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Notwithstanding the importance of modern technology, fieldwork remains vital, not least through helping to inspire and educate the next generation. Fieldwork has the ingredients of intellectual curiosity, passion, rigour and engagement with the outdoor world - to name just a few. You may be simply noting what you see around you, making detailed records, or carrying out an experiment; all of this and much more amounts to fieldwork. Being curious, you think about the world around you, and through patient observation develop and test ideas. Forty contributors capture the excitement and importance of fieldwork through a wide variety of examples, from urban graffiti to the Great Barrier Reef. Outdoor learning is for life: people have the greatest respect and care for their world when they have first-hand experience of it.
Written for anyone interested in green development - including policy makers, architects, developers, builders, and homeowners - this practical guide focuses on the central question of how to conserve biodiversity in neighborhoods and to minimize development impacts on surrounding habitats. "The Green Leap" specifically helps move green development beyond the design stage by thoroughly addressing construction and post-construction issues. Incorporating many real-world examples, Mark Hostetler explains key conservation concepts and techniques, with specific advice for a wide variety of stakeholders that are interested in creating and maintaining green developments. He outlines the key players and principles needed to establish biodiverse communities and illustrates eight key design and management strategies. "The Green Leap" not only offers essential information for constructing new developments but also helps existing communities retrofit homes, yards, and neighborhoods to better serve both people and nature.
This book brings together leading conservation practitioners to reflect on their response to the current global biodiversity crisis, through the lens of island species recovery and management. Initial chapters cover the biological understanding of small population biology and the growing threat of invasive species, while subsequent chapters discuss the management of these threats and the complexity of leading projects within a dynamic and still relatively unknown system. Multiple case studies from islands worldwide illustrate key points, allowing readers to draw on the first-hand practical experience of experienced professionals. This resource will be invaluable to both current and future conservation professionals, helping them to go beyond disciplinary 'comfort zones' and develop, manage and lead projects over extensive timeframes in a way that brings others with them on the journey.
Ecology and Conservation of Forest Birds is a unique review of current understanding of the relationships between forest birds and their changing environments. Large ecological changes are being driven by forest management, climate change, introduced pests and pathogens, abiotic disturbances, and overbrowsing. Many forest bird species have suffered population declines, with the situation being particularly severe for birds dependent on attributes such as dead wood, old trees and structurally complex forests. With a focus on the non-tropical parts of the Northern Hemisphere, the text addresses the fundamental evolutionary and ecological aspects of forest birds using original data analyses and synthesising reviews. The characteristics of bird assemblages and their habitats in different European forest types are explored, together with the macroecological patterns of bird diversity and conservation issues. The book provides a valuable reference for ecologists, ornithologists, conservation professionals, forest industry employees, and those interested in birds and nature.
Kate Nicholls left England to raise her five children in Botswana: an experience that would change each of their lives. Living on a shoestring in a lion conservation camp, Kate home-schools her family while they also learn at first hand about the individual lives of wild lions. Their deep attachment to these magnificent animals is palpable. The setting is exotic but it is also precarious. When the author is subjected to a brutal attack by three men, it threatens to destroy her and her family: post-traumatic stress turns a good mother into a woman who is fragmented and out of control. In this powerfully written, raw and often warmly funny memoir, we witness the devastation of living with a mother whose resilience is almost broken, and how familial structures shift as the children mature and roles change. Under the CamelthornTree addresses head-on the many issues surrounding motherhood, education, independence, and the natural world; and highlights the long-lasting effect of gender violence on secondary victims. Above all, it is an inspiring account of family love, and a powerful beacon of hope for life after trauma.
_________________ 'BRITAIN'S FINEST LIVING NATURE WRITER' - THE TIMES A SUNDAY TIMES BESTSELLER and BBC Radio 4 'Book of the Week' from 'indisputably, one of the best nature-writers of his generation' (Country Life) Written in diary format, The Wood is the story of English woodlands as they change with the seasons. Lyrical and informative, steeped in poetry and folklore, The Wood inhabits the mind and touches the soul. For four years John Lewis-Stempel managed Cockshutt wood, a particular wood - three and half acres of mixed woodland in south west Herefordshire - that stands as exemplar for all the small woods of England. John coppiced the trees and raised cows and pigs who roamed free there. This is the diary of the last year, by which time he had come to know it from the bottom of its beech roots to the tip of its oaks, and to know all the animals that lived there - the fox, the pheasants, the wood mice, the tawny owl - and where the best bluebells grew. For many fauna and flora, woods like Cockshutt are the last refuge. It proves a sanctuary for John too. To read The Wood is to be amongst its trees as the seasons change, following an easy path until, suddenly the view is broken by a screen of leaves, or your foot catches on a root, or a bird startles overhead. This is a wood you will never want to leave.
This book brings together scientific evidence and experience relevant to the practical conservation of wild birds. The authors worked with an international group of bird experts and conservationists to develop a global list of interventions that could benefit wild birds. For each intervention, the book summarises studies captured by the Conservation Evidence project, where that intervention has been tested and its effects on birds quantified. The result is a thorough guide to what is known, or not known, about the effectiveness of bird conservation actions throughout the world. The preparation of this synopsis was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council and Arcadia.
"In this brilliant study of cloned wild life, Carrie Friese adds a whole new dimension to the study of reproduction, illustrating vividly and persuasively how social and biological reproduction are inextricably bound together, and why this matters."--Sarah Franklin, author of Dolly Mixtures: the Remaking of Genealogy The natural world is marked by an ever-increasing loss of varied habitats, a growing number of species extinctions, and a full range of new kinds of dilemmas posed by global warming. At the same time, humans are also working to actively shape this natural world through contemporary bioscience and biotechnology. In Cloning Wild Life, Carrie Friese posits that cloned endangered animals in zoos sit at the apex of these two trends, as humans seek a scientific solution to environmental crisis. Often fraught with controversy, cloning technologies, Friese argues, significantly affect our conceptualizations of and engagements with wildlife and nature. By studying animals at different locations, Friese explores the human practices surrounding the cloning of endangered animals. She visits zoos--the San Diego Zoological Park, the Audubon Center in New Orleans, and the Zoological Society of London--to see cloning and related practices in action, as well as attending academic and medical conferences and interviewing scientists, conservationists, and zookeepers involved in cloning. Ultimately, she concludes that the act of recalibrating nature through science is what most disturbs us about cloning animals in captivity, revealing that debates over cloning become, in the end, a site of political struggle between different human groups. Moreover, Friese explores the implications of the social role that animals at the zoo play in the first place--how they are viewed, consumed, and used by humans for our own needs. A unique study uniting sociology and the study of science and technology, Cloning Wild Life demonstrates just how much bioscience reproduces and changes our ideas about the meaning of life itself. Carrie Friese is Lecturer in Sociology at the London School of Economics and Political Science.
A compilation of highly sought-after research focusing on wolf management and recovery programs in North America. Reviews the status of wolves in Canada, the United States, Greenland, and the Trans-Himalayan region. Specific chapters address several themes: historical perspectives and the evolution of wolf-human relationships; the status, biology, and management of wolves; restoration, reintroduction, and control programs; wolf-prey dynamics and implications of conservation practices; behavior and social interactions; taxonomy; diseases and physiology; and, research and management techniques. Proceedings of the Second North American Symposium on Wolves, 1992. Papers by: L. Boitani; F.F. Gilbert; R.D. Hayes and J.R. Gunson; F.L. Miller; R.O. Stephenson, W.B. Ballard, C.A. Smith, and K. Richardson; U. Marquard-Peterson; R.P. Thiel and R.R. Ream; P. Schullery and L. Whittlesey; C.E. Kay; D. Dekker, W. Bradford, and J.R. Gunson; J.L. Fox and R.S. Chundawat; S.H. Fritts, D.R. Harms, J.A. Fontaine and M.D. Jimenez; D.K. Boyd, P.C. Pacquet, S. Donelon, R.R. Ream, D.H. Pletscher, and C.C. White; D.R. Parsons and J.E. Nicholopoulos; A.P. Wydeven, R.N. Schultz, and R.P. Thiel; M.K. Phillips, R. Smith, V.G. Henry, and C. Lucash; R.P. Thiel and T. Valen; D.R. Seip; F. Messier; M.S. Boyce; D.J. Vales and J.M. Peek; B.W. Dale, L.G. Adams, and R.T. Bowyer; L.D. Mech, T.J. Meier, J.W. Burch, and L.G. Adams; L.G. Adams, B.W. Dale, and L.D. Mech; D.C. Thomas; D.R. Klein; C.S. Asa; C.S. Asa and L.D. Mech; T.J. Meier, J.W. Burch, L.D. Mech, and L.G. Adams; G.J. Forbes and J.B. Theberge; R.O. Peterson; T.K. Fuller; S.G. Fancy and W.B. Ballard; C. Vila, V. Urios, and J. Castroviejo; R.E. Anderson, B.L.C. Hill, J. Ryon, and J.C. Fentress; W.G. Brewster and S.H. Fritts; R.M. Nowak; R.K. Wayne, N. Lehman, and T.K. Fuller; R.M. Nowak, M.K. Phillips, V.G. Henry, W.C. Hunter, and R. Smith; C.J. Brand, M.J. Pybus, W.B. Ballard, and R.O. Peterson; M.R. Johnson, T.N. Bailey, E.E. Bangs, and R.O. Peterson; M.D. Drag, W.B. Ballard, G.M. Matson, and P.R. Krausman. W.B. Ballard, D.J. Reed, S.G. Fancy, and P.R. Krausman; W.B. Ballard, M.E. McNay, C.L. Gardner, and D.J. Reed; D.A. Haggstrom, A.k. Ruggles, C.M. Harms, and R.O. Stephenson; H.D. Cluff and D.L. Murray; R.D. Boertje, D.G. Kelleyhouse, and R.D. Hayes; R. Reid and D. Janz; R. Coppinger and L. Coppinger; P.L. Clarkson; L.D. Mech; Epilogue by M. Hummel
AS FEATURED ON 'BBC RADIO 4 'GOOD READS'. Woodlands Awards 2019: Woodland Books of the Year 'The oak is the wooden tie between heaven and earth. It is the lynch pin of the British landscape.' The oak is our most beloved and most common tree. It has roots that stretch back to all the old European cultures but Britain has more ancient oaks than all the other European countries put together. More than half the ancient oaks in the world are in Britain. Many of our ancestors - the Angles, the Saxons, the Norse - came to the British Isles in longships made of oak. For centuries the oak touched every part of a Briton's life - from cradle to coffin It was oak that made the 'wooden walls' of Nelson's navy, and the navy that allowed Britain to rule the world. Even in the digital Apple age, the real oak has resonance - the word speaks of fortitude, antiquity, pastoralism. The Glorious Life of the Oak explores our long relationship with this iconic tree; it considers the life-cycle of the oak, the flora and fauna that depend on the oak, the oak as medicine, food and drink, where Britain's mightiest oaks can be found, and it tells of oak stories from folklore, myth and legend.
Whilst the science of conservation biology is thriving as a discipline, ultimately global conservation is failing. Why, when the majority of people say they value nature and its protection? David Johns argues that the loss of species and healthy ecosystems is best understood as human imposition of a colonial relationship on the non-human world - one of exploitation and domination. Global institutions benefit from transforming nature into commodities, and conservation is a low priority. This book places political issues at the forefront, and tackles critical questions of conservation efficacy. It considers the role of effective influence on decision making, key policy changes to reduce human footprint, and the centrality of culture in mobilising support. It draws on political lessons from successful social movements, including human anti-colonial struggles, to provide conservation biologists and practitioners in scientific and social science disciplines and NGOs with the tools and wider context to accelerate their work's impact.
This book begins dramatically - a flight of eight mute swans occupying the entire width of the second floor level of a busy street in the centre of Edinburgh, bringing traffic to a halt. In England all mute swans belong to the Crown - in Scotland they are wild and of three varieties - the mute, the whooper swan and the Bewick swan. The author of this book has observed them all - the mute pair on a man-made pond that successfully raises eight cygnets year in and year out, the pair which valliantly tried three times to rear their young on a remote Highland loch, only to lose even the sole survivor and the gathering of 3000 whoopers on Loch Eyre in 1989 when there was unprecedented pondweed growth. The author also discusses swans in folklore and in literature and the need for severe penal legislation to outlaw the appalling things that are perpetuated on swans by certain members of the human race. Jim Crumley is the author of "The Royal Mile".
For years, pro-whaling forces and ardent anti whaling organizations in Japan and abroad have wrestled with a contentious and highly emotive issue, while proponents of whaling have sought to control the parameters of the debate by limiting it to a discussion of catchphrases such as 'sustainable use,' 'Japan's whaling traditions' and 'whale-eating culture'. "Whaling in Japan" seeks to broaden the terms of reference by providing a wider, objective analytic framework for examining this issue and the political actors and forces in Tokyo - the government, the bureaucracy and the Institute of Cetacean research - that create, control and implement Japan's policy and continue to shape the debate. Through the encouragement of political myths, the manipulation of public opinion and ironically, even by using the actions of the anti-whaling movement to its own advantage, pro-whaling forces have created a domestic consensus that allows Tokyo's whaling policies to continue to expand relatively unchallenged even as stockpiles of unsold whale meat build up in Japanese warehouses. "Whaling in Japan" focuses on the gap between the political myths and the reality of Japan's whaling policy and sheds light on seldom discussed aspects of the political and decision-making structures that support it. Morikawa also examines how Japan has used diplomacy and aid gradually to expand international support for its whaling policies at the International Whaling Commission (IWC) and considers the longer term future of whaling as environmental awareness grows apace.
Despite the 1989 global ivory trade ban, poaching and ivory smuggling have not abated. More than half of Tanzania's elephants have been killed for their ivory since 2007. A similarly alarming story can be told of the herds in northern Mozambique and across swathes of central Africa. But why the new upsurge? The popular narrative blames a meeting of two evils - criminal poaching and terrorism. But the answer is not that simple.Since ancient times, large-scale killing of elephants for their tusks has been driven by demand beyond Africa's range states from the Egyptian pharaohs through the industrialising West to the new wealthy business class of China. Elephant hunting in Africa is also governed by human-elephant conflict, traditional hunting practices and the impact of colonial exploitation and criminalisation.Ivory follows this complex history of the tusk trade in Africa, and explains why it is corruption, crime and politics, rather than insurgency, that we should worry about. In this ground-breaking work, Somerville argues that regulation - not prohibition - of the ivory trade is the best way to stop uncontrolled poaching.
Habitat loss and fragmentation arguably pose the greatest threats to biological diversity. Agriculture is a dominant land use that, along with urban sprawl and residential development, can reduce the amount and connectedness of natural areas required by many native species. Unfortunately, progress has been slow in integrating nature and biodiversity protection into community planning in intensively farmed regions, especially in America 's heartland. Seldom do issues related to species conservation receive consideration during local planning activities. Lack of progress stems partly from scientific inadequacies in understanding the dynamics of complex landscapes, and from a lack of engagement of non-scientific stakeholders by scientists and modelers. The result of these shortcomings is a critical disconnect of conservation issues from the planning infrastructure. This book provides a blueprint for advancing conceptual understanding of conservation in agricultural regions. It accomplishes this with a two-pronged approach: first, by developing spatially structured models that acknowledge the link between socio-economic drivers of land-use change and the dynamics of species occupying agricultural landscapes with abrupt changes in land cover (i.e., sharp edges); and second, by providing guidelines and examples to enable scientists to effectively engage stakeholders in participatory learning and planning activities that integrate biodiversity with other, more traditional considerations. The structure of the book is truly interdisciplinary, linking the efforts of ecologists, economists, statisticians, mathematicians, and land-use specialists.
The world's mediterranean-type climate regions (including areas within the Mediterranean, South Africa, Australia, California, and Chile) have long been of interest to biologists by virtue of their extraordinary biodiversity and the appearance of evolutionary convergence between these disparate regions. These regions contain many rare and endemic species. Their mild climate makes them appealing places to live and visit and this has resulted in numerous threats to the species and communities that occupy them. Threats include a wide range of factors such as habitat loss due to development and agriculture, disturbance, invasive species, and climate change. As a result, they continue to attract far more attention than their limited geographic area might suggest. This book provides a concise but comprehensive introduction to mediterranean-type ecosystems. It is an accessible text which provides an authoritative overview of the topic. As with other books in the Biology of Habitats Series, the emphasis in this book is on the organisms that dominate these regions although their management, conservation, and restoration are also considered.
Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) has classically been defined as a situation where wildlife impacts humans negatively (physically, economically, or psychologically), and where humans likewise negatively impact wildlife. However, there is growing consensus that the conflict between people about wildlife is as important as the conflict between people and wildlife. HWC not only affects the conservation of one species in a particular geographic area, but also impacts the willingness of an individual, a community, and wider society to support conservation programs in general. This book explores the complexity inherent in these situations, covering the theory, principles, and practical applications of HWC work, making it accessible and usable for conservation practitioners, as well as of interest to researchers more concerned with a theoretical approach to the subject. Through a series of case studies, the book's authors and editors tackle a wide variety of subjects relating to conflict, from the challenges of wicked problems and common pool resources, to the roles that storytelling and religion can play in conflict. Throughout the book, the authors work with a Conservation Conflict Transformation (CCT) approach, adapted from the peacebuilding field to address the reality of conservation today. The authors utilise one of CCT's key analytic components, the Levels of Conflict model, as a tool to provide insight into their case studies. Although the examples discussed are from the world of marine conservation, the lessons they provide are applicable to a wide variety of global conservation issues, including those in the terrestrial realm. Human-Wildlife Conflict will be essential reading for graduate students and established researchers in the field of marine conservation biology. It will also be a valuable reference for a global audience of conservation practitioners, wildlife managers, and other conservation professionals.
Wildlife Forensics: Methods and Applications provides an accessible and practical approach to the key areas involved in this developing subject. The book contains case studies throughout the text that take the reader from the field, to the lab analysis to the court room, giving a complete insight into the path of forensic evidence and demonstrating how current techniques can be applied to wildlife forensics.
The book contains approaches that wildlife forensic investigators and laboratory technicians can employ in investigations and provides the direction and practical advice required by legal and police professionals seeking to gain the evidence needed to prosecute wildlife crimes.
The book will bring together in one text various aspects of wildlife forensics, including statistics, toxicology, pathology, entomology, morphological identification, and DNA analysis.
This book will be an invaluable reference and will provide investigators, laboratory technicians and students in forensic Science/conservation biology classes with practical guidance and best methods for criminal investigations applied to wildlife crime.Includes practical techniques that wildlife forensic investigators and laboratory technicians can employ in investigations. Includes case studies to illustrate various key methods and applications. Brings together diverse areas of forensic science and demonstrates their application specifically to the field of wildlife crime. Contains methodology boxes to lead readers through the processes of individual techniques. Takes an applied approach to the subject to appeal to both students of the subject and practitioners in the field. Includes a broad introduction to what is meant by 'wildlife crime', how to approach a crime scene and collect evidence and includes chapters dedicated to the key techniques utilized in wildlife investigations. Includes chapters on wildlife forensic pathology; zooanthropological techniques; biological trace evidence analysis; the importance of bitemark evidence; plant and wildlife forensics; best practices and law enforcement.
This book explores how we can solve the urgent problem of optimizing the use of variable, uncertain but finite fisheries resources while maintaining sustainability from a marine-ecosystem conservation perspective. It offers readers a broad understanding of the current methods and theory for sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources, and introduces recent findings and technological developments. The book is divided into three parts: Part I discusses fish stock dynamics, and illustrates how ecological processes affecting life cycles and biological interactions in marine environments lead to fish stock variability in space and time in major fish groups; small pelagic fish, demersal fish and large predatory fish. These insights shed light on the mechanisms underlying the variability in fish stocks and form the essential biological basis for fisheries management. Part II addresses the technologies and systems that monitor changes in fisheries resources and marine ecosystems using two approaches: fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data. It also describes acoustic surveys and biological sampling, as well as stock assessment methods. Part III examines management models for effectively assessing the natural variability in fisheries resources. The authors explore ways of determining the allowable catch in response to changes in stock abundance and how to incorporate ecological processes and monitoring procedures into management models. This book offers readers a broad understanding of sustainable exploitation as well as insights into fisheries management for the next generation.
Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is one of the most complex and urgent issues facing wildlife management and conservation today. Originally focused on the ecology and economics of wildlife damage, the study and mitigation of HWC has gradually expanded its scope to incorporate the human dimensions of the whole spectrum of human-wildlife relationships, from conflict to coexistence. Having the conflict-to-coexistence continuum as its leitmotiv, this book explores a variety of theories and methods currently used to address human-wildlife interactions, illustrated by case studies from around the world. It presents some key concepts in the field, such as values, emotions, social identity and tolerance, and a variety of insights and solutions to turn conflict into coexistence, from individual level to national scales, including conservation marketing, incremental and radical innovation, strategic planning, and socio-ecological systems. This volume will be of interest to a wide range of readers, including academics, researchers, students, practitioners and policy-makers.
The management and conservation of natural populations relies heavily on concepts and results generated from models of population dynamics. Yet this is the first book to present a unified and coherent explanation of the underlying theory. This novel text begins with a consideration of what makes a good state variable, progressing from the simplest models (those with a single variable such as abundance or biomass) to more complex models with other key variables of population structure (including age, size, life history stage, and space). Throughout the book, attention is paid to concepts such as population variability, population stability, population viability/persistence, and harvest yield. Later chapters address specific applications to conservation such as recovery planning for species at risk, fishery management, and the spatial management of marine resources. Population Dynamics for Conservation is suitable for graduate-level students. It will also be valuable to academic and applied researchers in population biology. This overview of population dynamic theory can serve to further their population research, as well as to improve their understanding of population management.
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