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This book discusses the beneficial and harmful effects of insects and explains their development and significance for biodiversity.Threatening pests or threatened beneficials? Biting midges are wonderful insects. The animals are so tiny and uniquely shaped that they are particularly good at pollinating the small and tight flowers of the cocoa tree. Without them, there would be much less chocolate. We associate other insects more with the damage that they cause. Mosquitoes and wasps bite us. Moth larvae damage textiles and contaminate foods. Ants undermine our paths and flies are just a pain.But what exactly is our relationship with insects? Are they more beneficial or harmful? What role do they play in the world? What are the effects of climate change: Will the number of insects continue to increase?
The first edition of Mike Alexander s "Management Planning for Nature Conservation," brought a new dimension to the modern literature on conservation management. This second edition, a significant enhancement of the original, deals with the development both, conceptual and practical, of adaptive management planning for nature conservation. It is about preparing management plans, and guides the reader through the entire process. Case-studies, including a conservation and access plan, demonstrate the planning process in action. This approach to planning can be applied to any place which is managed entirely, or in part, for wildlife. It can be applied to the management of species or habitats in any circumstance, regardless of site designation. The process is fully compatible with the Convention on Biological Diversity s ecosystem approach to conservation management.
Mike Alexander has long been at the forefront of developing management planning for conservation, with experience ranging from Uganda to Estonia, and from Costa Rica to Wales. He is the General Secretary of the Conservation Management System Consortium, a group of organisations with a common aim of raising standards and developing best practice in conservation management and planning. In 2012 Mike Alexander was elected a Fellow of the Society of Biology in recognition of his contribution to nature conservation and in particular management planning.
This book has drawn on the experiences and expertise of the CMS consortium and other leaders in both conservation research and wildlife management from around the world. It is essential reading for professional conservation managers and any student studying management planning for conservation within a range of degree and postgraduate courses."
"Fascinating but frightening, compelling and concerning ... this book brings together all you need to know about how the climate is impacting wildlife." CHRIS PACKHAM There is no escaping the fact that the British climate is changing, and our wildlife is changing with it. In this remarkable account, Trevor Beebee examines the story so far for our plant, fungi and animal species. Warmer and wetter winters, combined with longer summers, have worked to the advantage of plants such as the rare Lady Orchid, and a whole range of insects. The UK is also hosting new arrivals that come in on the wing. But there is adversity, too. Alpine plants and seabirds - particularly Kittiwakes - are suffering declines as our countryside warms. Given the evidence so far, can we predict what the future holds for our British ecosystems?
The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland provides comprehensive coverage of all our resident and migratory butterflies, including the latest information on newly discovered species such as Cryptic Wood White and the Geranium Bronze. When first published in 1991 it won the Natural World Book of the Year Award and won plaudits from all quarters. Fully revised, considerably expanded and reset in 2010, it was judged that year's Guardian Nature Book of the Year. Now revised again to reflect the latest research findings, and with up-to-date distribution maps, this remarkable book is THE guide to the appearance, behaviour, life cycle and ecology of the butterflies of Britain and Ireland.
The book addresses this critical need by providing a straightforward and easy to read primer to key elements of at-risk butterfly conservation programs including captive husbandry, organism reintroduction, habitat restoration, population monitoring, recovery planning and cooperative programs. Impacts from habitat loss and fragmentation, invasive species, and climate change continue to accelerate the rate of imperilment and necessitate increased conservation action. Zoos, natural history museums, botanical gardens and wildlife agencies are progressively focusing on insects, particularly charismatic groups such as butterflies and native pollinators, to help advance local conservation efforts and foster increased community interest and engagement. Today, many institutions and their partners have successfully initiated at-risk butterfly conservation programs, and numerous others are exploring ways to become involved. However, insufficient experience and familiarity with insects is a critical constraint preventing staff and institutions from adequately planning, implementing and evaluating organism-targeted activities. The information provided is intended to improve staff practices, learn from existing programs, promote broader information exchange, and strengthen institutional ability to develop new or improve existing butterfly conservation initiatives. The information provided is intended to improve staff practices, learn from existing programs, promote broader information exchange, and strengthen institutional ability to develop new or improve existing butterfly conservation initiatives.This book will be useful to professionals from zoos, natural history museums, botanical gardens, wildlife agencies, conservation organizations, land managers, students, and scientist in conservation biology, ecology, entomology, biology, and zoology.
This volume examines the topic of local biodiversity conservation in the Asia-Pacific region, one of the most rapidly changing areas in the world. With a focus on aquatic systems, this book offers insight on the state of local biodiversity, challenges in management and conservation of biodiversity, and newly developed methods for monitoring biodiversity. In addition, because the service provided by an ecosystem for humans is interlinked with conservation, the final part is dedicated to evaluating the socioeconomic aspect of ecosystem services, with special reference to local biodiversity. In effect, all contributions provide information that is invaluable for effective conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. This work will interest all stakeholders in biodiversity conservation, including policy makers, NPOs, NGOs, environment-related industries, and biodiversity researchers, not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also across the entire globe.
Back from the Brink, written by leading international conservationists, presents species that have been saved from the "brink of extinction" through the resolve and collaborative initiatives of individuals, communities, organizations, and governments over the past decades.Along with awe-inspiring photographs, the book presents in-depth profiles of 25 threatened species and in all includes the stories of nearly 100 species - some formerly believed extinct but now successfully rescued. The detailed information underscores the urgent need to work together to prevent further loss of nature's diversity and beauty and to mitigate the causes of climate change. As ongoing destruction, degradation, and fragmentation of the planet's natural ecosystems increase to make way for human populations, this volume clearly demonstrates every society's obligation to ensure the right balance between urban growth and natural ecosystems.The beauty in these pages serves as an aspiration for our collective work and our shared future.
This book is a celebration of the wildlife and landscapes of Britain's most vital wildlife habitats - those that make up our coastline. Sheer limestone crags resound with the voices of thousands of bickering seabirds; endless acres of estuarine mud are packed with squirming invertebrates that sustain thousands of wading birds. In between are the dazzling chalk outcrops of the south coast with glorious floral communities on the clifftop meadows, shingle beaches where terns and plovers hide their eggs among the stones, and dune systems bound together with marram grass and supporting a unique and fragile ecosystem. Rocky shores harbour microcosms of marine life when the retreating tide leaves rockpools exposed for our exploration, and even the rowdiest seaside towns have their own special wildlife alongside the wild nightlife. Grand-scale colour photos bring the wild coast and its inhabitants to life, while the text tells you what you'll see and where, from Land's End to John O'Groats via the scenic route. Beautifully illustrated with colour photographs and authoritative text, this book is a celebration of the wilder aspects of the UK's coasts.
Since early on in the development of wind-energy production, concerns have arisen about the potential impacts of turbines to wildlife; these concerns have especially focused on the mortality of birds. Structural changes and improved turbine design have been instrumental in reducing mortality in birds. Despite the improvements to turbines that have resulted in reduced mortality of birds, there is clear evidence that bat mortality at wind turbines is of far greater conservation concern. Larger and taller turbines actually seem to be causing increased fatalities of bats. Numerous research opportunities exist that pertain to issues such as identifying the best and worst placement of sites for turbines; and mitigation strategies that would minimise impacts to wildlife (birds and bats). This book focuses on refereed journal publications and theses about bats and wind-energy development in North America.
This collection is essential reading for multiple groups and interested parties - scientists, scholars, graduate students, wildlife managers, and members and leaders of Indigenous communities.
Savannah habitats comprise an ecologically important, but ultimately fragile, ecosystem. They constitute one of the largest biomes on Earth, covering almost 20% of the land surface, and can be simply described as tropical and subtropical grasslands with scattered bushes and trees. Most savannahs occur in Africa, although smaller areas can be found in South America, India, and Australia. They form a rich mosaic of diverse ecosystems, and this book offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to their ecology, biodiversity, and conservation. The Biology of African Savannahs describes the major plants (grasses, and trees such as Acacia) and animals (mainly large mammals) that live in this habitat, and examines the biological and ecological factors that influence their population size, interactions (such as predation), and community composition. Conservation issues such as climate change, hunting, and conflict between wildlife and domestic animals are also discussed. This new edition has been updated throughout with the latest research in the field, and contains new technique boxes which introduce readers to some of the analytical methods used to study African savannahs. This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in savannah and tropical ecology as part of a wider ecology and/or conservation biology degree programme. It will also be of relevance and use to the many professional ecologists and conservation practitioners requiring a concise but authoritative overview of the topic.
In New Mexico's Gila Wilderness, 83 Mexican gray wolves may be some of the most monitored wildlife on the planet. Collared, microchipped, and transported by helicopter, the wolves are protected and confined in an attempt to appease ranchers and conservationists alike. Once a symbol of the wild, these wolves have come to illustrate the demise of wilderness in this Human Age, where man's efforts shape life in even the most remote corners of the earth. And yet, the howl of an unregistered wolf, half of a rogue pair, splits the night. If you know where to look, you'll find that much remains untamed, and even today, wildness can remain a touchstone for our relationship with the rest of nature. In Satellites in the High Country, journalist and adventurer Jason Mark travels beyond the bright lights and certainties of our cities to seek wildness wherever it survives. In California's Point Reyes National Seashore, a battle over oyster farming and designated wilderness pits former allies against one another, as locals wonder whether wilderness should be untouched, farmed, or something in between. In Washington's Cascade Mountains, a modern-day wild woman and her students learn to tan hides and start fires without matches, attempting to connect with a primal past out of reach for the rest of society. And in Colorado's High Country, dark skies and clear air reveal a breathtaking expanse of stars, flawed only by the arc of a satellite passing - beauty interrupted by the traffic of a million conversations. These expeditions to the edges of civilization's grid show us that, although our notions of pristine nature may be shattering, the mystery of the wild still exists, and in fact, it is more crucial than ever. But wildness is wily as a coyote: you have to be willing to track it to understand the least thing about it. Satellites in the High Country is an epic journey on the trail of the wild, a poetic and incisive exploration of its meaning and enduring power in our Human Age.
Freshwater Ecology, Third Edition, covers everything from the basic chemical and physical properties of water, to the advanced and unifying concepts of community ecology and ecosystem relationships found in continental waters. Giving students a solid foundation for both courses and future fieldwork, and updated to include key issues, including how to balance ecological and human health needs, GMOs, molecular tools, fracking, and a host of other environmental issues, this book is an ideal resource for both students and practitioners in ecology and related fields.
From climate change to species extinction, humanity is confronted with an increasing array of societal and environmental challenges that defy simple quantifiable solutions. Complexity-based ecology provides a new paradigm for ecologists and conservationists keen to embrace the uncertainty that is pressed upon us. This book presents key research papers chosen by some sixty scholars from various continents, across a diverse span of sub-disciplines. The papers are set alongside first person commentary from many of the seminal voices involved, offering unprecedented access to experts' viewpoints. The works assembled also shed light on the process of science in general, showing how the shifting of wider perspectives allows for new ideas to take hold. Ideal for undergraduate and advanced students of ecology and conservation, their educators and those working across allied fields, this is the first book of its kind to focus on complexity-based approaches and provides a benchmark for future collected volumes.
"Conservation of Tropical Birds" has been written by four conservation biologists whose expertise spans all the tropical regions of the world. It is the first book to cover all the major issues in tropical bird conservation. Current problems faced by tropical bird conservationists are summarised and potential solutions outlined based on the results of case studies.
Birds are key indicators of ecosystem health, and such a well-studied group of organisms, that they provide an excellent lens through which to examine global conservation problems caused by phenomena such as climate change, declines in ecosystem services, habitat loss, fires, overexploitation, and invasive species. Therefore, the book also provides an engaging synopsis of the general issues in conservation and the problems faced by other wildlife.
This book serves as an important resource and companion to all people interested in observing and conserving birds in the tropics and elsewhere.
Celebrating the beauty, diversity, and significance of the state's natural landscapes, Wild North Carolina provides an engaging, beautifully illustrated introduction to North Carolina's interconnected webs of plant and animal life. From dunes and marshes to high mountain crags, through forests, swamps, savannas, ponds, pocosins, and flatrocks, David Blevins and Michael Schafale reveal in words and photographs natural patterns of the landscape that will help readers see familiar places in a new way and new places with a sense of familiarity. Wild North Carolina introduces the full range of the state's diverse natural communities, each brought to life with compelling accounts of their significance and meaning, arresting photographs featuring broad vistas and close-ups, and details on where to go to experience them first hand. Blevins and Schafale provide nature enthusiasts of all levels with the insights they need to value the state's natural diversity, highlighting the reasons plants and animals are found where they are, as well as the challenges of conserving these special places. |Celebrating the beauty, diversity, and significance of the state's natural landscapes, this book provides an engaging, beautifully illustrated introduction to North Carolina's interconnected webs of plant and animal life. Blevins and Schafale reveal in words and photographs natural patterns of the landscape that will help readers see familiar places in a new way and new places with a sense of familiarity.
From flat-topped acacia trees to great migrations of wildebeest across an edgeless expanse of grass, the Serengeti is one of the world's most renowned ecosystems. And at the apex of this incredible landscape prowls its seemingly indomitable ruler: the Serengeti lion. These majestic mammals are skillful hunters, iconic, and integral to Serengeti health. But they also commit infanticide, eat local people and destroy local livelihoods, are a source of profit for those who make money shooting or conserving them (and sometimes both), and are in constant danger from the encroachments of another species: humans. With Lions in the Balance, celebrated lion researcher and conservationist Craig Packer takes us back into the complex, tooth-and-claw worlds of lion conservation and behavior. A sequel to Packer's Into Africa-which gave many readers their first experience of field work in Africa, of Tanzanian roads, of long hours spent identifying lions by their ear marks and scars, and of the joys of bootlegged Grateful Dead tapes beneath savannah moons-this diary-based chronicle of adventure, real-life danger, and corruption will both alarm and entertain. Packer's story offers a look into the future of the lion, one in which the politics of conservation will require survival strategies far more creative and powerful than any now possessed by the citizens of the savannah-humans included. Packer is sure to infuriate poachers, politicians, and conservationists alike as he minces no words about the problems he sees. But with a narrative stretching from Arusha to Washington, DC, and marked by Packer's signature humor and incredible candor, Lions in the Balance is a tale of courage against impossible odds, a masterly blend of science and storytelling, and an urgent call to action that will captivate a pride of readers.
Back in the 1980s nature conservation was regarded as largely a rural issue concerned with the preservation of a dwindling series of unspoiled sections of landscape and their wildlife. In parallel, the focus of urban nature conservation was on creation or restoration of damaged parts of the environment. Now, well into the millennium the experience of urban habitat conservation has been followed throughout the UK, which in turn has led to green infrastructure becoming an important part of urban planning and people's well-being, and a sustainable managed landscape is understood to be valuable to the economy. Anyone can use this handy pocketbook, and it will appeal to wildlife gardeners and designers, woodsmen, farmers and land managers, park-keepers and groundsmen, school teachers, parish and local authority planners end environmental officers.
This textbook provides a comprehensive, reliable and practical guide to the dissection and parasitological examination of marine fish and cephalopods. The first part provides a general introduction, presenting basic information on: parasitology, ecology of the marine environment, history and methods of fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the ecology of marine fish and cephalopods and the impact of parasites on hosts. In turn, the second part provides general information on the morphology and anatomy of marine fish and cephalopods using the example of abundant morphotypes (including e.g. habitus photos of the body cavity and internal organs). The third part covers the relevant parasitic groups, their ecology (e.g. lifecycles, transmission), related diseases, and detection. The fourth part, a comprehensive methods section, provides essential protocols and applications of common dissection methods (for roundfish, flatfish and cephalopods) and stomach content analyses, as well as parasite preservation, preparation and molecular identification. Basic calculations of the most common infection and ecological parameters are also introduced. The book's fifth and final part provides information on health risks associated with fish and cephalopod consumption, as well as the prevention of human infection through the correct handling and processing of fish samples. The appendix provides e.g. blank sheets for recording fish dissections and parasitological examinations.
The work summarizes the current knowledge regarding the controlled reproduction of an emerging aquaculture species, the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). In great detail it describes and explains the principal of most of the controlled reproductive protocol leading to obtain high quality larvae. The book is primarily intended to be used as a hatchery manual by practicing aquaculturists and laboratory technicians working with this species. On the other hand, it also summarizes the scientific background of the methods applied, therefore, it can serve as a reference for the state-of-the-art in the controlled reproduction of Eurasian perch and other freshwater percid species.
The second edition of this widely cited textbook continues to provide a concise but comprehensive introduction to cave and subterranean biology, describing this fascinating habitat and its biodiversity. It covers a range of biological processes including ecosystem function, evolution and adaptation, community ecology, biogeography, and conservation. The authors draw on a global range of examples and case studies from both caves and non-cave subterranean habitats. One of the barriers to the study of subterranean biology has been the extraordinarily large number of specialized terms used by researchers; the authors explain these terms clearly and minimize the number that they use. This new edition retains the same 10 chapter structure of the original, but the content has been thoroughly revised and updated throughout to reflect the huge increase in publications concerning subterranean biology over the last decade.
Arthropods are invertebrates that constitute over 90% of the animal kingdom, and their bio-ecology is closely linked with global functioning and survival. Arthropods play an important role in maintaining the health of ecosystems, provide livelihoods and nutrition to human communities, and are important indicators of environmental change. Yet the population trends of several arthropods species show them to be in decline. Arthropods constitute a dominant group with 1.2 million species influencing earth's biodiversity. Among arthropods, insects are predominant, with ca. 1 million species and having evolved some 350 million years ago. Arthropods are closely associated with living and non-living entities alike, making the ecosystem services they provide crucially important. In order to be effective, plans for the conservation of arthropods and ecosystems should include a mixture of strategies like protecting key habitats and genomic studies to formulate relevant policies for in situ and ex situ conservation. This two-volume book focuses on capturing the essentials of arthropod inventories, biology, and conservation.Further, it seeks to identify the mechanisms by which arthropod populations can be sustained in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and by means of which certain problematic species be managed without producing harmful environmental side-effects. This edited compilation includes chapters contributed by over 80 biologists on a wide range of topics embracing the diversity, distribution, utility and conservation of arthropods and select groups of insect taxa. More importantly, it describes in detail the mechanisms of sustaining arthropod ecosystems, services and populations. It addresses the contribution of modern biological tools such as molecular and genetic techniques regulating gene expression, as well as conventional, indigenous practices in arthropod conservation. The contributors reiterate the importance of documenting and understanding the biology of arthropods from a holistic perspective before addressing conservation issues at large. This book offers a valuable resource for all zoologists, entomologists, ecologists, conservation biologists, policy makers, teachers and students interested in the conservation of biological resources.
Throughout British history rivers have been of profound economic, social and cultural importance - yet as we see with increasing frequency they have the potential to wreak great destruction. This book describes the natural and not-so-natural changes that have affected British rivers since the last ice age and looks at the many plants and animals that live along, above and within them. Detailed case studies of the Meon, Dee and Endrick illustrate the incredibly varied nature of our river ecosystems, and the natural and human factors that make each one different. Written by two widely respected river ecologists, the book looks not only at rivers as they were and are but also at how they can be managed and cared for. Full of interesting facts and stunning images, Rivers is essential reading for anyone professionally involved in rivers and for the naturalist, conservationist and layman alike. It is the one book you need to understand this singularly important and often contentious feature of the British landscape.
This practical handbook of reptile field ecology and conservation brings together a distinguished, international group of reptile researchers to provide a state-of-the-art review of the many new and exciting techniques used to study reptiles. The authors describe ecological sampling techniques and how they are implemented to monitor the conservation status and population trends of snakes, lizards, tuatara, turtles, and crocodilians throughout the world. Emphasis is placed on the extent of statistical inference and the biases associated with different techniques and analyses. The chapters focus on the application of field research and data analysis for achieving an understanding of reptile life history, population dynamics, movement patterns, thermal ecology, conservation status, and the relationship between reptiles and their environment. The book emphasises the need for thorough planning, and demonstrates how a multi-dimensional approach incorporates information related to morphology, genetics, molecular biology, epidemiology, statistical modelling, animal welfare, and biosecurity. Although accentuating field sampling, sections on experimental applications in laboratories and zoos, thermal ecology, genetics, landscape ecology, disease and biosecurity, and management options are included. Much of this information is scattered in the scientific literature or not readily available, and the intention is to provide an affordable, comprehensive synthesis for use by graduate students, researchers, and practising conservationists worldwide.
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