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Britain is home to fifteen species of breeding birds of prey, from the hedgerow-hopping Sparrowhawk to the breathtaking White-tailed Eagle. In this handsomely illustrated book, acclaimed British filmmaker and naturalist David Cobham offers unique and deeply personal insights into Britain's birds of prey and how they are faring today. He delves into the history of these magnificent birds and talks in depth with the scientists and conservationists who are striving to safeguard them. In doing so, he profiles the writers, poets and filmmakers who have done so much to change the public's perception of birds of prey. There are success stories--five birds of prey that were extinct have become reestablished with viable populations--but persecution is still rife. Featuring drawings by famed wildlife artist Bruce Pearson, this book reveals why we must cherish and celebrate our birds of prey, and why we neglect them at our peril.
Insects such as cockroaches, mosquitoes and bed-bugs are usually not highly sought amongst travellers or recreationists, yet each year, collectors, butterfly enthusiasts, dragonfly-hunters and apiarists collect, visit, document and raise insects for recreational purposes. Illustrating a range of human-insect encounters from an interdisciplinary perspective, this book provides the first insight into the booming industry of insect recreation. Case studies and examples demonstrate the appeal of insects, ranging from the captivating beauty of butterflies to the curious fascination of locust swarms, and challenge the notion that animals lacking anthropomorphic features hold little or no interest for humans. Throughout the book, the emphasis is on the innovators, the educators, the dedicated researchers and activists who, through collaboration across fields ranging from entomology to sociology and anthropology, have brought insects from the recreational fringes to the forefront of many conservation and leisure initiatives.
This book provides a state-of-art overview of the significant advances in understanding the impacts of wind energy on wildlife. However, many challenges remain regarding planning and policy, assessment of direct and indirect effects on wildlife, methodological approaches, technology development, and mitigation strategies and their effectiveness. The book comprises a selection of the best contributions presented at the 4th Conference on Wind energy and Wildlife impacts, held in Estoril, Portugal, 2017. The contents promote the international cooperation among researchers, developers, regulators and stakeholders that have contributed to building knowledge on this topic.
Published to coincide with the Global Summit on illegal wildlife trade to be hosted by David Cameron in London in February 2014, Trading to Extinction is a unique and devastating record of this tragic industry. The book explores the sad truths behind this multi billion-dollar industry and is one of the most comprehensive photographic documents on the wildlife trade, spanning more than 10 years and offering a rare view into this illicit business. It is a shocking tale of cruelty, crime and human greed. This is an industry which, like the drugs trade, is fuelled by money, and whose tentacles encircle the world, from the remote forests of Asia to the trafficking hubs of Beijing, Bangkok, London, Tokyo and New York. A poacher who kills a rhino and removes its horn in India gets $350. That same horn sells for $1,000 in a nearby market town. By the time it reaches Hong Kong, Beijing or the Middle East, the horn is worth $60,000 per kilogram, rivalling the street value of cocaine, and even the price of gold. Tiger bones are worth up to $700 per kilo. Meanwhile the price of ivory is increasing so rapidly that some people are buying it as an investment commodity. The numbers are truly staggering. Trading to Extinction combines the powerful black and white photographs of Patrick Brown with texts by Ben Davies, who has spent more than a decade investigating the black market trade in wildlife. He takes the reader on a first hand journey into the seedy world of the illegal animal trade and its gruesome pursuit of profit, as well as describing international efforts to stop it. Both Patrick Brown and Ben Davies are recognised experts in the subject and their insight and knowledge provides a staggering overview of this hideous industry.
This book takes a new approach to understanding primate conservation research, adding a personal perspective to allow readers to learn what motivates those doing conservation work. When entering the field over a decade ago, many young primatologists were driven by evolutionary questions centered in behavioural ecology. However, given the current environment of cascading extinctions and increasing threats to primates we now need to ensure that primates remain in viable populations in the wild before we can simply engage in research in the context of pure behavioural ecology. This has changed the primary research aims of many primatologists and shifted our focus to conservation priorities, such as understanding the impacts of human activity, habitat conversion or climate change on primates. This book presents personal narratives alongside empirical research results and discussions of strategies used to stem the tide of extinction. It is a must-have for anyone interested in conservation research.
Whilst the science of conservation biology is thriving as a discipline, ultimately global conservation is failing. Why, when the majority of people say they value nature and its protection? David Johns argues that the loss of species and healthy ecosystems is best understood as human imposition of a colonial relationship on the non-human world - one of exploitation and domination. Global institutions benefit from transforming nature into commodities, and conservation is a low priority. This book places political issues at the forefront, and tackles critical questions of conservation efficacy. It considers the role of effective influence on decision making, key policy changes to reduce human footprint, and the centrality of culture in mobilising support. It draws on political lessons from successful social movements, including human anti-colonial struggles, to provide conservation biologists and practitioners in scientific and social science disciplines and NGOs with the tools and wider context to accelerate their work's impact.
'Essential reading for anybody who cares about the future' Henry Marsh, *Newstatesman Books of the Year* A radical examination of Britain's relationship with the land by one of our greatest nature writers. Environmental thought and politics have become parts of mainstream cultural life in Britain. The wish to protect wildlife is now a central goal for our society, but where did these `green' ideas come from? And who created the cherished institutions, such as the National Trust or the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, that are now so embedded in public life with millions of members? From the flatlands of Norfolk to the tundra-like expanse of the Flow Country in northern Scotland, acclaimed writer on nature Mark Cocker sets out on a personal quest through the British countryside to find the answers to these questions. He explores in intimate detail six special places that embody the history of conservation or whose fortunes allow us to understand why our landscape looks as it does today. We meet key characters who shaped the story of the British countryside - Victorian visionaries like Octavia Hill, founder of the National Trust, as well as brilliant naturalists such as Max Nicholson or Derek Ratcliffe, who helped build the very framework for all environmental effort. This is a book that looks to the future as well as exploring the past. It asks searching questions like who owns the land and why? And who benefits from green policies? Unflinching, provocative and original, Our Place tackles some of the central issues of our time.
Numbering 92 species worldwide, members of the order Lagomorpha are familiar to people throughout the world, and yet their remarkable diversity and ecological importance are often underappreciated. In this book, Andrew T. Smith and his colleagues bring together the world's lagomorph experts to produce the most comprehensive reference on the order ever published, featuring detailed species accounts, stunning color photos, and up-to-date range maps. Contributors highlight the key ecological roles that lagomorphs play and explain in depth how scientists around the globe are working to save vulnerable populations. Thematic introductory chapters cover a broad spectrum of information about pikas, rabbits, and hares, from evolution and systematics to diseases and conservation. Each animal account begins with the complete scientific and common names for the species, followed by a detailed description of appearance and unique morphological characteristics, including a range of standard measurements of adult specimens. Subsequent sections discuss known paleontological data concerning the species, the current state of its taxonomy, and geographic variation. Each account also includes dedicated sectioins on habitat and diet, reproduction and development, ecology, behavior, and management. The definitive work on lagomorphs, this book is an invaluable reference for naturalists, professional biologists, and students. It will also be beneficial for those conducting biodiversity surveys and conservation throughout the world.
The musteloids are the most diverse super-family among carnivores, ranging from little known, exotic, and highly-endangered species to the popular and familiar, and include a large number of introduced invasives. They feature terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, and aquatic members, ranging from tenacious predators to frugivorous omnivores, span weights from a 100g weasel to 30kg giant otters, and express a range of social behaviours from the highly gregarious to the fiercely solitary. Musteloids are the subjects of extensive cutting-edge research from phylogenetics to the evolution of sociality and through to the practical implications of disease epidemiology, introduced species management, and climate change. Their diversity and extensive biogeography inform a wide spectrum of ecological theory and conservation practice. The editors of this book have used their combined 90 years of experience working on the behaviour and ecology of wild musteloids to draw together a unique network of the world's most successful and knowledgeable experts. The book begins with nine review chapters covering hot topics in musteloid biology including evolution, disease, social communication, and management. These are followed by twenty extensive case studies providing a range of comprehensive geographic and taxonomic coverage. The final chapter synthesises what has been discussed in the book, and reflects on the different and diverse conservation needs of musteloids and the wealth of conservation lessons they offer. Biology and Conservation of Musteloids provides a conceptual framework for future research and applied conservation management that is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers in musteloid and carnivore ecology and conservation biology. It will also be of relevance and use to conservationists and wildlife managers.
The successful conservation of bird species relies upon our understanding of their habitat use and requirements. In the coming decades the importance of such knowledge will only grow as climate change, the development of new energy sources and the needs of a growing human population intensify the, already significant, pressure on the habitats that birds depend on. Drawing on valuable recent advances in our understanding of bird-habitat relationships, this book provides the first major review of avian habitat selection in over twenty years. It offers a synthesis of concepts, patterns and issues that will interest students, researchers and conservation practitioners. Spatial scales ranging from landscape to habitat patch are covered, and examples of responses to habitat change are examined. European landscapes are the main focus, but the book has far wider significance to similar habitats worldwide, with examples and relevant material also drawn from North America and Australia.
Wildlife Forensics: Methods and Applications provides an accessible and practical approach to the key areas involved in this developing subject. The book contains case studies throughout the text that take the reader from the field, to the lab analysis to the court room, giving a complete insight into the path of forensic evidence and demonstrating how current techniques can be applied to wildlife forensics.
The book contains approaches that wildlife forensic investigators and laboratory technicians can employ in investigations and provides the direction and practical advice required by legal and police professionals seeking to gain the evidence needed to prosecute wildlife crimes.
The book will bring together in one text various aspects of wildlife forensics, including statistics, toxicology, pathology, entomology, morphological identification, and DNA analysis.
This book will be an invaluable reference and will provide investigators, laboratory technicians and students in forensic Science/conservation biology classes with practical guidance and best methods for criminal investigations applied to wildlife crime.Includes practical techniques that wildlife forensic investigators and laboratory technicians can employ in investigations. Includes case studies to illustrate various key methods and applications. Brings together diverse areas of forensic science and demonstrates their application specifically to the field of wildlife crime. Contains methodology boxes to lead readers through the processes of individual techniques. Takes an applied approach to the subject to appeal to both students of the subject and practitioners in the field. Includes a broad introduction to what is meant by 'wildlife crime', how to approach a crime scene and collect evidence and includes chapters dedicated to the key techniques utilized in wildlife investigations. Includes chapters on wildlife forensic pathology; zooanthropological techniques; biological trace evidence analysis; the importance of bitemark evidence; plant and wildlife forensics; best practices and law enforcement.
Wildlife Management and Conservation presents a clear overview of the management and conservation of animals, their habitats, and how people influence both. The relationship among these three components of wildlife management is explained in chapters written by leading experts and is designed to prepare wildlife students for careers in which they will be charged with maintaining healthy animal populations; finding ways to restore depleted populations while reducing overabundant, introduced, or pest species; and managing relationships among various human stakeholders. Topics covered in this book include * The definitions of wildlife and management* Human dimensions of wildlife management* Animal behavior* Predator-prey relationships * Structured decision making* Issues of scale in wildlife management* Wildlife health* Historical context of wildlife management and conservation* Hunting and trapping* Nongame species* Nutrition ecology* Water management* Climate change* Conservation planning
'Maslen's book is a clarion call for Australia's brilliant but disappearing birds.' Bob Brown, former Parliamentary Leader of the Australian Greens In An Uncertain Future, Geoffrey Maslen takes us into the fascinating lives of Australian birds, showing us how intelligent they are, the significant threats they face due to disappearing habitats and climate change and how essential these angels of the air are to our own survival. Soaring through the skies, light as the air itself, birds are the closest creatures we have to angels on the planet. They bring song and beauty to our lives, and they play a significant role in sustaining Earth's ecosystems. But birds are also facing the threat of extinction. Drawing on numerous interviews with researchers and biologists studying birdlife in Australia and dozens of scientific reports from around the world, Maslen reveals a dire picture of what plummeting bird populations means for humanity.
Shortlisted for the 2018 TWS Wildlife Publication Awards in the authored book category In recent years, conflicts between ecological conservation and economic growth forced a reassessment of the motivations and goals of wildlife and forestry management. Focus shifted from game and commodity management to biodiversity conservation and ecological forestry. Previously separate fields such as forestry, biology, botany, and zoology merged into a common framework known as conservation biology and resource professionals began to approach natural resource problems in an interdisciplinary light. Wildlife Habitat Management: Concepts and Applications in Forestry presents an integrated reference combining silvicultural and forest planning principles with principles of habitat ecology and conservation biology. With extensive references and case studies drawn from real situations, this book begins with general concepts such as habitat selection, forest composition, influences on habitat patterns, and the dynamics of disturbance ecology. It considers management approaches for specific habitats including even-aged and uneven-aged systems, riparian areas, and dead wood and highlights those approaches that will conserve and manage biodiversity. The author discusses assessment and prioritization policies, monitoring techniques, and ethical and legal issues that can have worldwide impact. Detailed appendices provide a glossary, scientific names, and tools for measuring and interpreting habitat elements. Writing in a species-specific manner, the author emphasizes the need to consider the potential effects of management decisions on biodiversity conservation and maintains a holistic approach throughout the book. Drawing from the author's more than 30 years working and teaching in natural resources conservation, Wildlife Habitat Management: Concepts and Applications in Forestry provides a synopsis of current preservation techniques and establishes a common body of knowledge from which to approach the conservation of biodiversity in the future.
Myth and media typically cast animals we consider predators or carnivores as unthinking killers-dangerous, unpredictable, and devoid of emotion. But is this portrait valid? By exploring their inner lives, this pioneering book refutes the many misperceptions that hide the true nature of these animals. We discover that great white sharks express tender maternal feelings, rattlesnakes make friends, orcas abide by an ancient moral code, and much more. Using the combined lenses of natural history, neuroscience, and psychology, G. A. Bradshaw describes how predators share the rainbow of emotions that humans experience, including psychological trauma. Renowned for leading research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in elephants and other species, Bradshaw decries the irrational thinking behind wildlife policies that equate killing carnivores with "conservation." In its place, she proposes a new, ethical approach to coexistence with the planet's fiercest animals.
Zoo Animal Welfare thoroughly reviews the scientific literature on the welfare of zoo and aquarium animals. Maple and Perdue draw from the senior author's 24 years of experience as a zoo executive and international leader in the field of zoo biology. The authors' academic training in the interdisciplinary field of psychobiology provides a unique perspective for evaluating the ethics, practices, and standards of modern zoos and aquariums. The book offers a blueprint for the implementation of welfare measures and an objective rationale for their widespread use. Recognizing the great potential of zoos, the authors have written an inspirational book to guide the strategic vision of superior, welfare-oriented institutions. The authors speak directly to caretakers working on the front lines of zoo management, and to the decision-makers responsible for elevating the priority of animal welfare in their respective zoo. In great detail, Maple and Perdue demonstrate how zoos and aquariums can be designed to achieve optimal standards of welfare and wellness.
Wild pigs inhabit vast areas in Europe, Southern Asia and Africa, and have been introduced in North and South America, while feral pigs are widespread in Australia and New Zealand. Many wild pig species are threatened with extinction, but Eurasian wild boar populations, however, are increasing in many regions. Covering all wild pig and peccary species, the Suidae and Tayassuidae families, this comprehensive review presents new information about the evolution, taxonomy and domestication of wild pigs and peccaries alongside novel case studies on conservation activities and management. One hundred leading experts from twenty five countries synthesise understanding of this group of species; discussing current research, and gaps in the knowledge of researchers, conservation biologists, zoologists, wildlife managers and students. This beautifully illustrated reference includes the long history of interactions between wild pigs and humans, the benefits some species have brought us and their role and impact on natural ecosystems.
In the cold waters of the unforgiving North Atlantic Ocean, some of the heartiest humans of medieval days ventured out in search of whales. Through the centuries, people on both sides of the Atlantic became increasingly dependent on whale oil and other cetacean products. To meet this growing demand, whaling became ever more sophisticated and intense, leading to the collapse of what was once a seemingly inexhaustible supply of large cetaceans. Central to the whale's subsequent struggle for existence has been one species-the North Atlantic right whale. Conservationist David W. Laist now provides the first complete history of the North Atlantic right whale, from its earliest encounters with humans to its close brush with extinction, to its currently precarious yet hopeful status as a conservation icon. Favored by whalers because of their high yields of oil and superior baleen, these giants became known as "the right whale to hunt," and their numbers dwindled to a mere 100 individuals worldwide. Their dire status encouraged the adoption of a ban on hunting and a treaty that formed the International Whaling Commission. Recovery of the species, however, has proven elusive. Ship strikes and entanglement in commercial fishing gear have hampered herculean efforts to restore the population. Today, only about 500 right whales live along the US and Canadian Atlantic coasts-an improvement from the early twentieth century, but still a far cry from the thousands that once graced Atlantic waters. Laist's masterpiece features an incredible collection of photographs and artwork that give life to the fascinating history that unfolds in its pages. The result is a single volume that offers a comprehensive understanding of North Atlantic right whales, the role they played in the many cultures that hunted them, and our modern attempts to help them recover.
We've all got one. A secret, special place. Hidden. Enclosed. A little greener and more fertile than the world outside. Here the birds are slightly more exotic, slightly more confiding, the grass greener and the fruit sweeter. To know such a place, to love such a place, is part of being human. Sometimes it's a place of myth, like the Garden of Eden. Sometimes it exists in fictional form, like Narnia or Shangri-La. Sometimes it comes in memories of a golden day in childhood, or in a glorious, doomed love affair. Sometimes it's a real place that we daren't go back to, for fear that it - or we - had changed. And just occasionally it's a real place. A place where you leave a small piece of your heart and return as often as you can so as not to lose it. It's a place of privilege. Simon Barnes found such a place when he woke in his first morning in the Luangwa Valley in Zambia to find elephants eating the roof of his hut. It was a homecoming, and he has been faithful to that passion ever since. Here he has known peace, danger, discomfort, fear and a profound sense of oneness with the Valley, with all nature and with the world. With the Valley he found completion. This book explores the special places of the mind and the world, with special reference to the Luangwa Valley and the glorious support of the Valley's great artist, Pam Carr. It's a book about the quest for paradise, and the eternal human search to find such a paradise everywhere.
This book, published in two volumes, provides the most comprehensive review of lamprey biology since Hardisty and Potter's "The Biology of Lampreys" published more than 30 years ago. This second volume offers a synthesis of topics related to the lamprey gonad (e.g., lamprey sex ratios, sex determination and sex differentiation, sexual maturation, and sex steroids), the artifical propagation of lampreys, post-metamorphic feeding and the evolution of alternative feeding and migratory types, the history and status of sea lamprey control in the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, and an overview of contributions of lamprey developmental studies for understanding vertebrate evolution.
The cheetah, the fastest terrestrial animal, has widespread appeal amongst wildlife biologists and enthusiasts alike. However, like all all large carnivores, it is increasingly threatened by habitat loss and its status is now classified as 'Vulnerable' by the IUCN. This is the first comprehensive study of cheetah biology in an arid environment, a major component of its current distribution range. The book brings together results from an intensive six year study of the cheetah by the authors in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in South Africa and Botswana. It documents a wealth of detailed and direct observations of cheetah population biology and behavioural ecology, adopting an evolutionary approach and providing a conceptual framework for future research and applied management in the context of global environmental change. Kalahari Cheetahs covers topics such as optimal foraging theory, hunting strategies and predator prey relations, mating systems and reproductive strategies and success, inter-specific competition, demography, social organisation, and population limitation. Comparisons with previous cheetah studies reveal the variability of ecological determinants on behaviour, and the behavioural flexibility and ability of these carnivores to adapt to different environments. This advanced textbook is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers in felid behavioural ecology and conservation biology. It will also be of relevance and use to conservationists, wildlife managers, and African wildlife enthusiasts.
In 2009, a wildland fire in the Angeles National Forest in California known as the Station Fire led to the death of two fire-fighters, destroyed 89 homes and dozens of other structures, and burned more than 160,000 acres. After escaping initial containment efforts, the Station Fire underwent periods of rapid growth and extreme fire behaviour over the following several days, ultimately threatening thousands of homes in nearby communities. In response, the Forest Service and local agencies, deployed thousands of fire-fighters and hundreds of fire-fighting assets, including fire engines, helicopters, and air tankers. This book examines the key issues raised by fire-fighters, area residents, and others regarding the Forest Service's response to the Station Fire over the adequacy of fire-fighting assets, strategies, and tactics used.
Tillage agriculture has led to widespread soil and ecosystem degradation globally. This is especially so in Africa where traditional and modern tillage-based agricultural practices have become unsustainable due to severe disturbance and exploitation of natural resources, with negative impacts on the environment and rural livelihoods. In addition, agriculture in Africa today faces major challenges including increased costs of production and energy, the effects of climate change, and the lack of an effective paradigm for sustainable intensification, especially for small- and medium-size holdings. Africa is facing a serious challenge to food security and as a continent has not advanced towards eradicating hunger. In addition, the population is still growing much faster than on most other continents. This pressure has led to the emergence of no-till conservation agriculture as a serious alternative sustainable agriculture paradigm. In Africa, in recent years, conservation agriculture techniques and methods have spread to many countries, as greater development, education and research effort are directed towards its extension and uptake. This book is aimed at agricultural researchers and scientists, educationalists, and agricultural service providers, institutional leaders and policy makers working in the fields of sustainable agriculture and international development, and also at agroecologists, conservation scientists, and those working on ecosystem services. This book: * Focuses on research and development initiatives in Africa aimed at building resilient farming systems based on conservation agriculture principles and practices. * Summarises the status of conservation agriculture in Africa today and prospects for its future development in Africa as a basis for sustainable agriculture intensification. * Describes case studies showing the performance of conservation agriculture in Africa.
This book provides an overview of the induction mechanism of imposex caused by organotin compounds in gastropods, as well as fundamental information on the physiology and biochemistry of reproduction in mollusks. Are the sex hormones of gastropod mollusks vertebrate-type steroids, or neuropeptides? What about lipid disturbance and membrane toxicity due to organotin compounds? The book also discusses the latest findings on the role of nuclear receptors, such as retinoid X receptor (RXR), retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), in the development of imposex in gastropods. Further, it describes the current state of contamination by organotins in the marine environment and gastropod imposex, with a special focus on Europe and Asia, introduces readers to analytical techniques for organotin compounds, and assesses the contamination and adverse effects of alternatives to organotin-based antifouling paints. Imposex, a superimposition of male genital tracts, such as penis and vas deferens, on female gastropod mollusks, is known as a typical phenomenon or consequence of endocrine disruption in wildlife. Imposex is typically induced by very low concentrations of organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) from antifouling paints on ships and fishing nets. Reproductive failure may be brought about in severely affected stages of imposex, resulting in population decline and/or mass extinction. Thus, gastropod imposex has been recognized as a critical environmental pollution issue. Although gastropod imposex is also highly interesting for the biological sciences because of its acquired pseudohermaphroditism and/or sex change by certain chemicals, such as TBT and TPhT, the mechanism that induces the development of imposex remains unclear, possibly due to our limited understanding of the endocrinology of gastropod mollusks. This book offers a useful guide for professionals and students interested in the fields of aquatic biology, invertebrate physiology, ecotoxicology and environmental science.
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