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With climate change and increasing globalisation of trade and travel, the risks presented by invasive pests and pathogens to natural environments, agriculture and economies have never been greater, and are only increasing with time. Governments world-wide are responding to these increased threats by strengthening quarantine and biosecurity. This book presents a comprehensive review of risk-based techniques that help policy makers and regulators protect national interests from invasive pests and pathogens before, at, and inside national borders. Selected from the research corpus of the Centre of Excellence for Biosecurity Risk Analysis at the University of Melbourne, this book provides solutions that reflect scientific rigour coupled with practical, hands-on applications. Focusing on surveillance, stochastic modelling, intelligence gathering, decision making and risk communication, the contents combine the strengths of risk analysts, mathematicians, economists, biologists and statisticians. The book presents tested scientific solutions to the greatest challenges faced by quarantine and biosecurity policy makers and regulators today.
The contingent valuation technique for measuring the economic value of environmental goods and services has become increasingly popular in recent years and has many advantages over other revealed or stated preference methods. It has been criticised, however, for being inconsistent with economic theory by reflecting altruistic motives and moral obligations. This book examines the role of the `warmglow' effect (the pleasure derived from giving to good causes or being concerned about the environment) in contingent valuation studies and examines whether warmglow is an underlying force in CV responses. The author argues that if the empirical evidence suggests that warmglow is important, then its magnitude needs to be assessed in the valuation function. The ultimate goal is to disentangle the warmglow effect from the original `willingness-to-pay' mean estimates and compute a dry estimate, free from any warmglow. The author conducts a CV application in a Portuguese natural park to test the validity of this approach. He tests the premise that the financial contribution by itself constitutes a source of well-being to the respondent and also discusses whether the warm glow component should or should not be included when formulating benefit-cost analysis and environmental policy. This innovative book will be essential reading to all students and scholars of the economics of environmental valuation.
Written by an author with longstanding experience in the ecology of insects and birds and with a stellar academic record in molecular life sciences, this is a welcome challenge to the widely held beliefs in conventional environmental policies. Werner Kunz convincingly explains why maintaining high biodiversity in Europe depends heavily on the existence of open space and sparse ground vegetation that is neither used for intensive modern agriculture, nor eliminated by reforestation. He questions the commonly propagated opinion that nature conservation is equivalent to species protection - and shows that technical habitat design can rescue endangered species. A must-have for environmental agencies, policy makers, ecologists and all who are witnessing the current loss of species in Central Europe.
A Project of the Center for Great Plains Studies and the School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska Great Plains Bison traces the history and ecology of this American symbol from the origins of the great herds that once dominated the prairie to its near extinction in the late nineteenth century and the subsequent efforts to restore the bison population. A longtime wildlife biologist and one of the most powerful literary voices on the Great Plains, Dan O'Brien has managed his own ethically run buffalo ranch since 1997. Drawing on both extensive research and decades of personal experience, he details not only the natural history of the bison but also its prominent symbolism in Native American culture and its rise as an icon of the Great Plains. Great Plains Bison is a tribute to the bison's essential place at the heart of the North American prairie and its ability to inspire naturalists and wildlife advocates in the fight to preserve American biodiversity.
Rangan appraises the grassroots social resistance within its cultural context to scrutinize the myths surrounding indigenous 'tree huggers'.
Infrastructure development in Africa and Asia is expanding at breakneck speed, largely in biodiversity-rich developing nations. The trend reflects governments' efforts to promote economic growth in response to increasing populations, rising consumption rates and persistent inequalities. Large-scale infrastructure development is regularly touted as a way to meet the growing demand for energy, transport and food - and as a key to poverty alleviation. In practice, however, road networks, hydropower dams and 'development corridors' tend to have adverse effects on local populations, natural habitats and biodiversity. Such projects typically weaken the capacity of ecosystems to maintain ecological functions on which wildlife and human communities depend, particularly in the face of climate change. This title is also available as Open Access via Cambridge Core.
Contingent Valuation and Endangered Species provides a comprehensive and rigorous examination of the contingent valuation method as applied to the profound social problem of biodiversity conservation. The contingent valuation method allows the explicit identification and valuation of the non-use values of species in a way which has not been possible before. This new book offers a rigorous state-of-the-art evaluation of the theoretical and statistical issues central to the contingent valuation method as well as a hands-on account of the design, implementation and analysis of contingent valuation surveys of the benefits of species conservation. Contingent Valuation and Endangered Species includes a comprehensive account of efforts at endangered species protection in Australia and New Zealand as well as current developments in the United States. This comprehensive appraisal of the problems and economics of biodiversity conservation will be welcomed by researchers and practitioners as an explicit hands-on application of the contingent valuation method.
The area where urban lands meet and interact with rural lands, the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI), is developing into a major battleground on the environmental front. Forests at the Wildland-Urban Interface: Conservation and Management provides information, principles, tools, and case studies that enhance natural resource management, planning, and policy-making for the Wildland-Urban Interface. The text serves as an excellent guide and reference for natural resource professionals and urban planners as they seek insight on effective ways to address the challenges and opportunities associated with WUI issues as related to diminishing forest lands and natural vegetation areas.
The renowned zoologist Fritz Eloff became interested in the Kalahari lion in 1958 when he first heard a lion roaring from the red dunes surrounding the camp. So impressive was the earth-trembling sound that he decided to devote his studies to these predators. This meant that he also had to become familiar with the Kalahari, its dust, its intense heat during the day and freezing cold nights, its vegetation, all the mammals and birds that form part of the lionís food chain as well as the other predators the lion has to compete with. This book is the result of 40 years of extensive research and numerous exciting adventures. Written in an accessible style, it imparts information about the physical characteristics of the Kalahari lion, its habitat, role in the ecosystem and interaction with humans. The book concludes with the stories of a number of legendary male and female lions, and the authorís view on the survival of these magnificent animals in an ever changing environment.
Satellite remote sensing presents an amazing opportunity to inform biodiversity conservation by inexpensively gathering repeated monitoring information for vast areas of the Earth. However, these observations first need processing and interpretation if they are to inform conservation action. Through a series of case studies, this book presents detailed examples of the application of satellite remote sensing, covering both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, to conservation. The authors describe how collaboration between the remote sensing and conservation communities makes satellite data functional for operational conservation, and provide concrete examples of the lessons learned in addition to the scientific details. The editors, one at NASA and the other at a conservation NGO, have brought together leading researchers in conservation remote sensing to share their experiences from project development through to application, and emphasise the human side of these projects.
This edited volume presents a comprehensive and coherent interdisciplinary analysis of challenges and possibilities for sustainable governance of the Baltic Sea ecosystem by combining knowledge and approaches from natural and social sciences. Focusing on the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) and associated multi-level, multi-sector and multi-actor challenges, the book provides up-to-date descriptions and analyses of environmental governance structures and processes at the macro-regional Baltic Sea level. Organised in two parts, Part 1 presents in-depth case studies of environmental governance practices and challenges linked to five key environmental problems - eutrophication, chemical pollution, overfishing, oil discharges and invasive species. Part 2 analyses and compares governance challenges and opportunities across the five case studies, focusing on governance structures and EAM implementation, knowledge integration and science support, as well as stakeholder communication and participation. Based on these cross-case comparisons, this book also draws a set of general conclusions on possible ways of improving the governance of the Baltic Sea by promoting what are identified as vital functions of environmental governance: coordination, integration, interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability.
The late nineteenth and early twentieth century were a brutal time for American wildlife, with many species pushed to the brink of extinction. (Some are endangered to this day.) And yet these decades also saw the dawn of the conservationist movement. Into this contradictory era came William Temple Hornaday, a larger-than-life dynamo who almost uncannily embodies these conflicting threads in our history. In The Most Defiant Devil, a compelling new biography of this complex figure, Gregory Dehler explores the life of Hornaday the hunter, museum builder, zoologist, author, conservationist, and anti-Bolshevist crusader. A deeply religious man, he was nonetheless anything but peaceful and was racist even by his era's standards, going so far as to display an Mbuti pygmy as a ""living specimen"" in a zoo. A passionate hunter, Hornaday killed thousands of animals, including some of the last wild buffalo in America, but he was far ahead of his time in his influential views on the protection of wildlife. Hornaday designed and built the New York Zoological Park (which became the Bronx Zoo) and was chief taxidermist for what would later become the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.In this single, fascinating individual, we can discern some of the Progressive Era's most destructive forces and some of its most enlightened visions.
The diamond-backed terrapin is not only a uniquely evolved and beautiful turtle, it also has a long history as a vital American food source. Once so numerous that people reportedly grew tired of eating them, diamond-backed terrapins are greatly reduced in numbers today and have become an icon of salt marsh conservation. Considerably diminished in some areas and struggling to survive, this distinctive brackish water turtle is the focus of intense conservation efforts. In Ecology and Conservation of the Diamond-backed Terrapin, leading terrapin researcher Willem M. Roosenburg and experienced science editor Victor S. Kennedy have brought together a group of expert scientists to summarize our current understanding of terrapin biology, physiology, behavior, and conservation efforts. Over the course of 19 comprehensive chapters, contributors * review the latest information on this charismatic species * provide a detailed summary of the terrapin's natural history * explain the threats to terrapin population stability throughout their range* examine ongoing conservation efforts to ensure the reptile's survival* present convincing arguments for the value of the diamond-backed terrapin as an estuarine indicator organism* use the terrapin as a model for studying the consequences of exploitation and environmental degradation on long-lived species This exceptional book provides pivotal information for estuarine and turtle biologists, terrapin enthusiasts, natural historians, educators, conservationists, resource managers, and students. Ecology and Conservation of the Diamond-backed Terrapin is the definitive volume on this important American reptile. Contributors: Benjamin K. Atkinson, Harold W. Avery, Patrick J. Baker, Ralph E.J. Boerner, Russell L. Burke, Joseph A. Butler, Randolph M. Chambers, Paul E. Converse, Brian A. Crawford, Rusty D. Day, Dana J. Ehret, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Kathryn M. Greene, Leigh Anne Harden, Andrew S. Harrison, Kristen M. Hart, George L. Heinrich, Dawn K. Holliday, Victor S. Kennedy, Shawn R. Kuchta, Lori A. Lester, Jeffrey E. Lovich, John C. Maerz, David Owens, Allen R. Place, Taylor Roberge, Willem M. Roosenburg, Richard A. Seigel, Amanda Southwood Williard, Edward A. Standora, Anton D. Tucker, Diane C. Tulipani, Timothy J. Walsh, Thane Wibbels, Will Williams, Roger C. Wood
As more and more people crowd onto less and less land, incidences of human-wildlife conflicts will only increase. A comprehensive overview of this emerging field, Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts: The Science of Wildlife Damage Management discusses the issues facing wildlife managers and anyone else dealing with interactions between wildlife and humans. By defining the discipline of wildlife damage management, this book fills a void in the fields of wildlife management and ecology.
Bringing together the viewpoints of leading ecologists concerned with the processes that generate patterns of diversity, and evolutionary biologists who focus on mechanisms of speciation, this book opens up discussion in order to broaden understanding of how speciation affects patterns of biological diversity, especially the uneven distribution of diversity across time, space and taxa studied by macroecologists. The contributors discuss questions such as: Are species equivalent units, providing meaningful measures of diversity? To what extent do mechanisms of speciation affect the functional nature and distribution of species diversity? How can speciation rates be measured using molecular phylogenies or data from the fossil record? What are the factors that explain variation in rates? Written for graduate students and academic researchers, the book promotes a more complete understanding of the interaction between mechanisms and rates of speciation and these patterns in biological diversity.
From climate change to species extinction, humanity is confronted with an increasing array of societal and environmental challenges that defy simple quantifiable solutions. Complexity-based ecology provides a new paradigm for ecologists and conservationists keen to embrace the uncertainty that is pressed upon us. This book presents key research papers chosen by some sixty scholars from various continents, across a diverse span of sub-disciplines. The papers are set alongside first person commentary from many of the seminal voices involved, offering unprecedented access to experts' viewpoints. The works assembled also shed light on the process of science in general, showing how the shifting of wider perspectives allows for new ideas to take hold. Ideal for undergraduate and advanced students of ecology and conservation, their educators and those working across allied fields, this is the first book of its kind to focus on complexity-based approaches and provides a benchmark for future collected volumes.
The most up-to-date and authoritative resource on the biology and evolution of solitary bees While social bees such as honey bees and bumble bees are familiar to most people, they comprise less than 10 percent of all bee species in the world. The vast majority of bees lead solitary lives, surviving without the help of a hive and using their own resources to fend off danger and protect their offspring. This book draws on new research to provide a comprehensive and authoritative overview of solitary bee biology, offering an unparalleled look at these remarkable insects. The Solitary Bees uses a modern phylogenetic framework to shed new light on the life histories and evolution of solitary bees. It explains the foraging behavior of solitary bees, their development, and competitive mating tactics. The book describes how they construct complex nests using an amazing variety of substrates and materials, and how solitary bees have co-opted beneficial mites, nematodes, and fungi to provide safe environments for their brood. It looks at how they have evolved intimate partnerships with flowering plants and examines their associations with predators, parasites, microbes, and other bees. This up-to-date synthesis of solitary bee biology is an essential resource for students and researchers, one that paves the way for future scholarship on the subject. Beautifully illustrated throughout, The Solitary Bees also documents the critical role solitary bees play as crop pollinators, and raises awareness of the dire threats they face, from habitat loss and climate change to pesticides, pathogens, parasites, and invasive species.
This book focuses on Blakiston's fish owl and the red-crowned crane as umbrella species. Healthy river, riparian and wetland ecosystems are necessary to maintain the populations of the two species. Both species have been revered by people since ancient times, but both are currently listed as endangered because of their small population sizes. The population decline of the two species can be mainly attributed to the degradation of the natural riparian and wetland habitats, which is associated with land use development. The populations of the two species are now recovering in Japan due to recent conservation and reproduction efforts, but the genetic diversity of the two species are still low due to previous bottleneck effects. To develop conservation and dispersal plans to establish the species over the East Asian mainland and on the island of Hokkaido, basic information, such as their regional distribution, genetic diversity, food availability, reproductive traits, and nesting, breeding, rearing, and commuting habitat, is essential. The intensive, collaborative studies conducted in Japan and Russia has clarified the status quo and the ecology of the two species. This is the first book that comprehensively compiles the above information for the mainland and island populations. In addition, it verifies their suitability as umbrella species of an ecosystem and the possibility of their future population expansion, taking into account changes in land use in Hokkaido, which is about to experience a dramatic decline in human population. As such, the book provides valuable information for students who wish to learn about these beautiful symbolic creatures, for NGOs engaged in conservation activities, and for managers who are involved in creating conservation plans and implementing restoration projects.
The Canadian Environment in Political Context uses a non-technical approach to introduce environmental politics to undergraduate readers. First published in 2015, this revised edition features expanded chapters on wildlife, water, pollution, land, and energy. Beginning with a brief synopsis of environmental quality across Canada, this text moves on to examine political institutions and policymaking, the history of environmentalism in Canada, and other crucial issues including Indigenous peoples and the environment, as well as Canada's North. Enhanced with case studies at the end of each chapter, key words, and a comprehensive glossary, this text addresses the major environmental concerns and challenges that Canada faces in the twenty-first century.
An intrepid investigation of the criminal world of wildlife trafficking ― the poachers, the traders, and the customers ― and of those fighting against it.
Journalist Rachel Love Nuwer plunges the reader into the underground of global wildlife trafficking, a topic she has been investigating for nearly a decade. Our insatiable demand for animals ― for jewellery, pets, medicine, meat, trophies, and fur ― is driving a worldwide poaching epidemic, threatening the continued existence of countless species. Illegal wildlife trade now ranks among the largest contraband industries in the world, yet compared to drug, arms, or human trafficking, the wildlife crisis has received scant attention and support, leaving it up to passionate individuals fighting on the ground to try to ensure that elephants, tigers, rhinos, and more are still around for future generations.
Poached takes readers to the front lines of the trade: to killing fields in Africa, traditional-medicine black markets in China, and wild-meat restaurants in Vietnam. Through exhaustive first-hand reporting that took her to ten countries, Nuwer explores the forces currently driving demand for animals and their parts; the toll that demand is extracting on species across the planet; and the conservationists, rangers, and activists who are working to stop the impending extinctions ― people who believe this is a battle that can be won, that our animals are not beyond salvation.
The growth of the wildlife industry in South Africa can be measured
by the growth in the number of wildlife ranches. In 1965 there were
only four wildlife-fenced properties in the former north-western
Transvaal. By 2005, 40 years later, there were more than 10 000
properties with wildlife exemption permits in the nine provinces
combined. As the wildlife industry continues to expand, so too does
the need for scientific knowledge upon which it must be based.
Conrad Glass MBE is the Inspector of Police with the most lonely beat in the world: he patrols the remote island of Tristan da Cunha, a UK Overseas Territory in the middle of the South Atlantic Ocean. No aircraft fly overhead and none can land. Few ships pass this way. Just 267 people live here, earning their living from farming, fishing, conservation, handicrafts and the sale of coins and colourful postage stamps. Much of his work is involved in the conservation of some of the world's rarest species in this fragile and remote environment. It's as much about penguins as people. This is the story of the Tristan islanders, told through the policeman's notebook and the anecdotes of Conrad Glass, a former Chief Islander and Conservation Officer, who is a direct descendant of the first settler and governor, William Glass, one of a garrison landed to prevent any rescue of Napoleon from St Helena. It is the first book to be written by a Tristan islander: stories of rescue from wild Atlantic islands; volcanic eruptions; the protection of penguins, seals and albatross; of chase by a whale; escape from violent hurricanes and the keeping of the peace in this most remote of British Territories. There's a glimpse of the island's past too - hidden pirate treasure, a shipwrecked lion, ghostly apparitions, of slave ships and abduction.
Conflicts over the conservation of biodiversity are increasing and are serious obstacles to wildlife conservation efforts worldwide. Changing patterns in land use, over-exploitation, pollution, climate change and the threat posed by invasive species all challenge the way we currently maintain and protect biodiversity - from the local management of single species to the international management of resources. Integrating approaches from different academic disciplines, policy makers and practitioners, this volume offers a radically new, cross-disciplinary, multi-scale approach to deal with conflicts. Groundbreaking strategies for conservation are analysed and a large section of the book is devoted to exploring case studies of conflict from around the world. Aimed primarily at academics, researchers and students from disciplines relating to conservation, ecology, natural resources management and environmental governance, this book will be equally valuable to conservation NGOs and practitioners, and the policy community at national and international levels.
In telling the amazing story of how life on earth came to be so diverse, distinguished scientist Edward O. Wilson defined a new environmental ethic – our obligation to conserve ecosystems, not simply individual species. In an extensive new foreword to this classic work, he assesses the continuing threat that human activity poses to the Earth’s rich biodiversity and, most importantly, explains why we should care.
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