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This title features writings from the battlefront of ideas over nature and wildness. Ten years ago, ""The Great New Wilderness Debate"" began a cross-disciplinary conversation about the varied constructions of 'wilderness' and the controversies that surrounded them. ""The Wilderness Debate Rages On"" will reinvigorate that conversation and usher in a second decade of debate.Like its predecessor, the book gathers both critiques and defenses of the idea of wilderness from a wide variety of perspectives and voices. ""The Wilderness Debate Rages On"" includes the best work done on the concept of wilderness over the past decade, underappreciated essays from the early twentieth century that offer an alternative vision of the concept and importance of wilderness, and writings meant to clarify or rethink the concept of wilderness. Narrative writers such as Wendell Berry, Scott Russell Sanders, Marilynne Robinson, Kathleen Dean Moore, and Lynn Laitala are also given a voice in order to show how the wilderness debate is expanding outside the academy.The writers represented in the anthology include ecologists, environmental philosophers, conservation biologists, cultural geographers, and environmental activists. The book begins with little-known papers by early twentieth-century ecologists advocating the preservation of natural areas for scientific study, not, as did Thoreau, Muir, and the early Leopold, for purposes of outdoor recreation. The editors argue that had these writers influenced the eventual development of federal wilderness policy, our national wilderness system would better serve contemporary conservation priorities for representative ecosystems and biodiversity.
The global expansion of aquaculture production and its future role as a food supplier to human society has environmental, social and economic limitations, affecting marine ecosystems and socio-economic scales from local to global. The expansion is closely linked with human health requirements and societal needs for various goods and services provided by marine ecosystems. This book provides a scientific forecast of the development in aquaculture with a focus on the environmental, technological, social and economic constraints that need to be resolved to ensure sustainable development of the industry and allow the industry to be able to feed healthy seafood products to the future generations. The chapters included discuss the most critical bottlenecks of the development encompassing subjects of understanding the environmental impacts, the current state-of-art in monitoring programs and in coastal zone management, the important interactions between wild and cultured organisms including release of non-native species into the wild, the current trends within the development of aquafeeds along with human health aspects as well as the political, socio-economic and economic trends within the industry including a chapter on approaches taken by Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) to aquaculture. Finally the last chapter provides different future scenarios of the industry based on the identified bottlenecks.
The contributions to this book were supported by the EC-funded SAMI project.
Mutualisms, interactions between two species that benefit both of them, have long captured the public imagination. Their influence transcends levels of biological organization from cells to populations, communities, and ecosystems. Mutualistic symbioses were crucial to the origin of eukaryotic cells, and perhaps to the invasion of land. Mutualisms occur in every terrestrial and aquatic habitat; indeed, ecologists now believe that almost every species on Earth is involved directly or indirectly in one or more of these interactions. Mutualisms are essential to the reproduction and survival of virtually all organisms, as well as to nutrient cycles in ecosystems. Furthermore, the key ecosystem services that mutualists provide mean that they are increasingly being considered as conservation priorities, ironically at the same time as the acute risks to their ecological and evolutionary persistence are increasingly being identified. This volume, the first general work on mutualism to appear in almost thirty years, provides a detailed and conceptually-oriented overview of the subject. Focusing on a range of ecological and evolutionary aspects over different scales (from individual to ecosystem), the chapters in this book provide expert coverage of our current understanding of mutualism whilst highlighting the most important questions that remain to be answered. In bringing together a diverse team of expert contributors, this novel text captures the excitement of a dynamic field that will help to define its future research agenda.
Wetlands serve many important functions and provide numerous ecological services such as clean water, wildlife habitat, nutrient reduction, and flood control. Wetland science is a relatively young discipline but is a rapidly growing field due to an enhanced understanding of the importance of wetlands and the numerous laws and policies that have been developed to protect these areas. This growth is demonstrated by the creation and growth of the Society of Wetland Scientists which was formed in 1980 and now has a membership of 3,500 people. It is also illustrated by the existence of 2 journals ("Wetlands" and "Wetlands Ecology and Management") devoted entirely to wetlands.
To date there has been no practical, comprehensive techniques book centered on wetlands, and written for wetland researchers, students, and managers. This techniques book aims to fill that gap. It is designed to provide an overview of the various methods that have been used or developed by researchers and practitioners to study, monitor, manage, or create wetlands. Including many methods usually found only in the peer-reviewed or gray literature, this 3-volume set fills a major niche for all professionals dealing with wetlands."
The National Vegetation Classification (NVC) has become the standard classification used for describing vegetation in Britain. It is a 'phytosociological' classification, classifying vegetation solely on the basis of the plant species of which it is composed. The NVC breaks down each broad vegetation type into communities. Many of these communities contain two or more sub-communities, in a few cases further divided into variants. The second volume of British Plant Communities (Rodwell, 1991) provides a detailed account of 38 mire communities and 22 heath communities, with information on their composition, structure and distribution. The summary descriptions here are derived directly from the full accounts prepared by John Rodwell but are in no way a substitute for them. Rather they are intended as an aide-memoire to assist surveyors in the field or for anyone else wishing to familiarise themselves with the overall scheme of classification for mires and heaths. This is a reprint edition (with no amendments) of ISBN 1-86107-526-X.
A practical guide to the management of habitat for invertebrates. Many invertebrates are highly specialised creatures with very precise habitat requirements. This means that they can be very sensitive indicators of environmental change. It also means that they can be lost from a site through small changes in management of their habitat. This book is a practical manual covering management for invertebrates: it provides guidelines to enable reserve managers and conservationists to take account of the vulnerable habitat features so important to invertebrates. The introduction gives an overview of British invertebrate species, site size and vegetation structure, management need of invertebrates and a summary of invertebrate survey methods. The author then deals, chapter-by-chapter, with each major habitat type: woodland, grasslands, lowland heaths, freshwater wetlands, and coastlands. This is a digital reprint of the 2001 edition (ISBN:0-901930-30-0) - there are no changes or updates from the 2001 edition.
This book deals with the fundamentals of key physiological mechanisms involved in the development and growth of fish larvae. Chapters included show how the environmental and nutritional conditions are affecting the developmental process from its molecular basis and how these same conditions also influence the final characteristics of late larvae and fry. This volume provides recent findings on the importance of environmental rhythms, some specific nutrients and the adequate microbial environment in the developmental processes including recent results of current research projects.
Expelled from Botswana for writing Cry of the Kalahari, the Owenses set off across Africa. They settled in Zambia, where they soon found their peace shattered by the gunfire of elephant poachers. This is the story of the couple's battle to save the elephants and their own lives.
Bats are highly charismatic and popular animals that are not only
fascinating in their own right, but illustrate most of the topical
and important concepts and issues in mammalian biology. This book
covers the key aspects of bat biology, including evolution, flight,
echolocation, hibernation, reproduction, feeding and roosting
ecology, social behaviour, migration, population and community
ecology, biogeography, and conservation.
The Canadian Environment in Political Context uses a non-technical approach to introduce environmental politics to undergraduate readers. The second edition features expanded chapters on wildlife, water, pollution, land, and energy. Beginning with a brief synopsis of environmental quality across Canada, the text moves on to examine political institutions and policymaking, the history of environmentalism in Canada, and other crucial issues including Indigenous peoples and the environment, as well as Canada's North. Enhanced with case studies, key words, and a comprehensive glossary, Olive's book addresses the major environmental concerns and challenges that Canada faces in the twenty-first century.
The jaguar is one of the most mysterious and least-known big cats of the world. The largest cat in the Americas, it has survived an onslaught of environmental and human threats partly because of an evolutionary history unique among wild felines, but also because of a power and indomitable spirit so strong, the jaguar has shaped indigenous cultures and the beliefs of early civilizations on two continents. In An Indomitable Beast: The Remarkable Journey of the Jaguar, big-cat expert Alan Rabinowitz shares his own personal journey to conserve a species that, despite its past resilience, is now on a slide toward extinction if something is not done to preserve the pathways it prowls through an ever-changing, ever-shifting landscape dominated by humans. Rabinowitz reveals how he learned from newly available genetic data that the jaguar was a single species connected genetically throughout its entire range from Mexico to Argentina, making it unique among all other large carnivores in the world. In a mix of personal discovery and scientific inquiry, he sweeps his readers deep into the realm of the jaguar, offering fascinating accounts from the field. Enhanced with maps, tables, and colour plates, An Indomitable Beast brings important new research to life for scientists, anthropologists, and animal lovers alike. This book is not only about jaguars, but also about tenacity and survival. From the jaguar we can learn better strategies for saving other species and also how to save ourselves when faced with immediate and long-term catastrophic changes to our environment.
Pick up virtually any textbook on vertebrate evolution and you will find mention of the curious reptile known as tuatara (Sphenodon). The special evolutionary status of tuatara as the last of the rhynchocephalians - one of the four orders of living reptiles - is unquestioned. Wild members of the sole living species are now restricted to a few dozen remote islands around the New Zealand coast, where for several centuries they have been observed and studied by humans. But are tuatara really unchanged "living fossils", or close relatives of dinosaurs, as sometimes portrayed? This is the first detailed monograph in decades about this enigmatic reptile, and the first to be illustrated in color throughout. The evolution, natural history, and conservation of tuatara are covered in comprehensive detail, providing a valuable resource for the specialist yet in a style accessible to a wide readership. The special place of tuatara in Maori and popular culture is also considered. Tuatara have survived alongside humans for more than 700 years, though with their numbers much reduced: what are their future prospects in a globally changing world? In this book, Alison Cree brings her personal experience of tuatara on more than 14 islands, in ecosanctuaries, and in captivity, to this wide-ranging overview.
A fierce, poignant and highly original memoir about sexuality, shame and the lure of the trees 'A brave and beautiful book, electrifying on sex and nature, religion and love. No one is writing quite like this. I'm so glad Luke Turner exists' OLIVIA LAING, author of THE LONELY CITY and CRUDO 'Refreshing, frank, edifying, courageous . . . I was quite emotional by the end. Luke Turner is a serious thinker and a unique and important new voice' AMY LIPTROT, author of THE OUTRUN After the disintegration of the most significant relationship of his life, the demons Luke Turner has been battling since childhood are quick to return - depression and guilt surrounding his identity as a bisexual man, experiences of sexual abuse, and the religious upbringing that was the cause of so much confusion. It is among the trees of London's Epping Forest where he seeks refuge. But once a place of comfort, it now seems full of unexpected, elusive threats that trigger twisted reactions. No stranger to compulsion, Luke finds himself drawn again and again to the woods, eager to uncover the strange secrets that may be buried there as he investigates an old family rumour of illicit behaviour. Away from a society that still struggles to cope with the complexities of masculinity and sexuality, Luke begins to accept the duality that has provoked so much unrest in his life - and reconcile the expectations of others with his own way of being. OUT OF THE WOODS is a dazzling, devastating and highly original memoir about the irresistible yet double-edged potency of the forest, and the possibility of learning to find peace in the grey areas of life.
This book discusses the findings of research on the human dimensions of wildlife management conducted in Japan, demonstrating how such research and approaches have contributed to mitigating human-wildlife conflicts. Human-wildlife conflicts, including agricultural and property damage as well as occasional casualties, are a global problem for which local residents, managers, and stakeholders around the world are struggling to find solutions. Human dimensions of wildlife management (HDW) is an academic field developed in North America in the 1970s to gather information on the social aspects of human-wildlife issues to help wildlife managers and stakeholders implement effective decision-making measures. However, HDW is not widely recognized or applied outside North America, and few studies have investigated whether HDW approaches would be effective in different cultural settings.This is the first book written in English to introduce the HDW theories and practices implemented in Asia. Presenting innovative approaches and research techniques, as well as tips on how to introduce HDW methods into culturally different societies, it is a valuable resource not only for researchers and students in this field, but also for government officials/managers, NGOs, residents and other stakeholders who are affected by human-wildlife conflicts around the globe.
This spectacularly illustrated book is the only complete guide to the wildlife and natural history of the vast and beautiful Antarctic region. Covering the Antarctic continent, the southern ocean, and the subantarctic islands, this guide illustrates all of the region's breeding birds and marine mammals with stunning colour photographs. In addition to the colour plates, it features distribution maps and up-to-date species accounts expertly detailing abundance, seasonal status, and conservation prospects. The volume also covers numerous nonbreeding species, migrants, and vagrants. Regional chapters describe all of the subantarctic islands, in addition to most regularly visited sites in Antarctica, and are accompanied by maps of each area and photographs of each locale. These chapters present detailed information on geography, climate, geology, general ecology, and flora. They also address conservation efforts - past, present, and planned. The book concludes with practical information about visiting the area, including details on the best-available landing sites and notes on seasonal weather conditions. This is an indispensable companion for a trip far south, as well as an informative volume for anyone interested in the Antarctic region's remarkable, occasionally strange, and frequently beautiful animals.
Today, the East African state of Tanzania is renowned for wildlife preserves such as the Serengeti National Park, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, and the Selous Game Reserve. Yet few know that most of these initiatives emerged from decades of German colonial rule. This book gives the first full account of Tanzanian wildlife conservation up until World War I, focusing upon elephant hunting and the ivory trade as vital factors in a shift from exploitation to preservation that increasingly excluded indigenous Africans. Analyzing the formative interactions between colonial governance and the natural world, The Nature of German Imperialism situates East African wildlife policies within the global emergence of conservationist sensibilities around 1900.
The Tasmanian devil is threatened by Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a transmissible form of cancer that has reduced the population by over 80%. Hunting, extreme climate events, vehicle collision and habitat destruction also put pressure on this endangered species. The recovery effort to save the Tasmanian devil commenced over 15 years ago as a collaborative initiative between the Tasmanian government, the Australian government, the Zoo and Aquarium Association Australasia, and many research institutions. Saving the Tasmanian Devil documents the journey taken by partner organisations in discovering what DFTD is, the effect it has on wild devil populations, and the outcomes achieved through research and management actions. Chapters describe all aspects of devil conservation, including the captive devil populations, applied pathology, immunology and genetic research findings, adaptive management, and the importance of advocacy and partnerships. This book will provide management practitioners and conservation scientists with insight into the complexities of undertaking a program of this scale, and will also be of value to researchers, students and others interested in conservation.
A New Statesman Book of the Year
The wolf stands at the forefront of the debate about our impact on the natural world. In one of the most celebrated successes of modern conservation, it has been reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park.
What unfolds is a riveting multi-generational saga, at the centre of which is O-Six, a charismatic alpha female beloved by park rangers and amateur spotters alike. As elk numbers decline and the wolf population rises, those committed to restoring an iconic landscape clash with those fighting for a vanishing way of life; hunters stalk the park fringes and O-Six’s rivals seek to bring an end to her dominance of the stunningly beautiful Lamar Valley.
Although some credit the environmental movement of the 1970s, with
its profound impact on children's television programs and movies,
for paving the way for later eco-films, the history of
environmental expression in animated film reaches much further back
in American history, as "That's All Folks?" makes clear.
In the last 50 years marine conservation has grown from almost nothing to become a major topic of global activity involving many people and organisations. Marine conservation activities have been applied to a huge diversity of species, habitats, ecosystems and whole seas. Many marine conservation actions have focused on human impacts on the marine environment from development and pollution to the impacts of fisheries. Whilst science has provided the backbone of thinking on marine conservation, perhaps the biggest change over this period has been the use of an ever-increasing range of techniques and disciplines to further marine conservation ends. Bob Earll explores what marine conservation involves in practice by providing a synthesis of the main developments from the viewpoints of 19 leading practitioners and pioneers who have helped shape its progress and successes. Their narratives highlight the diversity and richness of activity, and the realities of delivering marine conservation in practice with reference to a host of projects and case studies. Many of these narratives demonstrate how innovative conservationists have been - often developing novel approaches to problems where little information and no frameworks exist. The case studies described are based on a wide range of European and international projects. This book takes an in-depth look at the reality of delivering marine conservation in practice, where achieving change is often a complicated process, with barriers to overcome that have nothing to do with science. Marine conservationists will often be working with stakeholders for whom marine conservation is not a priority. This book aims to help readers describe and understand those realities, and shows that successful and inspirational projects can be delivered against the odds.
In 2006, one of the hottest years on record, a 'pizzly' was discovered near the top of the world. Half polar bear, half grizzly, this never-before-seen animal might be dismissed as a fluke of nature. Anthony Barnosky instead sees it as a harbinger of things to come. In "Heatstroke", the renowned paleoecologist shows how global warming is fundamentally changing the natural world and its creatures. While melting ice may have helped produce the pizzly, climate change is more likely to wipe out species than to create them. Plants and animals that have followed the same rhythms for millennia are suddenly being confronted with a world they're unprepared for - and adaptation usually isn't an option. This is not the first time climate change has dramatically transformed Earth. Barnosky draws connections between the coming centuries and the end of the last ice age, when mass extinctions swept the planet. The differences now are that climate change is faster and hotter than past changes, and for the first time humanity is driving it. Which means this time we can work to stop it. No one knows exactly what nature will come to look like in this new age of global warming. But "Heatstroke" gives us a haunting portrait of what we stand to lose and the vitality of what can be saved.
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