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Habitat Conservation examines the relationship between habitat and ecosystem dynamics. Over the last decade scientists have made advances in their understanding of this relationship and this has had major impacts on their approach to nature conservation management.
The stingless bees are the most diverse group of highly social bees and are key species in our planet's tropical and subtropical regions, where they thrive. In Mexico, the management of stingless bees dates back centuries, and they were an essential part of the culture and cosmogony of native peoples like the Maya. In recent decades a vast amount of information has been gathered on stingless bees worldwide. This book summarizes various aspects of the biology and management of stingless bees, with special emphasis on the Mexican species and the traditions behind their cultivation. Much of the information presented here was produced by the author and the team of researchers at the Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan in the course of three decades of working with these insects. Given the breadth of its coverage, the book offers an equally valuable reference guide for academics, students and beekeepers alike.
Throughout the world people are concerned about the demise of tropical forests and their wildlife. Hunting by forest-dwelling people has a dramatic effect on wildlife in many tropical forests, frequently driving species to local extinction, with devastating implications for other species and the health of the forests themselves. But wildlife is an important source of protein and cash for rural peoples. Can hunting be managed to conserve biological communities while meeting human needs? Are hunting rates as practiced by tropical forest peoples sustainable? If not, what are the biological, social, and cultural implications of this failure? Answering these questions is ever more important as national and international agencies seek to integrate the development of local peoples with the conservation of tropical forest systems and species.
This book presents a wide array of studies that examine the sustainability of hunting as practiced by rural peoples. Comprising work by both biological and social scientists, "Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests" provides a balanced viewpoint on the ecological and human aspects of this hunting. The first section examines the effects of hunting on wildlife in tropical forests throughout the world. The next section looks at the importance of hunting to local communities. The third section looks at institutional challenges of resource management, while the fourth draws on economic perspectives to understand both hunting and sustainability. A final section provides synthesis and summary of the factors that influence sustainability and the implications for management.
Drawing on examples from Ecuador to Congo-Zaire to Sulawesi, "Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests" will be a valuable resource to policymakers, conservation organizations, and students and scholars of biology, ecology, and anthropology.
For centuries, borders have been central to salmon management customs on the Salish Sea, but how those borders were drawn has had very different effects on the Northwest salmon fishery. Native peoples who fished the Salish Sea - which includes Puget Sound in Washington State, the Strait of Georgia in British Columbia, and the Strait of Juan de Fuca - drew social and cultural borders around salmon fishing locations and found ways to administer the resource in a sustainable way. Nineteenth-century Euro-Americans, who drew the Anglo-American border along the forty-ninth parallel, took a very different approach and ignored the salmon's patterns and life cycle. As the canned salmon industry grew and more people moved into the region, class and ethnic relations changed. Soon illegal fishing, broken contracts, and fish piracy were endemic - conditions that contributed to rampant overfishing, social tensions, and international mistrust. The Nature of Borders is about the ecological effects of creating cultural and political borders on this critical West Coast salmon fishery. This transnational view provides an understanding of the modern Pacific salmon crisis and is particularly instructive as salmon conservation practices increasingly approximate those of the pre-contact Native past. The Nature of Borders reorients borderlands studies toward the Canada-U.S. border and also provides a new view of how borders influenced fishing practices and related management efforts over time.
Large carnivores include iconic species such as bears, wolves and big cats. Their habitats are increasingly being shared with humans, and there is a growing number of examples of human-carnivore coexistence as well as conflict. Next to population dynamics of large carnivores, there are considerable attitude shifts towards these species worldwide with multiple implications. This book argues and demonstrates why human dimensions of relationships to large carnivores are crucial for their successful conservation and management. It provides an overview of theoretical and methodological perspectives, heterogeneity in stakeholder perceptions and behaviour as well as developments in decision making, stakeholder involvement, policy and governance informed by human dimensions of large carnivore conservation and management. The scope is international, with detailed examples and case studies from Europe, North and South America, Central and South Asia, as well as debates of the challenges faced by urbanization, agricultural expansion, national parks and protected areas. The main species covered include bears, wolves, lynx, and leopards. The book provides a novel perspective for advanced students, researchers and professionals in ecology and conservation, wildlife management, human-wildlife interactions, environmental education and environmental social science.
One of the most dire consequences of global climate change for coral reefs is the increased frequency and severity of mass coral bleaching events. This volume provides information on the causes and consequences of coral bleaching for coral reef ecosystems, from the level of individual colonies to ecosystems and at different spatial scales, as well as a detailed analysis of how it can be detected and quantified. Future scenarios based on modelling efforts and the potential mechanisms of acclimatisation and adaptation are reviewed. The much more severe coral bleaching events experienced on Caribbean coral reefs (compared with those of the Indo-Pacific) are discussed, as are the differences in bleaching susceptibility and recovery that have been observed on smaller geographic scales.
European Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises: Marine Mammal Conservation in Practice presents an intimate view of the workings of international conservation agreements to protect marine mammals, detailing achievements over the last 25 years, identifying weaknesses and making recommendations that governments, scientists, marine stakeholders and the public can take to improve conservation efforts. The book is written by an experienced marine mammal scientist and award-winning conservationist, providing a unique synthesis on their status, distribution and ecology. In addition, it presents information on various conservation threats, including fisheries by catch, contaminants, noise disturbance, plastic ingestion and climate change. This comprehensive resource will appeal to marine mammal conservationists and researchers, as well as environmental and wildlife practitioners at all levels.
Despite many wetland sites having suffered various forms of damage, there has been a recent recognition that, in some instances, it may be possible to rectify this through deliberate and controlled restoration programmes. Wetland restoration involves a variety of disciplines and interests, concerning groups who are interested in wetland utilization (such as farmers, foresters, peat extractors and water authorities), as well as those who wish to safeguard the site or its wildlife (such as conservationists, natural historians, ecologists and archaeologists). Interaction between these action groups is regulated by planners and politicians, and disagreements are frequently fuelled by an absence of reliable information. In these circumstances, wetland scientists have a responsibility to try to acquire and interpret relevant data in an informed, objective and impartial way. This volume reviews the current scientific knowledge of wetland restoration, identifying the problems and opportunities associated with it. Based on revised and edited contributions to the recent Restoration of Temperate Wetlands symposium, it provides a broad overview of current information and experience of wetland restoration. In some cases it highlights the lack of knowledge available and illustrates how difficult it can be to make informed decisions. With contributions from Scandinavia, Europe, Australia, the USA and Canada, outlining the latest research and observations from a range of international wetland scientists and practitioners, this book provides a critical review of current information and knowledge and gives insights into many aspects of wetland restoration, with a focused approach to the ecological principles that underpin it.
This book by the renowned naturalist and writer Paul A. Johnsgard tells the complex biological and environmental story of the western Great Plains under the black-tailed prairie dog's reign-and then under a brief but devastating century of human dominion. An introduction to the ecosystem of the shortgrass prairie, Prairie Dog Empire describes in clear and detailed terms the habitat and habits of black-tailed prairie dogs; their subsistence, seasonal behavior, and the makeup of their vast colonies; and the ways in which their "towns" transform the surrounding terrain-for better or for worse. Johnsgard recounts how this terrain has in turn been transformed over the past century by the destruction of prairie dogs and their grassland habitats. This book also offers a rare and invaluable close-up view of the rich history and threatened future of the creature once considered the "keystone" species of the western plains. Included are maps, drawings, and listings of more than two hundred natural grassland preserves where many of the region's native plants and animals may still be seen and studied.
The jaguar is one of the most mysterious and least-known big cats of the world. The largest cat in the Americas, it has survived an onslaught of environmental and human threats partly because of an evolutionary history unique among wild felines, but also because of a power and indomitable spirit so strong, the jaguar has shaped indigenous cultures and the beliefs of early civilizations on two continents. In An Indomitable Beast: The Remarkable Journey of the Jaguar, big-cat expert Alan Rabinowitz shares his own personal journey to conserve a species that, despite its past resilience, is now on a slide toward extinction if something is not done to preserve the pathways it prowls through an ever-changing, ever-shifting landscape dominated by humans. Rabinowitz reveals how he learned from newly available genetic data that the jaguar was a single species connected genetically throughout its entire range from Mexico to Argentina, making it unique among all other large carnivores in the world. In a mix of personal discovery and scientific inquiry, he sweeps his readers deep into the realm of the jaguar, offering fascinating accounts from the field. Enhanced with maps, tables, and colour plates, An Indomitable Beast brings important new research to life for scientists, anthropologists, and animal lovers alike. This book is not only about jaguars, but also about tenacity and survival. From the jaguar we can learn better strategies for saving other species and also how to save ourselves when faced with immediate and long-term catastrophic changes to our environment.
Beginning with an overview of data and concepts developed in the EU-project HABIT-CHANGE, this book addresses the need for sharing knowledge and experience in the field of biodiversity conservation and climate change. There is an urgent need to build capacity in protected areas to monitor, assess, manage and report the effects of climate change and their interaction with other pressures. The contributors identify barriers to the adaptation of conservation management, such as the mismatch between planning reality and the decision context at site level. Short and vivid descriptions of case studies, drawn from investigation areas all over Central and Eastern Europe, illustrate both the local impacts of climate change and their consequences for future management. These focus on ecosystems most vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions, including alpine areas, wetlands, forests, lowland grasslands and coastal areas. The case studies demonstrate the application of adaptation strategies in protected areas like National Parks, Biosphere Reserves and Natural Parks, and reflect the potential benefits as well as existing obstacles. A general section provides the necessary background information on climate trends and their effects on abiotic and biotic components. Often, the parties to policy change and conservation management, including managers, land users and stakeholders, lack both expertise and incentives to undertake adaptation activities. The authors recognise that achieving the needed changes in behavior - habit - is as much a social learning process as a matter of science-based procedure. They describe the implementation of modeling, impact assessment and monitoring of climate conditions, and show how the results can support efforts to increase stakeholder involvement in local adaptation strategies. The book concludes by pointing out the need for more work to communicate the cross-sectoral nature of biodiversity protection, the value of well-informed planning in the long-term process of adaptation, the definition of acceptable change, and the motivational value of exchanging experience and examples of good practice.
This comprehensive volume describes how ecosystem services-based approaches can assist in addressing major global and regional water challenges, such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and water security in the developing world, by integrating scientific knowledge from different disciplines, such as hydrological modelling, environmental economics, psychology and international law. Empirical assessments at the national, catchment and regional levels are used to critically appraise this systemic approach, and the merits and potential limitations are presented. The practicalities of this approach with regard to water resources management, nature conservation, and sustainable business practices are discussed, and the role of society in underpinning the concept of ecosystem services is explored. Presenting new insights and perspectives on how to shape future strategies, this contributory volume is a valuable reference for researchers, academics, students and policy makers, in environmental studies, hydrology, water resource management, ecology, environmental law, policy and economics, and conservation biology.
Despite the potential synergy that can result from basing management applications on results from research, there is a polarization of cultures between wildlife managers and wildlife researchers. Wildlife Science: Connecting Research with Management provides strategies for bridging cultural and communication gaps between these groups. Contributors present case studies highlighting the role of state and federal agencies and private organizations in management and research; the lingering disconnects between grassland birds, quail, and deer research and management; as well as the development of management techniques from field research, rangelands management, and ranch management. Case Studies: The Disconnect between Quail Research and Quail Management Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and the Disconnect between Research and Management on Public Lands in the American West Ecological Goals, not Standardized Methods, are needed to Create and Maintain Habitat for Grassland Birds A Historic Perspective of the Connectivity between Waterfowl Research and Management Deer in the Western United States Whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Eastern United States Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Wildlife: Challenges and Opportunities for Integrated Science, Management, and Policy The Role of Joint Ventures in Bridging the Gap between Research and Management Developing Management Strategies from Research: the Pushmataha Forest
In November, countless families across Texas head out for the annual deer hunt, a ritual that spans generations, ethnicities, socioeconomics, and gender as perhaps no other cultural experience in the state. Rick Bass's family has returned to the same hardscrabble piece of land in the Hill Country-"the Deer Pasture"-for more than seventy-five years. In A Thousand Deer, Bass walks the Deer Pasture again in memory and stories, tallying up what hunting there has taught him about our need for wildness and wilderness, about cycles in nature and in the life of a family, and particularly about how important it is for children to live in the natural world. The arc of A Thousand Deer spans from Bass's boyhood in the suburbs of Houston, where he searched for anything rank or fecund in the little oxbow swamps and pockets of woods along Buffalo Bayou, to his commitment to providing his children in Montana the same opportunity-a life afield-that his parents gave him in Texas. Inevitably this brings him back to the Deer Pasture and the passing of seasons and generations he has experienced there. Bass lyrically describes his own passage from young manhood, when the urge to hunt was something primal, to mature adulthood and the waning of the urge to take an animal, his commitment to the hunt evolving into a commitment to family and to the last wild places.
Zoo Animal Welfare thoroughly reviews the scientific literature on the welfare of zoo and aquarium animals. Maple and Perdue draw from the senior author's 24 years of experience as a zoo executive and international leader in the field of zoo biology. The authors' academic training in the interdisciplinary field of psychobiology provides a unique perspective for evaluating the ethics, practices, and standards of modern zoos and aquariums. The book offers a blueprint for the implementation of welfare measures and an objective rationale for their widespread use. Recognizing the great potential of zoos, the authors have written an inspirational book to guide the strategic vision of superior, welfare-oriented institutions. The authors speak directly to caretakers working on the front lines of zoo management, and to the decision-makers responsible for elevating the priority of animal welfare in their respective zoo. In great detail, Maple and Perdue demonstrate how zoos and aquariums can be designed to achieve optimal standards of welfare and wellness.
In our power-hungry world, all the talk about energy-what's safe and what's risky, what's clean and what's dirty, what's cheap and what's easy-tends to generate more heat than light. What, Julianne Couch wanted to know, is the real story on power production in this country? Approaching the question as a curious consumer, Couch takes us along as she visits nine sites where electrical power is developed from different fuel sources. From a geothermal plant in the Mojave Desert to a nuclear plant in Nebraska, from a Wyoming coal-fired power plant to a Maine tidal-power project, Couch gives us an insider's look at how power is generated, how it affects neighboring landscapes and the people who live and work there, and how each source comes with its own unique complications. The result is an informed, evenhanded discussion of energy production and consumption on the global, national, regional, local, and-most important-personal level. Knowledge is the real power this book imparts, allowing each of us to think beyond the flip of a switch to the real consequences of our energy use.
Conserving and enhancing native biodiversity on farms brings many benefits as well as providing many challenges. "Nature and Farming" explains why it is important to sustain native plants and animals in agricultural landscapes, and outlines the key issues in developing and implementing practical approaches to safeguarding native biodiversity in rural areas. The book considers the range of ecological and agricultural issues that determine what native biodiversity occurs in farmland and how it can be secured. Many inspiring case studies are presented where innovative approaches towards integrating biodiversity and farm management have been successful, resulting in win win outcomes for both nature and society. In the integration and synthesis of these case studies lies the kernel of a new paradigm for nature conservation on farms. Although the book focuses on biodiversity conservation on Australian and New Zealand farms, the issues and approaches discussed are applicable to many other developed countries, especially in Europe and North America."
How and why did our most acclaimed birdwatchers take up birding? What were their early experiences of nature? How have their professional birding careers developed? What motivates them and drives their passion for wildlife? How many birds have they seen? Keith Betton and Mark Avery, passionate birdwatchers and conservationists, interview members of the birdwatching community to answer these and many other questions about the lives of famous birdwatchers. Following on from the success of their 2015 book Behind the Binoculars, Keith and Mark are back again, taking you behind the scenes, and behind the binoculars, of a diverse range of birding and wildlife personalities. Behind More Binoculars includes interviews with: Frank Gardner, Ann and Tim Cleeves, Roy Dennis, Kevin Parr, Tony Marr, Tim Appleton, Tim Birkhead, Dawn Balmer, Jon Hornbuckle, Tony Juniper, Richard Porter, Bryan Bland, Carol and Tim Inskipp, Barbara Young, Bill Oddie
Blending ethnography with a fascinating personal story, A Future for Amazonia is an account of a political movement that arose in the early 1990s in response to decades of attacks on the lands and peoples of eastern Ecuador, one of the world's most culturally and biologically diverse places. After generations of ruin at the hands of colonizing farmers, transnational oil companies, and Colombian armed factions, the indigenous Cofan people and their rain forest territory faced imminent jeopardy. In a surprising turn of events, the Cofan chose Randy Borman, a man of Euro-American descent, to lead their efforts to overcome the crisis that confronted them. Drawing on three years of ethnographic research, A Future for Amazonia begins by tracing the contours of Cofan society and Borman's place within it. Borman, a blue-eyed, white-skinned child of North American missionary-linguists, was raised in a Cofan community and gradually came to share the identity of his adoptive nation. He became a global media phenomenon and forged creative partnerships between Cofan communities, conservationist organizations, Western scientists, and the Ecuadorian state. The result was a collective mobilization that transformed the Cofan nation in unprecedented ways, providing them with political power, scientific expertise, and a new role as ambitious caretakers of more than one million acres of forest. Challenging simplistic notions of identity, indigeneity, and inevitable ecological destruction, A Future for Amazonia charts an inspiring course for environmental politics in the twenty-first century.
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