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This book compiles the latest findings in the field of marine and brackishwater aquaculture. It covers significant topics such as techniques of culture of live feeds (microalgae, rotifer, Artemia, marine copepod & polychaetes), while also highlighting vital themes like the culture and applications of free and marine sponge associated microbial probiotics, controlled breeding, seed production and culture of commercially important fin and shell fishes. Moreover, the book focuses on the breeding and culture of marine ornamental fishes, sea cucumber and sea urchin and discusses seaweeds culture, aqua feed formulation and nutrition, water quality management in hatchery and grow-out culture systems, fish disease diagnosis and health management and cryopreservation of fish gametes for sustainable aquaculture practices, all from a multidimensional perspective. The global fish production was 154 million tonnes in 2011 which more or less consisted of capture and culture fisheries (FAO, 2012). Roughly 80% of this is from inland-freshwater aquaculture and the remainder from capture fisheries in the marine and brackishwater sector. However, marine and brackishwater catches have recently begun to diminish due to overexploitation, climate change and pollution. The UNEP report affirmed that if the world remains on its current course of overfishing, by 2050, the ocean fish stock could become extinct or no longer commercially viable to exploit. In these circumstances, aquaculture is considered to be a promising sector to fulfill our future protein requirement. However, brackishwater and marine fish production now face serious challenges due to e.g. lack of quality fish seeds, feeds, poor water quality management and diseases. Fisheries and aquaculture sectors play a vital role as potential sources of nutritional security and food safety around the globe. Fish food is rich in protein, vitamins, phosphorous, calcium, zinc, selenium etc. In addition, fish contains omega-3 fatty acids, which help to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Fish food can also provide several health benefits to consumers. The omega 3 fatty acids found in fish can reduce the levels of LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) and increase the HDL levels (the "good" cholesterol). Research conducted in Australia has proved that fish consumption can be used to cure hypertension and obesity. It is also reported that people who ate more fish were less prone to asthma and were able to breathe more easily. Omega 3 fish oil or fish consumption can help to prevent three of the most common forms of cancer: breast cancer, colon and prostate cancer. The omega 3 fatty acids present in fish or fish oil induce faster hair growth and prevent hair loss. Since most varieties of fish are rich in protein, eating fish helps to keep hair healthy. Furthermore, fish or fish oil helps in improving the condition of dry skin, giving it a healthy glow. It is useful in treating various skin problems such as eczema, psoriasis, itching, redness of skin, skin lesions and rashes. It is well known that eating fish improves vision and prevents Alzheimer's and type-2 diabetes, and can combat arthritis. Further, fish oil or fish is good for pregnant women, as the DHA present in it helps in the development of the baby's eyes and brain. It helps to avoid premature births, low birth weights and miscarriages. In addition, it is widely known that fish can be a good substitute for pulses in cereal-based diets for the poor. The global fish production was roughly 154 million tonnes in 2011 (FAO, 2012). It is estimated that by 2020 global fish requirements will be over 200 million tonnes; as such, innovative technological improvements are called for in order to improve the production and productivity in fisheries. In this context, this book provides valuable information for academics, scientists, researchers, government officials and farmers on innovative technological advances for sustainable fish production using aquaculture methods. The book identifies the main issues and trends in marine and brackishwater aquaculture from a global perspective in general and in the Indian context in particular. It includes 23 chapters written by prominent researchers from various institutes and universities across India, who address the latest aquaculture technologies with distinctive approaches to support academics, researchers and graduates in the fields of Fisheries, Aquaculture, Marine Science, Marine Biology, Marine Biotechnology, Zoology and Agricultural Sciences. Our thanks go to our contributors; we are confident that all readers will immensely benefit from their valued expertise in the field of marine and brackishwater aquaculture.
Adaptive management is an approach to managing social-ecological systems that fosters learning about the systems being managed and remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception. Adaptive management persists because it allows action despite uncertainty, and uncertainty is reduced when learning occurs during the management process. Often termed "learning by doing", the allure of this management approach has entrenched the concept widely in agency direction and statutory mandates across the globe. This exceptional volume is a collection of essays on the past, present and future of adaptive management written by prominent authors with long experience in developing, implementing, and assessing adaptive management. Moving forward, the book provides policymakers, managers and scientists a powerful tool for managing for resilience in the face of uncertainty.
A New Statesman Book of the Year
The wolf stands at the forefront of the debate about our impact on the natural world. In one of the most celebrated successes of modern conservation, it has been reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park.
What unfolds is a riveting multi-generational saga, at the centre of which is O-Six, a charismatic alpha female beloved by park rangers and amateur spotters alike. As elk numbers decline and the wolf population rises, those committed to restoring an iconic landscape clash with those fighting for a vanishing way of life; hunters stalk the park fringes and O-Six’s rivals seek to bring an end to her dominance of the stunningly beautiful Lamar Valley.
This book will provide the state-of-the-art on most of the topics involved in the ecology and conservation of birds of prey. With chapters authored by the most recognized and prestigious researchers on each of the fields, this book will become an authorized reference volume for raptor biologists and researchers around the world.
This book discusses the beneficial and harmful effects of insects and explains their development and significance for biodiversity.Threatening pests or threatened beneficials? Biting midges are wonderful insects. The animals are so tiny and uniquely shaped that they are particularly good at pollinating the small and tight flowers of the cocoa tree. Without them, there would be much less chocolate. We associate other insects more with the damage that they cause. Mosquitoes and wasps bite us. Moth larvae damage textiles and contaminate foods. Ants undermine our paths and flies are just a pain.But what exactly is our relationship with insects? Are they more beneficial or harmful? What role do they play in the world? What are the effects of climate change: Will the number of insects continue to increase?
This title offers an inside look at the most successful campaign in forest conservation history. "Roadless Rules" is a fast-paced and insightful look at one of the most important, wide-ranging, and controversial efforts to protect public forests ever undertaken in the United States. In January 2000, President Clinton submitted to the Federal Register the Roadless Area Conservation Rule, prohibiting road construction and timber harvesting in designated roadless areas. Set to take effect sixty days after Clinton left office, the rule was immediately challenged by nine lawsuits from states, counties, off-road-vehicle users, and timber companies. The Bush administration refused to defend the rule and eventually sought to replace it with a rule that invited governors to suggest management policies for forests in their states. That rule was attacked by four states and twenty environmental groups and declared illegal. "Roadless Rules" offers a fascinating overview of the creation of the Clinton roadless rule and the Bush administration's subsequent replacement rule, the controversy generated, the response of the environmental community, and the legal battles that continue to rage more than seven years later. It explores the value of roadless areas and why the Clinton rule was so important to environmentalists, describes the stakeholder groups involved, and takes readers into courtrooms across the country to hear critical arguments. Author Tom Turner considers the lessons learned from the controversy, arguing that the episode represents an excellent example of how the system can work when all elements of the environmental movement work together - local groups and individuals determined to save favourite places, national organizations that represent local interests but also concern themselves with national policies, members of the executive branch who try to serve the public interest but need support from outside, and national organizations that use the legal system to support progress achieved through legislation or executive action.
This book summarizes and analyzes the biology, ecology, exploitation and management of small cetaceans in Japan. It describes the various types of cetacean fisheries in Japan and their historical development, the life histories and ecologies of the main species involved, and the history and problems of conservation and management. The data show that in some cases the number of small cetaceans harvested exceed sustainable limits and have led to depletion of populations. The book provides a case study of what can go wrong when the needs of industry and conservation collide. The descriptions of life history and ecology are relevant to issues of conservation and management, not just for cetaceans, but for all fisheries around the world.
"I am hopelessly and forever a mountaineer," John Muir wrote.
"Civilization and fever and all the morbidness that has been hooted
at me has not dimmed my glacial eye, and I care to live only to
entice people to look at Nature's loveliness. My own special self
The jaguar is one of the most mysterious and least-known big cats of the world. The largest cat in the Americas, it has survived an onslaught of environmental and human threats partly because of an evolutionary history unique among wild felines, but also because of a power and indomitable spirit so strong, the jaguar has shaped indigenous cultures and the beliefs of early civilizations on two continents. In An Indomitable Beast: The Remarkable Journey of the Jaguar, big-cat expert Alan Rabinowitz shares his own personal journey to conserve a species that, despite its past resilience, is now on a slide toward extinction if something is not done to preserve the pathways it prowls through an ever-changing, ever-shifting landscape dominated by humans. Rabinowitz reveals how he learned from newly available genetic data that the jaguar was a single species connected genetically throughout its entire range from Mexico to Argentina, making it unique among all other large carnivores in the world. In a mix of personal discovery and scientific inquiry, he sweeps his readers deep into the realm of the jaguar, offering fascinating accounts from the field. Enhanced with maps, tables, and colour plates, An Indomitable Beast brings important new research to life for scientists, anthropologists, and animal lovers alike. This book is not only about jaguars, but also about tenacity and survival. From the jaguar we can learn better strategies for saving other species and also how to save ourselves when faced with immediate and long-term catastrophic changes to our environment.
A comprehensive annotated bibliography on wolves - their ecology, conservation and management. Includes references contained in Ecology and Conservation of Wolves in a Changing World, supplemented by references recovered through a search of various databases and personal collections.
Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) has classically been defined as a situation where wildlife impacts humans negatively (physically, economically, or psychologically), and where humans likewise negatively impact wildlife. However, there is growing consensus that the conflict between people about wildlife is as important as the conflict between people and wildlife. HWC not only affects the conservation of one species in a particular geographic area, but also impacts the willingness of an individual, a community, and wider society to support conservation programs in general. This book explores the complexity inherent in these situations, covering the theory, principles, and practical applications of HWC work, making it accessible and usable for conservation practitioners, as well as of interest to researchers more concerned with a theoretical approach to the subject. Through a series of case studies, the book's authors and editors tackle a wide variety of subjects relating to conflict, from the challenges of wicked problems and common pool resources, to the roles that storytelling and religion can play in conflict. Throughout the book, the authors work with a Conservation Conflict Transformation (CCT) approach, adapted from the peacebuilding field to address the reality of conservation today. The authors utilise one of CCT's key analytic components, the Levels of Conflict model, as a tool to provide insight into their case studies. Although the examples discussed are from the world of marine conservation, the lessons they provide are applicable to a wide variety of global conservation issues, including those in the terrestrial realm. Human-Wildlife Conflict will be essential reading for graduate students and established researchers in the field of marine conservation biology. It will also be a valuable reference for a global audience of conservation practitioners, wildlife managers, and other conservation professionals.
Biology and Physiology of Freshwater Neotropical Fish is the all-inclusive guide to fish species prevalent in the neotropical realm. It provides the most updated systematics, classification, anatomical, behavioural, genetic, and functioning systems information on freshwater neotropical fish species. This book begins by analysing the differences in phylogeny, anatomy, and behaviour of neotropical fish. Systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, digestive, reproductive, muscular, and endocrine are described in detail. This book also looks at the effects of stress on fish immune systems, and how color and pigmentation play into physiology and species differentiation. Biology and Physiology of Freshwater Neotropical Fish is a must-have for fish biologists and zoologists. Students in zoology, ichthyology, and fish farming will also find this book useful for its coverage of some of the world's rarest and least-known fish species.
This book presents a collection of practitioner and community stories that reveal how invasive species management is a community issue that can spark community formation and collective action. It combines the unique first-person narratives of practitioners on the frontline of invasive species management in Australia with three case studies of community action for wild dog management across a range of geographical landscapes. The book offers readers a new understanding of how communities are formed in the context of managing different species, and how fundamental social and political processes can make or break landholders' ability to manage invasive species. Using narrative analysis of practitioner profiles and community groups, drawing lessons from real-world practices, and employing theories from community development, rural sociology and collective action, this book serves multiple functions: it offers a teaching tool, a valuable research contribution, and a practitioner's field guide to pursuing effective community development work in connection with natural resource management, wildlife management and environmental governance.
Insects are the most diverse and abundant animals that share our world, and conservation initiatives are increasingly needed and being implemented globally, to safe guard the wealth of individual species. This book provides sufficient background information, illustrated by examples from many parts of the world, to enable more confident and efficient progress towards the conservation of these ecologically indispensable animals. Writing for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, Tim New describes the major ingredients for insect species management and conservation, and how these may be integrated into effective practical management and recovery plans.
Amphibian species around the world are unusually vulnerable to a variety of threats, by no means all of which are properly understood. Volume 11 in this major series will be published in parts devoted to the causes of amphibian decline and to conservation measures in regions of the world; this Part 3 is concerned with Western Europe (Britain, Ireland, The Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal). Experts from each country contribute a chapter describing the ecological background and the conservation status of affected species, with an emphasis on native species. As well as infectious diseases and parasites (also covered in a general chapter), threats take the form of introduced and invasive species, pollution, destruction and alteration of habitat, and climate change. These are discussed as they affect each species. All these countries have monitoring schemes and conservation programmes, whose origins and activities are described. Recommendations for action are also made. Edited by leading scholars in the field, Volume 11, when complete, will therefore provide a definitive survey of the amphibian predicament and a stimulus to further research with the objective of arresting the global decline of an entire class of animal.
This book is about conflicts between different stakeholder groups triggered by protected species that compete with humans for natural resources. It presents key ecological features of typical conflict species and mitigation strategies including technical mitigation and the design of participatory decision strategies involving relevant stakeholders. The book provides a European perspective, but also develops a global framework for the development of action plans.
Savannah habitats comprise an ecologically important, but ultimately fragile, ecosystem. They constitute one of the largest biomes on Earth, covering almost 20% of the land surface, and can be simply described as tropical and subtropical grasslands with scattered bushes and trees. Most savannahs occur in Africa, although smaller areas can be found in South America, India, and Australia. They form a rich mosaic of diverse ecosystems, and this book offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to their ecology, biodiversity, and conservation. The Biology of African Savannahs describes the major plants (grasses, and trees such as Acacia) and animals (mainly large mammals) that live in this habitat, and examines the biological and ecological factors that influence their population size, interactions (such as predation), and community composition. Conservation issues such as climate change, hunting, and conflict between wildlife and domestic animals are also discussed. This new edition has been updated throughout with the latest research in the field, and contains new technique boxes which introduce readers to some of the analytical methods used to study African savannahs. This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in savannah and tropical ecology as part of a wider ecology and/or conservation biology degree programme. It will also be of relevance and use to the many professional ecologists and conservation practitioners requiring a concise but authoritative overview of the topic.
This volume examines the topic of local biodiversity conservation in the Asia-Pacific region, one of the most rapidly changing areas in the world. With a focus on aquatic systems, this book offers insight on the state of local biodiversity, challenges in management and conservation of biodiversity, and newly developed methods for monitoring biodiversity. In addition, because the service provided by an ecosystem for humans is interlinked with conservation, the final part is dedicated to evaluating the socioeconomic aspect of ecosystem services, with special reference to local biodiversity. In effect, all contributions provide information that is invaluable for effective conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. This work will interest all stakeholders in biodiversity conservation, including policy makers, NPOs, NGOs, environment-related industries, and biodiversity researchers, not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also across the entire globe.
Wind farms are an essential component of global renewable energy policy and the action to limit the effects of climate change. There is, however, considerable concern over the impacts of wind farms on wildlife, leading to a wide range of research and monitoring studies, a growing body of literature and several international conferences on the topic. This unique multi-volume work provides a comprehensive overview of the interactions between wind farms and wildlife. Volume 2 provides a state-of-the-science guide to monitoring and mitigation to minimise or even eliminate impacts on wildlife from wind farms. The survey and monitoring section includes detailed chapters on birds and bats followed by chapters on modelling of collision risk and populations and the statistical principles of fatality monitoring. The following mitigation section comprises chapters on spatial planning and effective mitigation strategies for bats, birds and raptors including through repowering. A synopsis of international best planning and practice concludes the volume. The authors have been carefully selected from across the globe from the large number of academics, consultants and practitioners now engaged in wind farm studies, for their influential contribution to the science. Edited by Martin Perrow and with contributions by over 30 leading researchers including: Ed Arnett, Cris Hein, Manuela Huso, Johann Koeppel, Roel May, Ian Smales & Shawn Smallwood. The authors represent a wide range of organisations and institutions including Bat Conservation International, Birdwatch Ireland, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Swiss Ornithological Institute, Technische Universitat Berlin and US Geological Survey as well as several leading consultancies. Each chapter includes informative figures, tables, photographs and detailed case studies. Several of the latter are produced stand-alone from invited additional authors to ensure geographic spread and to showcase exciting new research. This book is designed for practitioners, researchers, managers and for a range of students in higher education, particularly those involved with environmental, ecological, conservation, impact assessment and climate change studies. Other volumes: Volume 1: Onshore: Potential Effects (978-1-78427-119-0) Volume 3: Offshore: Potential Effects (978-1-78427-127-5) Volume 4: Offshore: Monitoring and Mitigation (978-1-78427-131-2)
Freshwater mussels are declining rapidly worldwide. Propagation has the potential to restore numbers of these remarkable organisms, preventing extinction of rare species and maintaining the many benefits that they bring to aquatic ecosystems. Written by practitioners with firsthand experience of propagation programs, this practical book is a thorough guide to the subject, taking readers through the process from start to finish. The latest propagation and culture techniques are explored as readers follow freshwater mussels through their amazing and complex life cycle. Topics covered include the basics of building a culture facility, collecting and maintaining brood stock, collecting host species, infesting host species with larval mussels, collecting and culturing juvenile mussels, releasing juveniles to the wild, and post-release monitoring. This will be valuable reading for any biologist interested in the conservation of freshwater mussel populations.
The study of primate ecology and conservation has advanced rapidly in recent years. This practical volume brings together a group of distinguished primate researchers to synthesize field, laboratory, and conservation management techniques for primate ecology and conservation. The synthesis focuses on new and emerging field methods alongside a comprehensive presentation of laboratory and data analysis techniques, as well as the latest methods for determining conservation status and conservation management. This book's particular focus is on innovative ways to study primates in a changing world, including emerging methods such as non-invasive genetic techniques and advanced spatial modeling. In addition to synthesizing field and lab methods, the authors also discuss data interpretation, as well as important guiding questions and principles for students and researchers to consider as they plan research projects in primate ecology and conservation such as: how to choose a field site, acquire research permits, connect with local authorities, communities and researchers, and many other considerations. Although three chapters are dedicated to conservation methods, consideration of conservation status and threats to primate populations are considered throughout this volume where appropriate. This latest publication in the Techniques in Ecology and Conservation Series aims to provide a practical empirical reference text with an international scope, appropriate for graduate students, researchers, and conservation professionals across the globe.
Back from the Brink, written by leading international conservationists, presents species that have been saved from the "brink of extinction" through the resolve and collaborative initiatives of individuals, communities, organizations, and governments over the past decades.Along with awe-inspiring photographs, the book presents in-depth profiles of 25 threatened species and in all includes the stories of nearly 100 species - some formerly believed extinct but now successfully rescued. The detailed information underscores the urgent need to work together to prevent further loss of nature's diversity and beauty and to mitigate the causes of climate change. As ongoing destruction, degradation, and fragmentation of the planet's natural ecosystems increase to make way for human populations, this volume clearly demonstrates every society's obligation to ensure the right balance between urban growth and natural ecosystems.The beauty in these pages serves as an aspiration for our collective work and our shared future.
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