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The second edition of this widely cited textbook continues to provide a concise but comprehensive introduction to cave and subterranean biology, describing this fascinating habitat and its biodiversity. It covers a range of biological processes including ecosystem function, evolution and adaptation, community ecology, biogeography, and conservation. The authors draw on a global range of examples and case studies from both caves and non-cave subterranean habitats. One of the barriers to the study of subterranean biology has been the extraordinarily large number of specialized terms used by researchers; the authors explain these terms clearly and minimize the number that they use. This new edition retains the same 10 chapter structure of the original, but the content has been thoroughly revised and updated throughout to reflect the huge increase in publications concerning subterranean biology over the last decade.
What is it about Yellowstone National Park that draws millions of
visitors from all over the world? If you've visited Yellowstone,
you should already know the answer. If you've never visited--or you
have, but still don't know the answer--Michael Leach explains it to
you in his book of essays, "Grizzlies on My Mind."
Driven grouse shooting, where flocks of Red Grouse are chased by lines of beaters so that they fly over lines of 'guns' that shoot the fast-flying birds, is a peculiarly British fieldsport. It is also peculiarly British in that it is deeply rooted in the British class system. This multi-million pound business dominates the hills of the north of England - the Pennines, the North Yorkshire Moors, the Cheviots - and throughout Scotland. Grouse shooting is big business. VERY big business And backed by powerful, wealthy lobbying groups, its tendrils run throughout British society. Inglorious makes the case for banning driven grouse shooting. The facts and arguments are presented fairly but the author, Mark Avery, states from the start why he has, after many years of soul-searching, come down in favour of an outright ban. There is too much illegal killing of wildlife, such as Buzzards, Golden Eagles, and, most egregiously of all, Hen Harriers; and, as a land use, it wrecks the ecology of the hills. However, grouse shooting is economically important, and it is a great British tradition. All of these, and other points of view, are given fair and detailed treatment and analysis - and the author talks to a range of people on different sides of the debate. The book also sets out Avery's campaign with Chris Packham to gain support for the proposal to ban grouse shooting, culminating in 'Hen Harrier Day', timed to coincide with the 'Glorious' 12th. This new paperback edition includes new material on what went on in 2015, including the devastating floods of that winter, bringing the story right up to date. Mark Avery continues to stir up a debate about fieldsports, the countryside and big business in a book that all British conservationists will want to read.
Insects such as cockroaches, mosquitoes and bed-bugs are usually not highly sought amongst travellers or recreationists, yet each year, collectors, butterfly enthusiasts, dragonfly-hunters and apiarists collect, visit, document and raise insects for recreational purposes. Illustrating a range of human-insect encounters from an interdisciplinary perspective, this book provides the first insight into the booming industry of insect recreation. Case studies and examples demonstrate the appeal of insects, ranging from the captivating beauty of butterflies to the curious fascination of locust swarms, and challenge the notion that animals lacking anthropomorphic features hold little or no interest for humans. Throughout the book, the emphasis is on the innovators, the educators, the dedicated researchers and activists who, through collaboration across fields ranging from entomology to sociology and anthropology, have brought insects from the recreational fringes to the forefront of many conservation and leisure initiatives.
While there has been a long history of salmon hatchery operations throughout the North Pacific, only recently have we begun to investigate how hatchery salmon interact with their wild counterparts. This volume represents our latest understanding of the scale and magnitude of effects of hatcheries on wild salmon populations, and begins to lay the groundwork for precautionary fisheries management to ensure that wild salmon are conserved. "Reprinted from Environmental Biology of Fishes volume 94 issue 1"
"Research on hatchery and wild salmonid interactions is increasing exponentially and this book provides a synthesis of what researchers believe today. Of greatest importance is that it shows how little we know. Mart Gross, University of Toronto, Canada"
"Wild and hatchery salmon interactions are key to understanding human impacts on the North Pacific ecosystem. This publication represents an important step in understanding both the benefits and the risks. Vladimir Radchenko, Pacific Scientific Research Fisheries Center, TINRO Center, Russia"
"Through careful case histories, creative manipulative experiments, and impressive quantitative modeling, scientists and managers have come together to publish this touchstone work, work simply indispensable to our continuing efforts to bring the salmon back . Roy Stein, Ohio State University, USA"
"This book will become required reading for scientists and managers around the world dedicated to the conservation of wild salmon. Hideaki Kudo, Hokkaido University, Japan""
Pollution doesn't make for easy sonnets or flowing, romantic narratives. And that's what this title is about - pollution. Not the everyday sort of pollution that we recognise so easily, the type which piles up into stinking heaps of litter or that clogs the sky with filthy smoke. No, this is a form of pollution which is so subtle and insidious that many people do not realise it is there. Invaded is about biological pollution, the kind that comes in dense hedges of lush greenery, blooming fields of heady petals or gracefully draped creepers. It may spread incognito on the wings of a bird, tug on the end of an angler's line or scurry unnoticed through the undergrowth. These pages explore plants and animals that have traversed the borders and boundaries of their natural habitats and made their way into South Africa over the past 300 years and more. Unhindered by the predators and diseases which once kept their populations in check, many have come to outnumber and out-compete the species they encounter in their adopted homes. Invaded provides an overview of the different species that have arrived in our country during the past three centuries, and the threats they pose (or have the potential to become). Ultimately, the book attempts to quantify how these species have changed systems, disrupted the natural environment and threatened the future of the country's many unique plants, animals and habitats.
Despite the 1989 global ivory trade ban, poaching and ivory smuggling have not abated. More than half of Tanzania's elephants have been killed for their ivory since 2007. A similarly alarming story can be told of the herds in northern Mozambique and across swathes of central Africa. But why the new upsurge? The popular narrative blames a meeting of two evils - criminal poaching and terrorism. But the answer is not that simple.Since ancient times, large-scale killing of elephants for their tusks has been driven by demand beyond Africa's range states from the Egyptian pharaohs through the industrialising West to the new wealthy business class of China. Elephant hunting in Africa is also governed by human-elephant conflict, traditional hunting practices and the impact of colonial exploitation and criminalisation.Ivory follows this complex history of the tusk trade in Africa, and explains why it is corruption, crime and politics, rather than insurgency, that we should worry about. In this ground-breaking work, Somerville argues that regulation - not prohibition - of the ivory trade is the best way to stop uncontrolled poaching.
Conflicts over the conservation of biodiversity are increasing and are serious obstacles to wildlife conservation efforts worldwide. Changing patterns in land use, over-exploitation, pollution, climate change and the threat posed by invasive species all challenge the way we currently maintain and protect biodiversity - from the local management of single species to the international management of resources. Integrating approaches from different academic disciplines, policy makers and practitioners, this volume offers a radically new, cross-disciplinary, multi-scale approach to deal with conflicts. Groundbreaking strategies for conservation are analysed and a large section of the book is devoted to exploring case studies of conflict from around the world. Aimed primarily at academics, researchers and students from disciplines relating to conservation, ecology, natural resources management and environmental governance, this book will be equally valuable to conservation NGOs and practitioners, and the policy community at national and international levels.
This edited volume presents a comprehensive and coherent interdisciplinary analysis of challenges and possibilities for sustainable governance of the Baltic Sea ecosystem by combining knowledge and approaches from natural and social sciences. Focusing on the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) and associated multi-level, multi-sector and multi-actor challenges, the book provides up-to-date descriptions and analyses of environmental governance structures and processes at the macro-regional Baltic Sea level. Organised in two parts, Part 1 presents in-depth case studies of environmental governance practices and challenges linked to five key environmental problems - eutrophication, chemical pollution, overfishing, oil discharges and invasive species. Part 2 analyses and compares governance challenges and opportunities across the five case studies, focusing on governance structures and EAM implementation, knowledge integration and science support, as well as stakeholder communication and participation. Based on these cross-case comparisons, this book also draws a set of general conclusions on possible ways of improving the governance of the Baltic Sea by promoting what are identified as vital functions of environmental governance: coordination, integration, interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability.
Britain is home to fifteen species of breeding birds of prey, from the hedgerow-hopping Sparrowhawk to the breathtaking White-tailed Eagle. In this handsomely illustrated book, acclaimed British filmmaker and naturalist David Cobham offers unique and deeply personal insights into Britain's birds of prey and how they are faring today. He delves into the history of these marvelous birds and talks in depth with the scientists and conservationists who are striving to safeguard them. In doing so, he profiles the writers, poets, and filmmakers who have done so much to change the public's perception of birds of prey. Thanks to popular television programs, the Victorian myth that any bird with a hooked beak is evil has been dispelled. However, although there are success stories--five birds of prey that were extinct have become reestablished with viable populations--persecution is still rife: so much so that one bird of prey, the Hen Harrier, became extinct in England as a breeding bird in 2013.
Featuring drawings by famed wildlife artist Bruce Pearson, this book reveals why we must cherish and celebrate our birds of prey, and why we neglect them at our peril. In "A Sparrowhawk's Lament," you will learn how the perfection of the double-barreled shotgun sounded a death knell for British birds of prey in the nineteenth century, how the conscription of gamekeepers during two world wars gave them a temporary reprieve, how their fortunes changed yet again with the introduction of agricultural pesticides in the 1950s, why birds of prey are vital to Britain's ecosystems and cultural heritage - and much more.
Written with passion for anyone interested in seeing an end to the illegal trade in elephant ivory and rhino horn, this book shows how, by working together, people all over the world who care about these animals are gradually bringing about change for the better. It takes an overview of how the current situation came to pass by exploring poaching and its devastating consequences and the pivotal role of organized crime. The discussion of how matters are starting to improve covers the investigation and monitoring of ivory markets, sustainable uses and the key role of local communities.Enforcement of the law is vital in this story. Enter the enforcers, the technology they use to defeat the poachers and the evidence they require to prosecute offenders. Cases, some deeply shocking, are included, as well as a number of fascinating case studies, while the exploits of organized crime gangs make lively, as well as disturbing reading. Throughout the message is clear. We can and must save these animals from extinction.
The renowned zoologist Fritz Eloff became interested in the Kalahari lion in 1958 when he first heard a lion roaring from the red dunes surrounding the camp. So impressive was the earth-trembling sound that he decided to devote his studies to these predators. This meant that he also had to become familiar with the Kalahari, its dust, its intense heat during the day and freezing cold nights, its vegetation, all the mammals and birds that form part of the lionís food chain as well as the other predators the lion has to compete with. This book is the result of 40 years of extensive research and numerous exciting adventures. Written in an accessible style, it imparts information about the physical characteristics of the Kalahari lion, its habitat, role in the ecosystem and interaction with humans. The book concludes with the stories of a number of legendary male and female lions, and the authorís view on the survival of these magnificent animals in an ever changing environment.
Invasive species have a critical and growing effect upon natural areas. They can modify, degrade, or destroy wildland ecosystem structure and function, and reduce native biodiversity. Landscape-level solutions are needed to address these problems. Conservation biologists seek to limit such damage and restore ecosystems using a variety of approaches. One such approach is biological control: the deliberate importation and establishment of specialized natural enemies, which can address invasive species problems and which should be considered as a possible component of restoration. Biological control can be an effective tool against many invasive insects and plants but it has rarely been successfully employed against other groups. Safety is of paramount concern and requires that the natural enemies used be specialized and that targeted pests be drivers of ecological degradation. While modern approaches allow species to be selected with a high level of security, some risks do remain. However, as in all species introductions, these should be viewed in the context of the risk of failing to reduce the impact of the invasive species. This unique book identifies the balance among these factors to show how biological control can be integrated into ecosystem restoration as practiced by conservation biologists. Jointly developed by conservation biologists and biological control scientists, it contains chapters on matching tools to management goals; tools in action; measuring and evaluating ecological outcomes of biological control introductions; managing conflict over biological control; and includes case studies as well as an ethical framework for integrating biological control and conservation practice. Integrating Biological Control into Conservation Practice is suitable for graduate courses in invasive species management and biological control, as well as for research scientists in government and non-profit conservation organizations.
The diamond-backed terrapin is not only a uniquely evolved and beautiful turtle, it also has a long history as a vital American food source. Once so numerous that people reportedly grew tired of eating them, diamond-backed terrapins are greatly reduced in numbers today and have become an icon of salt marsh conservation. Considerably diminished in some areas and struggling to survive, this distinctive brackish water turtle is the focus of intense conservation efforts. In Ecology and Conservation of the Diamond-backed Terrapin, leading terrapin researcher Willem M. Roosenburg and experienced science editor Victor S. Kennedy have brought together a group of expert scientists to summarize our current understanding of terrapin biology, physiology, behavior, and conservation efforts. Over the course of 19 comprehensive chapters, contributors * review the latest information on this charismatic species * provide a detailed summary of the terrapin's natural history * explain the threats to terrapin population stability throughout their range * examine ongoing conservation efforts to ensure the reptile's survival * present convincing arguments for the value of the diamond-backed terrapin as an estuarine indicator organism * use the terrapin as a model for studying the consequences of exploitation and environmental degradation on long-lived species This exceptional book provides pivotal information for estuarine and turtle biologists, terrapin enthusiasts, natural historians, educators, conservationists, resource managers, and students. Ecology and Conservation of the Diamond-backed Terrapin is the definitive volume on this important American reptile. Contributors: Benjamin K. Atkinson, Harold W. Avery, Patrick J. Baker, Ralph E.J. Boerner, Russell L. Burke, Joseph A. Butler, Randolph M. Chambers, Paul E. Converse, Brian A. Crawford, Rusty D. Day, Dana J. Ehret, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Kathryn M. Greene, Leigh Anne Harden, Andrew S. Harrison, Kristen M. Hart, George L. Heinrich, Dawn K. Holliday, Victor S. Kennedy, Shawn R. Kuchta, Lori A. Lester, Jeffrey E. Lovich, John C. Maerz, David Owens, Allen R. Place, Taylor Roberge, Willem M. Roosenburg, Richard A. Seigel, Amanda Southwood Williard, Edward A. Standora, Anton D. Tucker, Diane C. Tulipani, Timothy J. Walsh, Thane Wibbels, Will Williams, Roger C. Wood
Disentangling the facts from the hype, this 'Domesday book' of the British and Irish countryside offers a definitive and up-to-date survey of the state of our wildlife today. Norman Maclean, editor of the bestselling Silent Summer, examines the latest findings of Britain and Ireland's top wildlife experts and interprets them for a wider audience. Each chapter provides reliable estimates of animal populations, showing which species are thriving and which are in decline. The book also considers the effects of climate change on our wildlife and how human population growth is influencing its development. Beautifully illustrated with colour plates and wood engravings throughout, this accessible and timely study reveals just how rapidly our countryside and its wildlife are changing, why we should be concerned, and what we can do about it.
Explore the animal kingdom with this pictorial atlas of the world's wildlife.
Where do animals build their homes? How do they survive in very hot and cold climates? Why are so many species endangered? Discover the answers to all these questions and many more in The Animal Atlas. This lavishly illustrated nature book takes children on a tour, continent by continent, to meet the animals of the world. Within each section, the book travels through different biomes, such as forests, deserts, and lakes; and specific regions, from the Everglades to the Galapagos, Himalayas, and Great Barrier Reef.
The Animal Atlas is packed with beautiful, life-like illustrations of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects that live all around the world, from the Amazon to Antarctica. Each species is carefully hand-drawn to show details of fur, feathers, or scales, while accompanying captions reveal fascinating facts about the animal's behaviour.
Maps, along with icons to represent each animal, show precisely where the animals are found. For example, Australia's iconic koala can be tracked down to the east coast of the country.
The book starts with an introduction to animal groups and habitats, and finishes with endangered species and a gallery of amazing, record-breaking animals. First published in 1992, this atlas has been updated for the 2020 edition and is a beautiful gift for a new generation of zoologists.
A unique guide to the unusual and often surprising birds that soar above our cities around the world. From frigatebirds wheeling over Rio de Janeiro to bowerbirds displaying in the suburbs of Canberra, penguins in Cape Town to pelicans in San Francisco, and huge flocks of starlings roosting around the Colosseum in Rome, the world's cities are home to a remarkable array of feathered citizens. Through Stephen Moss's expert knowledge and insight, Urban Aviary provides a beautiful guide to some of the most extraordinary species of city birds that have become native, including helpful spotting hints and fact boxes for each bird, all of which are brought to life by Marc Martin's distinctive and beautiful watercolours.
?One of the seminal works from the man regarded as the father of conservation in Scotland.One of Seton Gordons greatest works concentrates on the Hebrides of Scotland in the post-First World War years as the islands tried to regain their composure and re-establish their social order. Gordons prose recounts not only the way of life of the people but also the wildlife and wilderness in a classic memoir of a pattern of existence of which only sparse remnants now remain, and which is forever threatened.
This book describes in fascinating detail the wildlife, wild places and wild personalities that occupied Angolaís conservation landscape through four decades of war and a decade of peace. Intrigues, assassinations, corruption, greed and incompetence ? during the colonial era, through the horrific war and most especially throughout the crony-capitalist kleptocracy of President Jose Eduardo dos Santos ? have resulted in the extinction of most of its formerly abundant wildlife populations and the decay and erosion of a once endless Eden. This is the first book to integrate the political, economic and environmental threads that account for the post-colonial tragedy of one of Africaís most biologically diverse countries. A corrupt government has robbed the country of its vast oil and diamond wealth, of its environmental health, of its morality and of its soul. It was not always so. The author was appointed ecologist to Angolaís National Parks in 1971. But the vast open spaces, peaceful stillness and tropical luxuriance that he found during the four years they spent exploring and developing the countryís wildlife reserves was not to last. The powder keg of anger against centuries of colonial exploitation ? of slavery, of forced labour and of an abusive system of penal settlement ? could not be contained. Bloody nationalist uprisings led to the abandonment of Angola by Portugal and the transition from random guerrilla skirmishes with a colonial army into a brutal civil war that cost over one million lives. Despite its scarred history, the author believes the country can still rebuild its national parks and save much of its wildlife and wilderness. But this can only happen if the current ageing autocracy makes space for a new generation of Angolan conservationists.
Understanding the complex relationships between humans and the natural world is essential for achieving environmental sustainability and improving human well-being, yet many studies are unable to reveal complex interactions and hidden trends. This is the first book to synthesize the findings and approaches of long-term integrated research in a model coupled human and natural system, and to illustrate their applications to regional, national, and global scales. It features a classic long-term interdisciplinary research project in the Wolong Nature Reserve of China, which contains one of the largest wild populations of the world-famous endangered giant pandas. Bringing together a team of contributors from both the natural and social sciences, this book explores how a long-term interdisciplinary and model system approach is essential to uncover the common patterns and mechanisms of coupled systems, to develop ideas and methods for studying and managing other coupled systems, and ultimately to contribute to the development of theories about coupled systems for sustainability. Pandas and People will be essential reading for scholars interested in the interface of the natural and social sciences, including ecologists, conservation biologists, environmental scientists, sustainability scientists, wildlife biologists, forest scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, economists, and political scientists. It will also be a valuable reference for policy makers, natural resource managers, and graduate students.
In March 2014, Eric Larsen and Ryan Waters set out to traverse nearly 500 miles across the melting Arctic Ocean, unsupported, from Northern Ellesmere Island to the geographic North Pole. Despite being one of the most cold and hostile environments on the planet, the Arctic Ocean has seen a steady and significant reduction of sea ice over the past seven years due to climate change. Because of this, Larsen's and Waters' trip-dubbed the "Last North Expedition"-is expected to be the last human-powered trek to the North Pole, ever. Filled with stunning, full-color photos and GPS maps plotting his progress, On Thin Ice is Larsen's first-person account of this historic two-man expedition. Traveling across the retreating sea ice on skis, snowshoes, and even swimming through semi-frozen arctic slush, Larsen and Waters each pulled over 320 pounds of gear behind them on sleds through temperatures that plummeted to nearly 70 degrees below zero. At times, they covered little over a mile a day. They were stalked by polar bears and ran out of food. It was, in Larsen's words, "easily one of the most difficult expeditions in the world." More than just a heart-stopping adventure narrative, however, On Thin Ice offers an intimate and haunting look at the rapidly changing face of the Arctic due to global climate change.
Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) has classically been defined as a situation where wildlife impacts humans negatively (physically, economically, or psychologically), and where humans likewise negatively impact wildlife. However, there is growing consensus that the conflict between people about wildlife is as important as the conflict between people and wildlife. HWC not only affects the conservation of one species in a particular geographic area, but also impacts the willingness of an individual, a community, and wider society to support conservation programs in general. This book explores the complexity inherent in these situations, covering the theory, principles, and practical applications of HWC work, making it accessible and usable for conservation practitioners, as well as of interest to researchers more concerned with a theoretical approach to the subject. Through a series of case studies, the book's authors and editors tackle a wide variety of subjects relating to conflict, from the challenges of wicked problems and common pool resources, to the roles that storytelling and religion can play in conflict. Throughout the book, the authors work with a Conservation Conflict Transformation (CCT) approach, adapted from the peacebuilding field to address the reality of conservation today. The authors utilise one of CCT's key analytic components, the Levels of Conflict model, as a tool to provide insight into their case studies. Although the examples discussed are from the world of marine conservation, the lessons they provide are applicable to a wide variety of global conservation issues, including those in the terrestrial realm. Human-Wildlife Conflict will be essential reading for graduate students and established researchers in the field of marine conservation biology. It will also be a valuable reference for a global audience of conservation practitioners, wildlife managers, and other conservation professionals.
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