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In 1990 an expedition of Cambridge scientists arrived at the Plains of Nechisar, tucked between the hills of the Great Rift Valley in the Gamo Gofa province in the country of Ethiopia. On that expedition, 315 species of birds were seen; 61 species of mammal and 69 species of butterfly were identified; 20 species of dragonflies and damselflies; 17 reptile species were recorded; three frog species were filed; plants were listed. And the wing of a road-killed bird was packed into a brown paper bag. It was to become the most famous wing in the world.At British Natural History Museum in Tring, the wing set the world of science aflutter. It seemed that the wing was unique, but they questioned, can you name a species for the first time based only on the description of a wing, based on just one wing? After much to and fro, confirmation was unanimous, and the new species was announced, Nechisar Nightjar, Caprimulgus solala, (solus: only and ala: wing).And birdwatchers like Vernon began to dream. Twenty-two years later an expedition of four led by Ian Sinclair set off to try to find this rarest bird in the world. Vernon R.L.Head captivates and enchants as he tells of the adventures of Ian, Dennis, Gerry and himself as they navigate the wilderness of the plains, searching by spotlight for the elusive Nechisar Nightjar. But this book is more than a boy's own adventure in search of the rarest bird in the world. It is a meditation on nature, on ways of seeing, on the naming of things and why we feel so compelled to label. It is a story of friendships and camaraderie. But most of all it embraces and enfolds one into the curious and eye-opening world of the birdwatcher. For birdwatchers, twitchers, bird lovers, and about-to-become birdwatchers everywhere.
Prepared by two of the leading figures in wildlife biology, this book gathers in one volume the most influential articles published in the field. Paul R. Krausman and Bruce D. Leopold have collected the forty-two papers that every wildlife student should read. Each piece is introduced with a commentary that explains why it is important and a brief listing of papers that inspired or were inspired by the classic. Practical and conceptual topics consider every aspect of the wildlife profession, including ethics. Ideal for use as a textbook, "Essential Readings in Wildlife Management and Conservation" is divided into four sections: the philosophical roots of wildlife management, biology, habitat, and human dimensions.
Contains the classic publications of
K. T. Adair, R. A. Baer, L. C. Birch, W. H. Burt, L. H. Carpenter, G. Caughley, T. C. Chamberlin, E. L. Charnov, L. C. Chase, F. E. Clements, L. C. Cole, J. H. Connell, R. N. Conner, Z. J. Cornett, P. D. Dalke, D. J. Decker, L. R. Dice, J. G. Dickson, D. F. Doak, P. R. Ehrlich, R. Y. Edwards, C. S. Elton, P. L. Errington, D. Esler, C. D. Fowle, T. A. Gavin, V. Geist, M. Gilpin, H. A. Gleason, J. Grinnell, J. P. Hailman, G. Hardin, N. T. Hobbs, C. S. Holling, S. S. Hutchings, D. H. Johnson, S. R. Kellert, R. H. Klopfer, B. A. Knuth, C. C. Kreuger, A. Leopold, R. L. Lindeman, C. A. Loker, R. H. MacArthur, J. Macnab, S. P. Mahoney, G. F. Mattfield, D. R. McCullough, S. L. Mills, A. J. Nicholson, J. F. Organ, R. T. Paine, G. Parsons, M. E. Richmond, S. J. Riley, S. J. Schwager, V. E. Shelford, W. F. Siemer, D. S. Simberloff, M. E. Soule, G. Stewart, J. W. Thomas, B. Van Horne, S. C. Wecker, E. O. Wilson
The work summarizes the current knowledge regarding the controlled reproduction of an emerging aquaculture species, the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). In great detail it describes and explains the principal of most of the controlled reproductive protocol leading to obtain high quality larvae. The book is primarily intended to be used as a hatchery manual by practicing aquaculturists and laboratory technicians working with this species. On the other hand, it also summarizes the scientific background of the methods applied, therefore, it can serve as a reference for the state-of-the-art in the controlled reproduction of Eurasian perch and other freshwater percid species.
Written by an author with longstanding experience in the ecology of insects and birds and with a stellar academic record in molecular life sciences, this is a welcome challenge to the widely held beliefs in conventional environmental policies. Werner Kunz convincingly explains why maintaining high biodiversity in Europe depends heavily on the existence of open space and sparse ground vegetation that is neither used for intensive modern agriculture, nor eliminated by reforestation. He questions the commonly propagated opinion that nature conservation is equivalent to species protection - and shows that technical habitat design can rescue endangered species. A must-have for environmental agencies, policy makers, ecologists and all who are witnessing the current loss of species in Central Europe.
Just like humans, animals and plants suffer from infectious diseases, which can critically threaten biodiversity. This book describes key studies that have driven our understanding of the ecology and evolution of wildlife diseases. Each chapter introduces the host and disease, and explains how that system has aided our general understanding of the evolution and spread of wildlife diseases, through the development and testing of important epidemiological and evolutionary theories. Questions addressed include: How do hosts and parasites co-evolve? What determines how fast a disease spreads through a population? How do co-infecting parasites interact? Why do hosts vary in parasite burden? Which factors determine parasite virulence and host resistance? How do parasites influence the spread of invasive species? How do we control infectious diseases in wildlife? This book will provide a valuable introduction to students new to the topic, and novel insights to researchers, professionals and policymakers working in the field.
Devoted to birds and wildlife since childhood, Mark's early scientific research at Oxford, Aberdeen and the RSPB provided a solid background for his management, ambassadorial, and political lobbying activities which were to follow - and his larger than life, yet quietly humane personality has provided the final tools in his own, unique, nature conservationists' toolbox. In this book, Mark mixes a great many stories from his professional life at the RSPB with personal anecdotes and passionate arguments on past and present issues in bird and nature conservation. He shows us something of the many scientists whose work paves the way for conservation action, places domestic conservation into an international context, takes us behind the scenes to glimpse the politicians who have worked with him, or against him, along the way. Mark leaves us armed with practical tips and a guiding philosophy to take wildlife conservation though the troubled years that lie ahead. A personal, philosophical and political history of 25 years of bird conservation, this book provides an instructive and amusing read for all those who would like a glimpse into the birds and wildlife conservation world - what the issues are, what must be done, how it can be done, and the challenges, highs and lows involved.
'Read this book, think and then act - it's our only hope.' Chris Packham, MCS Ocean Ambassador Thank you for choosing this book - it shows that you care about the future of our planet. Whether you decide to go plastic free for an hour, a day or a year, this book will equip you with little steps we can each take to make a big difference. Let's turn the tide on plastic now - our oceans will thank you for it. Choking. Starving. Poisoning. This is what plastic litter is doing to marine life. Our oceans are, quite simply, facing environmental disaster. Yet by taking some simple steps and making a few changes to your daily routine, you can help to change this. How to Live Plastic Free will teach you everything you need to know about reducing your plastic usage on a daily basis. The chapters start with a typical morning routine and take you through your day, giving you tips and practical advice for removing unnecessary plastic at every possible opportunity. From the moment you wake up to the time you go to bed, you will learn how easy it can be to use plastic-free cosmetics, how to have plastic-free mealtimes, how to change your shopping habits and how to consider your use of plastic items at work. These simple, practical methods will show that small changes to your lifestyle can make a huge change to the future of our planet.
Bees are our most loyal ally. These fascinating, enigmatic creatures are a key lynchpin in the working of our planet. Without them the landscape, as well as every aisle in our supermarkets would look radically different.
And we're not just talking about honey bees. There are more than 20,000 species of bee worldwide and only a handful make honey. Some live in colonies and others are solitary. We can all help protect them - and they desperately need protecting - but you can't save what you don't love. And you can't love what you don't know.
The Good Bee is a celebration of this most vital and mysterious of nature's wizards. Here you'll discover the complexities of bee behaviour - as well as the bits that still baffle us - the part they play in the natural world, their relationship with us throughout history, how they are coming under threat and what we can all do about it.
Beautifully produced, with hand-made illustrations throughout, it is a story for our times and a book to treasure.
This open access book provides a comprehensive examination of the European Landing Obligation policy from many relevant perspectives. It includes evaluations of its impacts at economical, socio-cultural, ecological and institutional levels. It also discusses the feasibility and benefits of several potential mitigation strategies. The book was timely published, exactly at the time where the Landing Obligation was planned to be fully implemented. This book is of significant interest to all stakeholders involved, but also to the general public of Europe and to other jurisdictions throughout the world that are also searching for ways to deal with by-catch and discard issues.
This cutting-edge title is one of the first devoted entirely to the issue of carbofuran and wildlife mortality. It features a compilation of international contributions from policy-makers, researchers, conservationists and forensic practitioners and provides a summary of the history and mode of action of carbofuran, and its current global use. It covers wildlife mortality stemming from legal and illegal uses to this point, outlines wildlife rehabilitation, forensic and conservation approaches, and discuss global trends in responding to the wildlife mortality.
The subject of carbofuran is very timely because of recent parallel discussions to withdraw and reinstate the insecticide in different parts of the world. Incidences of intentional and unintentional wildlife poisonings using carbofuran are undeniably on the rise, especially in Africa and India and gatherings of stakeholders are being organized and convened on a global basis. There is still a need to consolidate information on the different experiences and approaches taken by stakeholders. Carbofuran and Wildlife Poisoning is a comprehensive overview of global wildlife mortality, forensic developments and monitoring techniques and is a definitive reference on the subject.
It comprises of historical and current perspectives, contributions from key stakeholders in the issue of global wildlife poisonings with carbofuran, people on the ground who deal with the immediate and long-term ramifications to wildlife, those who have proposed or are working towards mitigative measures and solutions, those in contact with intentional or unintentional 'offenders', those who have adapted and developed forensic methodology and are gathering evidence.
""Carbofuran and Wildlife Poisoning" is a collection of
meticulously researched papers from all around the world that
provide shocking facts about the effects of a deadly insecticide on
wildlife. The book discusses the hundreds of thousands of animals,
from elephants to fish, that are poisoned each year, the efforts to
rehabilitate those which have been rescued, and the often heroic
efforts to ban or reduce the use of the deadly chemical. This book
is a must for all those concerned with the problem."
The startling message of this book is that the so-called virgin forests of the world owe much to their symbiotic relationship with the indigenous peoples who live in and on the margins of the forests. Human activities have for millenia "managed" (consciously or unconsciously) the world's forests, resulting in a greatly enriched biodiversity.The contributors to the book come from many different scientific disciplines, national and cultural backgrounds. Examples of forests are taken from Asia, Africa and South America, thus reflecting the global nature of the phenomenon. The book's conclusions will have far-reaching implications for all who are concerned with the conservation of forests and their indigenous human population.
Muntjac and water deer were introduced to Britain from East Asia. This book provides a comprehensive overview of their natural history and the management of their environmental impacts. In lowland England, muntjac deer are one of the drivers of changes in woodland structure and species composition, and many of the principles relating to such woodland impact are also applicable to the activities of other species of deer. Interest in environmental impacts of deer is not solely restricted to woodlands. The highest densities of water deer occur in wetlands, where there is potential for conflict, and considerable numbers are also found on agricultural land. Muntjac have also settled in suburbia and frequently cause impacts there. Conservationists and national decision makers are concerned both about invasive alien species and about increasing deer populations. The first section covers the natural history of both species including: breeding biology, deer in the field, colonisation of Britain, a detailed look at colonisation in a single county, methods for studying deer populations and a review of deer population numbers. The second section covers environmental impact: risk assessment, impact management, control of muntjac, effect of muntjac browsing and grazing, habitat recovery from muntjac impacts and a study on the impacts of water deer. The section concludes with an overview of management and monitoring. The costs and benefits of both species are discussed, and questions asked about whether we are getting on top of problems caused by muntjac (locally and nationally) and will water deer turn out to be similar to muntjac? Attitudes and approaches to these species are changing: with water deer we are actively studying whether it might be an environmental problem, not waiting until after it has obviously become one. What will happen to distribution, numbers, impacts and attitudes in the future? Will water deer ever become a suburban animal? What does the future hold for water deer in China and Korea - and how important is the English population as a global conservation resource?
This book explains much of what is known currently about freshwater eels, focusing on social and cultural aspects as well as science. A wealth of eel-related material is presented by scientists from around the world, including information on eel fishing, resources, distribution, aquaculture, economics, cuisine, environment and ecosystems, idioms, arts and crafts, tradition, legends, mythology, archaeology and even memorial services. Eels are important as food for humankind and are an interesting model for scientists studying animal migration and reproductive ecology. Their snake-like morphology differentiates them from most other fish, and their unpredictable behaviour that allows them to move over wet land and climb rocks adjacent to waterfalls attracts attention and evokes curiosity. Eels are therefore considered to be enigmatic creatures or metaphysical entities beyond human intelligence; indeed, they have been deified in parts of the world. In recent decades, however, with global populations of eels in sharp decline, some species face a real threat of extinction, and effective conservation strategies and measures are needed. Comparisons across these issues between various countries provide an image of a long-lasting relationship between eels and humankind, and encourage comprehensive and detailed understanding of eels from the perspectives of social, cultural and natural sciences. By promoting understanding of the close relationship between eels and humans, the broader public is engaged and public awareness of eel importance raised, helping to conserve these unique but endangered fish.
Bringing together the viewpoints of leading ecologists concerned with the processes that generate patterns of diversity, and evolutionary biologists who focus on mechanisms of speciation, this book opens up discussion in order to broaden understanding of how speciation affects patterns of biological diversity, especially the uneven distribution of diversity across time, space and taxa studied by macroecologists. The contributors discuss questions such as: Are species equivalent units, providing meaningful measures of diversity? To what extent do mechanisms of speciation affect the functional nature and distribution of species diversity? How can speciation rates be measured using molecular phylogenies or data from the fossil record? What are the factors that explain variation in rates? Written for graduate students and academic researchers, the book promotes a more complete understanding of the interaction between mechanisms and rates of speciation and these patterns in biological diversity.
Graph theory can be applied to ecological questions in many ways, and more insights can be gained by expanding the range of graph theoretical concepts applied to a specific system. But how do you know which methods might be used? And what do you do with the graph once it has been obtained? This book provides a broad introduction to the application of graph theory in different ecological systems, providing practical guidance for researchers in ecology and related fields. Readers are guided through the creation of an appropriate graph for the system being studied, including the application of spatial, spatio-temporal, and more abstract structural process graphs. Simple figures accompany the explanations to add clarity, and a broad range of ecological phenomena from many ecological systems are covered. This is the ideal book for graduate students and researchers looking to apply graph theoretical methods in their work.
Natural History filmmaking has a long history but the generic boundaries between it and environmental and conservation filmmaking are blurred. Nature, environment and animal imagery has been a mainstay of television, campaigning organisations and conservation bodies from Greenpeace to the Sierra Club, with vibrant images being used effectively on posters, leaflets and postcards, and in coffee table books, media releases, short films and viral emails to educate and inform the general public. However, critics suggest that wildlife film and photography frequently convey a false image of the state of the world's flora and fauna. The environmental educator David Orr once remarked that all education is environmental education, and it is possible to see all image-based communication in the same way. The Media, Animal Conservation and Environmental Education has contributions from filmmakers, photographers, researchers and academics from across the globe. It explores the various ways in which film, television and video are, and can be, used by conservationists and educators to encourage both a greater awareness of environmental and conservation issues, and practical action designed to help endangered species. This book is based on a special issue of the journal Environmental Education Research.
Tucked into one of the most beautiful and conflicted regions of the world are the last of the mountain gorillas. These apes have survived centuries of human encroachment into their habitat and range and decades of intense conflict and violence. The remaining 720 mountain gorillas exist in a fragile habitat, nestled in an area torn by human interests and needs for land, water, and minerals.
With captivating photography and the most recent scientific research, Mountain Gorillas takes you deep into the montane rain forests of Uganda, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo to reveal the complex story of the mountain gorillas of the Virunga Volcanos and Bwindi. Gene Eckhart and Annette Lanjouw reveal how humankind affects the gorillas and their habitat, detail the innovative conservation and education efforts undertaken by governments and nongovernmental organizations, and explain how ecotourism and other conservation-focused enterprises support efforts to protect the two mountain gorilla populations.
This perfect blend of intimate photography, thought-provoking scholarship, and engaging stories demonstrates the inexorable ties among the animals, environment, and peoples of the region, and makes clear why the continued existence of the Virunga and Bwindi gorillas is so important. Mountain Gorillas features stunning photos and four appendices documenting key biological and ecological information, habitat vegetation, milestones in mountain gorilla conservation, and travel information.
This practical manual of freshwater ecology and conservation provides a state-of-the-art review of the approaches and techniques used to measure, monitor, and conserve freshwater ecosystems. It offers a single, comprehensive, and accessible synthesis of the vast amount of literature for freshwater ecology and conservation that is currently dispersed in manuals, toolkits, journals, handbooks, 'grey' literature, and websites. Successful conservation outcomes are ultimately built on a sound ecological framework in which every species must be assessed and understood at the individual, community, catchment and landscape level of interaction. For example, freshwater ecologists need to understand hydrochemical storages and fluxes, the physical systems influencing freshwaters at the catchment and landscape scale, and the spatial and temporal processes that maintain species assemblages and their dynamics. A thorough understanding of all these varied processes, and the techniques for studying them, is essential for the effective conservation and management of freshwater ecosystems.
The barn owl is a 'flagship' species, at the top of the food chain, and its presence or absence is a good indicator of the health of the countryside. This is the enjoyable and informative story of the author's success in restoring this beautiful bird to areas of the country where its numbers had catastrophically declined. From an upbringing in the Lake District, the author developed a deep interest in natural history which became an all-consuming passion. As a 'licensed rehabilitation keeper', he cared for a wide range of injured and orphaned wildlife, giving individuals a second chance by returning them to the wild. He reveals how and why he later graduated to barn owl conservation. The author describes his many encounters with barn owls, from the acquisition of his first breeding pair; 'Barney', a completely humanised owl; to stories of the fascinating array of people involved in releasing, studying, and simply marvelling at this beautiful bird. Although there is a funny side to most situations, there are also the inevitable disasters and disappointments of conservation work, such as the accidental or deliberate sabotaging of releases or the killing of released birds. The reader shares in the author's disappointment and frustration at the sheer cost in time and money and his frequent self-doubt about the success of the whole exercise. However, there are descriptions of more enjoyable activities such as bird ringing, watching home-grown birds metamorphose from ugly pink scraps into creatures of ethereal beauty, and the seemingly limitless energy and enthusiasm of countless landowners and volunteers who are totally committed to the reintroduction of the barn owl. After almost 20 years, there is now evidence of a marked increase in barn owl numbers in areas where the author has worked. During this period, he bred and released around 250 birds, put up nest boxes and advised on barn owl-friendly approaches to land management. These activities helped to reverse the decline in population as areas were repopulated and also created reservoirs of wild breeding barn owls, whose offspring colonised other under-populated parts of the country. The return of the barn owl not only heralds a brighter future for the British countryside, but also shows, at a time of great public concern about the state of planet Earth, that the negative effects of human activity on the environment can be reversed with effort, goodwill and determination.
"An ingenious and invigorating insight into the essential wildness within us all." Chris Packham As our busy, technology-driven lives become more sedentary we have become less connected to our natural surroundings. In these challenging times, it is by rediscovering our links to the world around us that we can rekindle the natural, human connection we have to the wild. Nick Baker introduces rewilding as a concept that needs to be established at a personal level. Taking the reader back to their natural sensitivities, we rediscover the instinctive potential of our senses. From learning to observe the creatures and beasts within hands' reach and seeing and hearing the birds and trees of our forests, Baker's expert advice offers the practical tools to experience the wilderness on your own doorstep, as well as in the wider, wilder world. ReWild mixes memoir with practical advice, to delight, inform and inspire us all to discover the art of returning to nature.
The second edition of this widely cited textbook continues to provide a concise but comprehensive introduction to cave and subterranean biology, describing this fascinating habitat and its biodiversity. It covers a range of biological processes including ecosystem function, evolution and adaptation, community ecology, biogeography, and conservation. The authors draw on a global range of examples and case studies from both caves and non-cave subterranean habitats. One of the barriers to the study of subterranean biology has been the extraordinarily large number of specialized terms used by researchers; the authors explain these terms clearly and minimize the number that they use. This new edition retains the same 10 chapter structure of the original, but the content has been thoroughly revised and updated throughout to reflect the huge increase in publications concerning subterranean biology over the last decade.
What is it about Yellowstone National Park that draws millions of
visitors from all over the world? If you've visited Yellowstone,
you should already know the answer. If you've never visited--or you
have, but still don't know the answer--Michael Leach explains it to
you in his book of essays, "Grizzlies on My Mind."
Driven grouse shooting, where flocks of Red Grouse are chased by lines of beaters so that they fly over lines of 'guns' that shoot the fast-flying birds, is a peculiarly British fieldsport. It is also peculiarly British in that it is deeply rooted in the British class system. This multi-million pound business dominates the hills of the north of England - the Pennines, the North Yorkshire Moors, the Cheviots - and throughout Scotland. Grouse shooting is big business. VERY big business And backed by powerful, wealthy lobbying groups, its tendrils run throughout British society. Inglorious makes the case for banning driven grouse shooting. The facts and arguments are presented fairly but the author, Mark Avery, states from the start why he has, after many years of soul-searching, come down in favour of an outright ban. There is too much illegal killing of wildlife, such as Buzzards, Golden Eagles, and, most egregiously of all, Hen Harriers; and, as a land use, it wrecks the ecology of the hills. However, grouse shooting is economically important, and it is a great British tradition. All of these, and other points of view, are given fair and detailed treatment and analysis - and the author talks to a range of people on different sides of the debate. The book also sets out Avery's campaign with Chris Packham to gain support for the proposal to ban grouse shooting, culminating in 'Hen Harrier Day', timed to coincide with the 'Glorious' 12th. This new paperback edition includes new material on what went on in 2015, including the devastating floods of that winter, bringing the story right up to date. Mark Avery continues to stir up a debate about fieldsports, the countryside and big business in a book that all British conservationists will want to read.
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