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Beaked whales have been shrouded in mystery for most of the twentieth century. Denizens of deep, remote ocean waters and highly resistant to life in captivity, they have proven notoriously difficult for humans to observe. Over the past few decades, however, scientists have gained a better understanding of this distinct group of cetaceans, deciphering the natural history of the twenty-two beaked whale species. Here, famed artist and naturalist Richard Ellis and leading beaked whale researcher James G. Mead bring these elusive marine mammals into the limelight. Beaked whales' generous life spans can extend well past 70 years. They spend their decades diving to extreme depths in search of prey, which they capture by expanding their oral cavity suddenly to suck in the squid or fish they are hunting. It appears that these sleek predators may engage in fierce, clandestine aquatic battles, as the bodies of many males are covered in scars. Because many species are only somewhat larger than dolphins, they are often confused with porpoises; however, some larger beaked whale species may grow to 40 feet. These enigmatic and compelling creatures need our help; their numbers are declining, perhaps due to the damaging effects of naval sonar on their sophisticated auditory systems. In Ellis and Mead's book, the beaked whales finally get their due. The duo provides a combination of captivating stories about the species, original Richard Ellis art, and photos from leading natural history photographers. The result is an accessible, beautiful book-the first of its kind on this unusual group of cetaceans. Meet the beaked whales, and enjoy the fascinating and mysterious world in which they live.
For this second edition all chapters have been thoroughly revised, and the book is now published in A4 format. Most woodland management has been highly beneficial for wildlife over the centuries, creating habitats which have supported a diverse flora and fauna. These range from the temporary open areas created by coppicing to veteran trees in grazed parkland, Sadly, the second part of the 20th century witnessed a period of neglect resulting in the reversion of large areas of coppice, under-thinned plantations and the loss of open space; and little active conservation of old-growth features. As a consequence we have seen a serious decline in woodland diversity. Many people and organisations are now in a position to do something actively to help, either as owners or custodians of woodland. This beautifully illustrated book aims to offer practical advice for those managing smaller areas of woodland for wildlife. The authors begin by introducing different woodland types - woodland plants, insects, birds, mammals, reptiles, fungi and lichens and how different management strategies will affect them. The creation of woodland open space is given particular prominence, together with other ways of improving woodland for wildlife, from conserving deadwood to putting up bat boxes. This book will appeal to small woodland owners and others with an interest in woodland management, including land owners, conservation organisations, foresters, consultants, planners, local authorities and community groups.
The author proposed the satoumi concept, analogous to the satoyama concept on land, as coastal sea with high biodiversity and productivity in harmony with human interaction in 1998. The concept for environmental conservation in the coastal seas has been widely accepted and was included in the Japanese national policy of Strategy for Establishment of an Environmental Nation in 2007. This book is a translation of the author s Japanese book (2010) in response to concerns and questions about satoumi, including: Does biodiversity increase as a result of human interaction in coastal seas? Do the economics of fishing villages need to be considered in detail? What legal support is necessary for the creation of satoumi? Is there a relation between the concepts of God and Nature in satoumi? What is the relationship between fishermen and city dwellers? Chapter 1 presents the basic concept of satoumi. In Chapter 2 the relation between biodiversity and human interaction, economic problems related to satoumi, legal support for satoumi creation, satoumi" "from the point of view of landscape ecology, and the relation between society and science with regard to the satoumi movement are discussed. In Chapter 3 examples of satoumi creation in Japan are presented, andin Chapter 4 the overseas dissemination of the satoumi concept is introduced, with Chapter 5 providing the conclusion. Chapter 1 presents the basic concept of satoumi. In Chapter 2 the relation between biodiversity and human interaction, economic problems related to satoumi, legal support for satoumi creation, satoumi" "from the point of view of landscape ecology, and the relation between society and science with regard to the satoumi movement are discussed. In Chapter 3 examples of satoumi creation in Japan are presented, andin Chapter 4 the overseas dissemination of the satoumi concept is introduced, with Chapter 5 providing the conclusion. "
The conservation of biological diversity depends on people's knowledge and actions. This book presents the theory and practice for creating effective education and outreach programmes for conservation. The authors describe an exciting array of techniques for enhancing school resources, marketing environmental messages, using social media, developing partnerships for conservation, and designing on-site programmes for parks and community centres. Vivid case studies from around the world illustrate techniques and describe planning, implementation, and evaluation procedures, enabling readers to implement their own new ideas effectively. Conservation Education and Outreach Techniques, now in its second edition and updated throughout, includes twelve chapters illustrated with numerous photographs showing education and outreach programmes in action, each incorporating an extensive bibliography. Helpful text boxes provide practical tips, guidelines, and recommendations for further exploration of the chapter topics. This book will be particularly relevant to conservation scientists, resource managers, environmental educators, students, and citizen activists. It will also serve as a handy reference and a comprehensive text for a variety of natural resource and environmental professionals.
Updated, with stunning new photographs At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the impossible was delivered. From the sterile depths of a disused china clay pit in Cornwall rose one of the most remarkable and ambitious ventures in recent memory. The Eden Project's Biomes, the world's largest conservatories, are the symbol of a living theatre of plants and people and their interdependence, of regeneration and of a pioneering forum for the exploration of possible futures. This is the extraordinary story of the Eden Project, of its conception, design and construction, of the larger-than-life personalities who made it happen and of all that has happened since its doors were first opened to the public in 2001. It is now undisputedly one of the world's great gardens with more than 17 million visitors flocking there and projects and partnerships all over the world.
We are living in the early stages of a looming worldwide extinction crisis. Abundant evidence shows that the current rate of species extinctions is nearing its highest level since the asteroid collision 65 million years ago, and that humans are largely responsible. This book addresses the urgent need to understand and find solutions to this crisis. Written by an international team of contributors who are among the best-known and most active experimental biologists working in the field of conservation biology today, it provides a unique approach by focusing on individual species rather than whole plant and animal communities. Emphasizing throughout how conservation biology can benefit from an experimental approach, the book looks at a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic species - from giant pandas and tree snails to sea turtles and Steller sea lions - and demonstrates what can be done both to preserve rare species and to combat invasive organisms. Finally, contributors show how we can bridge the gap between policy makers and research scientists in order to develop lasting solutions to these problems.
Understanding the complex relationships between humans and the natural world is essential for achieving environmental sustainability and improving human well-being, yet many studies are unable to reveal complex interactions and hidden trends. This is the first book to synthesize the findings and approaches of long-term integrated research in a model coupled human and natural system, and to illustrate their applications to regional, national, and global scales. It features a classic long-term interdisciplinary research project in the Wolong Nature Reserve of China, which contains one of the largest wild populations of the world-famous endangered giant pandas. Bringing together a team of contributors from both the natural and social sciences, this book explores how a long-term interdisciplinary and model system approach is essential to uncover the common patterns and mechanisms of coupled systems, to develop ideas and methods for studying and managing other coupled systems, and ultimately to contribute to the development of theories about coupled systems for sustainability. Pandas and People will be essential reading for scholars interested in the interface of the natural and social sciences, including ecologists, conservation biologists, environmental scientists, sustainability scientists, wildlife biologists, forest scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, economists, and political scientists. It will also be a valuable reference for policy makers, natural resource managers, and graduate students.
Numbering 92 species worldwide, the order Lagomorpha is a focal point of conservation efforts. Approximately one-quarter of all lagomorphs are under conservation concern, and a few are quite literally on the brink of extinction. Here, leading conservation biologist Andrew T. Smith and his colleagues bring together the world's lagomorph experts in the most comprehensive reference on the order ever produced. With detailed species accounts-illustrated with stunning color photos and up-to-date range maps-contributors highlight key ecological roles that lagomorphs play and explain in depth how scientists around the globe are working to save vulnerable populations. Thematic introductory chapters cover a broad spectrum of information about pikas, rabbits, and hares, from evolution, systematics, and diseases to lagomorph conservation status and management. Each animal account begins with the complete scientific and common names for each species. A description of the appearance and unique morphological characteristics is accompanied by a range of standard measurements of adult specimens. Subsequent sections discuss known paleontological data concerning the species, the current state of its taxonomy and geographic variation, and various aspects of the animal's biology. Aimed at naturalists, professional biologists, and students, this book will also serve as a valuable reference for those conducting biodiversity surveys and conservation throughout the world.
This extensive work focuses on an important group of temperate freshwater fish, approaching the topic from the perspectives of both biology and aquaculture. It compiles the latest research on fish belonging to the Percidae family and describes in detail all biological aspects relevant to the culture of different species, including ecology, reproductive physiology, feeding and nutrition, genetics, immunology, stress physiology and behavior. It also considers commercial fish production and fish farming topics, such as protocols for induction of gonad maturation, spawning, incubation and larval rearing. Expert contributors not only provide a critical peer review of scientific literature but also original research data, and identify effective practical techniques. The book features chapters on systematics, ecology and evolution, on development, metabolism and husbandry of early life stages and on growth, metabolism, behavior and husbandry of juvenile and grow-out stages. Furthermore, the authors consider genetic improvement and domestication, as well as diseases and health management, crucial to the readers' understanding of these fish and how they can be cultured. Both researchers of percid fish biology and aquaculture professionals who are considering intensive and pond culture of percid fishes will value this timely and comprehensive handbook.)
This is a much-needed update on a pioneering reintroduction project and its much-celebrated success. It also provides essential background and a logical and objective summary of its justification and significance in global conservation terms. It is very much a personal account, although fundamentally based upon and cognisant of the science, deriving much from the author's own experiences and researches, and liberally illustrated mostly by the author's photographs and drawings. This intimate account tells all that has happened since the reintroduction of the White-tailed Sea Eagle first began and exactly how its successes over the subsequent three and a half decades have received such worldwide recognition and acclaim. It describes the pioneering Rum releases (Phase 1) with which the author had been intimately involved, summaries of the Wester Ross (Phase 2) and East Scotland (Phase 3) releases with up-to-date information on the current Irish project in Kerry. The book includes a classification of the eagles and their folklore and information about the bird's history, distribution and biology including its breeding and feeding habits. The reader learns how the kudos of having Sea Eagles nesting locally has brought considerable economic benefit to Scottish communities, as it has in Norway and elsewhere.
European Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises: Marine Mammal Conservation in Practice presents an intimate view of the workings of international conservation agreements to protect marine mammals, detailing achievements over the last 25 years, identifying weaknesses and making recommendations that governments, scientists, marine stakeholders and the public can take to improve conservation efforts. The book is written by an experienced marine mammal scientist and award-winning conservationist, providing a unique synthesis on their status, distribution and ecology. In addition, it presents information on various conservation threats, including fisheries by catch, contaminants, noise disturbance, plastic ingestion and climate change. This comprehensive resource will appeal to marine mammal conservationists and researchers, as well as environmental and wildlife practitioners at all levels.
This book takes a multi-disciplinary and critical look at what has changed over the last ten years in one of the world's most important and dynamic ecosystems, the Amazon floodplain or varzea. It also looks forward, assessing the trends that will determine the fate of environments and people of the varzea over the next ten years and providing crucial information that is needed to formulate strategies for confronting these looming realities.
Besides the erroneous assumption that tropical fisheries are open access, the cases demonstrate that pre-existing systems (1) are concerned with the community of fishers and ensuring community harmony and continuity; (2) involve flexible, multiple and overlapping rights adapted to changing needs and circumstances; (3) that fisheries are just one component of a community resource assemblage and depend on both the good management of linked upstream ecosystems and risk management to ensure balanced nutritional resources of the community; and (4) pre-existing systems are greatly affected by a constellation of interacting external pressures.
"Very few people have spent as much time as William E. Glassley in such deep wilderness. So it would behoove us to pay attention even if he had not brought back such a fascinating, lovely, and useful set of observations. This is a remarkable book." Bill McKibben, author of The End of Nature and Oil and Honey "The profound mystery of our living Earth saturates this memorable book." John Elder, coeditor of The Norton Book of Nature Writing and author of Picking Up the Flute Greenland, one of the last truly wild places, contains a treasure trove of information on Earth's early history embedded in its pristine landscape. Over numerous seasons, William E. Glassley and two fellow geologists traveled there to collect samples and observe rock formations for evidence to prove a contested theory that plate tectonics, the movement of Earth's crust over its molten core, is a much more ancient process than some believed. As their research drove the scientists ever farther into regions barely explored by humans for millennia if ever Glassley encountered wondrous creatures and natural phenomena that gave him unexpected insight into the origins of myth, the virtues and boundaries of science, and the importance of seeking the wilderness within. An invitation to experience a breathtaking place and the fascinating science behind its creation, A Wilder Time is nature writing at its best. William E. Glassley is a geologist at the University of California, Davis, and an emeritus researcher at Aarhus University, Denmark, focusing on the evolution of continents and the processes that energize them. He lives in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Pick up virtually any textbook on vertebrate evolution and you will find mention of the curious reptile known as tuatara (Sphenodon). The special evolutionary status of tuatara as the last of the rhynchocephalians - one of the four orders of living reptiles - is unquestioned. Wild members of the sole living species are now restricted to a few dozen remote islands around the New Zealand coast, where for several centuries they have been observed and studied by humans. But are tuatara really unchanged "living fossils", or close relatives of dinosaurs, as sometimes portrayed? This is the first detailed monograph in decades about this enigmatic reptile, and the first to be illustrated in color throughout. The evolution, natural history, and conservation of tuatara are covered in comprehensive detail, providing a valuable resource for the specialist yet in a style accessible to a wide readership. The special place of tuatara in Maori and popular culture is also considered. Tuatara have survived alongside humans for more than 700 years, though with their numbers much reduced: what are their future prospects in a globally changing world? In this book, Alison Cree brings her personal experience of tuatara on more than 14 islands, in ecosanctuaries, and in captivity, to this wide-ranging overview.
Deforestation is occurring at an alarming rate in many parts of the world, causing destruction of natural habitat and fragmentation of what remains. Nowhere is this problem more pressing than in the Amazon rainforest, which is rapidly vanishing in the face of enormous pressure from humans to exploit it. This book presents the results of the longest-running and most comprehensive study of forest fragmentation ever undertaken, the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) in central Amazonia, the only experimental study of tropical forest fragmentation in which baseline data are available before isolation from continuous forest took place.
A joint project of Brazil's National Institute for Research in Amazonia and the U.S. Smithsonian Institution, the BDFFP has investigated the many effects that habitat fragmentation has on plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The book provides an overview of the BDFFP, reports on its case studies, looks at forest ecology and tree genetics, and considers what issues are involved in establishing conservation and management guidelines.
Biological invasions by alien (non-native) species are widely recognized as a significant component of human-caused global environmental change and the second most important cause of biodiversity decline. Alien species threaten many European ecosystems and have serious environmental, economic and health impacts. The DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe) project has now brought together all available information on alien species in Europe (terrestrial, aquatic and marine) and from all taxa (fungi, plants, animals). Thus for the first time, an overview and assessment of biological invasions in the Pan-European region is finally possible. The Handbook of Alien Species in Europe summarises the major findings of this groundbreaking research and addresses the invasion trends, pathways, and both economic as well as ecological impact for eight major taxonomic groups. Approximately 11.000 alien species recorded in Europe are listed, and fact sheets for 100 of the most invasive alien species are included, each with a distribution map and colour illustration. The book is complemented by a regularly updated internet database providing free additional information. With its highly interdisciplinary approach, DAISIE and its Handbook will be the basis for future scientific investigations as well as management and control of alien invasive species in Europe.
Fisheries science in North America is changing in response to a changing climate, new technologies, an ecosystem approach to management and new thinking about the processes affecting stock and recruitment.
Authors of the 34 chapters review the science in their particular fields and use their experience to develop informed opinions about the future. Everyone associated with fish, fisheries and fisheries management will find material that will stimulate their thinking about the future. Readers will be impressed with the potential for new discoveries, but disturbed by how much needs to be done in fisheries science if we are to sustain North American fisheries in our changing climate. Officials that manage or fund fisheries science will appreciate the urgency for the new information needed for the stewardship of fish populations and their ecosystems. Research organizations may want to keep some extra copies for a future look back into the thoughts of a wide range of fisheries professionals. Fisheries science has been full of surprises with some of the surprises having major economic impacts. It is important to minimize these impacts as the demand for seafood increases and the complexities of fisheries management increase.
On September 9th, 2012, the Abruzzo National Park - now Abruzzo, Latium and Molise National Park - celebrated its ninetieth birthday. It is - along with the Gran Paradiso National Park - the oldest protected area in Italy and one of the oldest in Europe. The colloquium held in Pescasseroli in May 2012, on which this volume is based, reconstructed the highlights of the Park's troubled but always influential history and took stock of its connections with the other protected areas, with Italian and international environmentalism and with the Italian society at large.
Flight has fascinated humans since we first looked into the sky and saw birds on the wing, and no flights are more fascinating than the extraordinary migrations birds make every day, week, month, and season of the year. Migration explores how birds make these incredible expeditions. From first preparing to migrate, to the different types of migration and the compelling reasons why it is a must. From the high-flying adventures of bar-headed geese that soar above the Himalayan Mountains and the long-distance endurance of Arctic terns that travel from pole-to-pole, birds of all families, from vast seasonal migrators to the more casual nomad, will be explored. As readers migrate through the book's pages, they will also discover avian navigation, curious routes, the hazards of the journey, and why, occasionally, birds end up far from their original destination. Beautifully illustrated, this book will debunk the most outrageous myths about migration as it thoroughly travels the globe exploring the epic journeys these incredible birds make.
We developed the first edition of this book because we perceived a need for a compilation on study design with application to studies of the ecology, conser- tion, and management of wildlife. We felt that the need for coverage of study design in one source was strong, and although a few books and monographs existed on some of the topics that we covered, no single work attempted to synthesize the many facets of wildlife study design. We decided to develop this second edition because our original goal - synthesis of study design - remains strong, and because we each gathered a substantial body of new material with which we could update and expand each chapter. Several of us also used the first edition as the basis for workshops and graduate teaching, which provided us with many valuable suggestions from readers on how to improve the text. In particular, Morrison received a detailed review from the graduate s- dents in his "Wildlife Study Design" course at Texas A&M University. We also paid heed to the reviews of the first edition that appeared in the literature.
This volume examines the topic of local biodiversity conservation in the Asia-Pacific region, one of the most rapidly changing areas in the world. With a focus on aquatic systems, this book offers insight on the state of local biodiversity, challenges in management and conservation of biodiversity, and newly developed methods for monitoring biodiversity. In addition, because the service provided by an ecosystem for humans is interlinked with conservation, the final part is dedicated to evaluating the socioeconomic aspect of ecosystem services, with special reference to local biodiversity. In effect, all contributions provide information that is invaluable for effective conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. This work will interest all stakeholders in biodiversity conservation, including policy makers, NPOs, NGOs, environment-related industries, and biodiversity researchers, not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also across the entire globe.
"Evidence bases for conservation are becoming increasingly important to convince landowners and politicians of the need to take action in defence of species and habitats all around the world. A valuable feature of this book is its emphasis on collecting and analysing such essential information." Trevor Beebee, Phyllomedusa Amphibians are among the most globally endangered groups of vertebrates with more than one-third of species being assessed as declining or threatened. Often, amphibian declines can be attributed to a suite of interacting factors, many of which are human in origin, but further information is needed to elaborate the key causes and to discover ways of reversing declines. Robust surveys provide vital ecological and biological data on amphibian populations, and underpin the decisions made to protect species and reverse their declines. Ongoing monitoring informs land managers and decision makers about whether they are taking the right action. This book is designed to help you carry out amphibian surveying and monitoring so that the results of your surveys can be used effectively. Part 1 introduces amphibians: order Anura (frogs and toads); Caudata (newts and salamanders); and order Gymnophonia (caecilians). Part 2 is essential reading before you start surveying. It introduces the different types of survey and monitoring programmes and discusses survey aims and resources. It contains chapters on collecting and handling survey data; survey permissions and licencing; health and safety, and biosecurity; and handling amphibians. Part 3 discusses everything you need to know during your survey, and provides a detailed look at amphibian survey methods. Part 4 covers presenting and using your survey's data to best effect. A useful resources section is also provided, with example survey forms and details of additional information resources that will optimize the impacts of your surveys. Key amphibian survey techniques are discussed with reference to published examples of successful surveys - so you'll be able to choose what's right for your situation. Tips on optimizing your survey effort and handling amphibians in the field are also included. Whether carrying out a student expedition project or seeking information to support the management of a protected area, this book contains essential advice from an amphibian ecologist who has encountered the same sorts of decisions you'll face when planning your surveys.
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