic species - from giant pandas and tree snails to sea turtles and Steller sea lions - and demonstrates what can be done both to preserve rare species and to combat invasive organisms. Finally, contributors show how we can bridge the gap between policy makers and research scientists in order to develop lasting solutions to these problems.
Understanding the complex relationships between humans and the natural world is essential for achieving environmental sustainability and improving human well-being, yet many studies are unable to reveal complex interactions and hidden trends. This is the first book to synthesize the findings and approaches of long-term integrated research in a model coupled human and natural system, and to illustrate their applications to regional, national, and global scales. It features a classic long-term interdisciplinary research project in the Wolong Nature Reserve of China, which contains one of the largest wild populations of the world-famous endangered giant pandas. Bringing together a team of contributors from both the natural and social sciences, this book explores how a long-term interdisciplinary and model system approach is essential to uncover the common patterns and mechanisms of coupled systems, to develop ideas and methods for studying and managing other coupled systems, and ultimately to contribute to the development of theories about coupled systems for sustainability. Pandas and People will be essential reading for scholars interested in the interface of the natural and social sciences, including ecologists, conservation biologists, environmental scientists, sustainability scientists, wildlife biologists, forest scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, economists, and political scientists. It will also be a valuable reference for policy makers, natural resource managers, and graduate students.
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