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Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals, and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems, Deserts, rain forests, plains, and other areas -- including the most developed urban sites -- all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that wildlife around the world is impacted by human activities. This book examines the destruction, conservation and biodiversity of wildlife.
Understanding the factors affecting migratory bird and bat populations during all three phases of their life cycle -- breeding, non breeding, and migration -- is critical to species conservation planning. This includes the need for information about these species' responses to natural challenges, as well as information about the effects of human activities and structures. Habitats and other resources critical to migrants during passage and stopover are being destroyed, degraded, and threatened by human activities. Birds and bats are also uniquely susceptible to human use of the airspace. Wind turbines, communication and power transmission towers, and other tall structures, known to cause bird and bat mortality, are being erected or proposed in increasing numbers across the country. In addition, the potential for bird/aircraft collisions poses human safety threats. Management and regulatory agencies, conservation organisations, and industry currently lack the information they need to meet their missions and statutory responsibilities. The biological data available from various radar technologies offer a unique opportunity to learn more about the spatiotemporal distribution patterns, flight characteristics, and habitat use of "aero-fauna".
The role of discursive power in shaping international relations analyzed through the lens of whaling politics. In the second half of the twentieth century, worldwide attitudes toward whaling shifted from widespread acceptance to moral censure. Why? Whaling, once as important to the global economy as oil is now, had long been uneconomical. Major species were long known to be endangered. Yet nations had continued to support whaling. In The Power of Words in International Relations, Charlotte Epstein argues that the change was brought about not by changing material interests but by a powerful anti-whaling discourse that successfully recast whales as extraordinary and intelligent endangered mammals that needed to be saved. Epstein views whaling both as an object of analysis in its own right and as a lens for examining discursive power, and how language, materiality, and action interact to shape international relations. By focusing on discourse, she develops an approach to the study of agency and the construction of interests that brings non-state actors and individuals into the analysis of international politics. Epstein analyzes the "society of whaling states" as a set of historical practices where the dominant discourse of the day legitimated the killing of whales rather than their protection. She then looks at this whaling world's mirror image: the rise from the political margins of an anti-whaling discourse, which orchestrated one of the first successful global environmental campaigns, in which saving the whales ultimately became shorthand for saving the planet. Finally, she considers the continued dominance of a now taken-for-granted anti-whaling discourse, including its creation of identity categories that align with and sustain the existing international political order. Epstein's synthesis of discourse, power, and identity politics brings the fields of international relations theory and global environmental politics into a fruitful dialogue that benefits both.
Mapping of animal genomes has generated huge databases and several new concepts and strategies, which are useful to elucidate origin, evolution and phylogeny. Genetic and physical maps of genomes further provide precise details on chromosomal location, function, expression and regulation of academically and economically important genes. The series Genome Mapping and Genomics in Animals provides comprehensive and up-to-date reviews on genomic research on a large variety of selected animal systems, contributed by leading scientists from around the world.
This volume summarizes the first era of genomic studies of aquaculture species, in which the tools and resources necessary to support whole-genome sequencing were developed. These tools will enhance efforts toward selective breeding of aquaculture species. Included in this volume are summaries of work on salmonids, cyprinids, catfish, tilapias, European sea bass, Japanese flounder, shrimps and oysters.
This title focussed on pelagic (open ocean) sharks as a group. The text includes contemporary data and knowledge on pelagic shark biology, fisheries, management and conservation. All those involved in shark biology should be interested in this book. This important and exciting title represents the first authoritative volume focussed on pelagic (open ocean) sharks as a group. Virtually every pelagic shark expert in the world has contributed to this landmark publication which includes the latest data and knowledge on pelagic shark biology, fisheries, management, and conservation.Pelagic sharks face unprecedented levels of exploitation in all the world's oceans through both direct fisheries and by-catch, and effective management for these species is contingent upon solid science and data, which this book brings together for the first time. All those involved in shark biology will need to have a copy of this book.
This CD-ROM is a compilation of several FAO species identification publications dealing with Elasmobranches (Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras). It includes complete publications such as the Catalogue of sharks of the world, the Field guide of sharks and rays of the Mediterranean and Black Seas and the Field guide of sharks and rays of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. It also includes excerpts dealing with elasmobranches from several regional guides: Eastern Central Atlantic, Western Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, Mediterranean and Black Seas, Eastern Central Pacific, Western Central Pacific and Western Central Atlantic. [Browsing document system requirement: Adobe(r) Reader(r) for Windows(r), Linux(r) or MacIntosh(r)]
The third in a trilogy of global overviews of conservation of diverse and ecologically important insect groups. The first two were Beetles in Conservation (2010) and Hymenoptera and Conservation (2012). Each has different priorities and emphases that collectively summarise much of the progress and purpose of invertebrate conservation. Much of the foundation of insect conservation has been built on concerns for Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies as the most popular and best studied of all insect groups. The long-accepted worth of butterflies for conservation has led to elucidation of much of the current rationale of insect species conservation, and to definition and management of their critical resources, with attention to the intensively documented British fauna leading the world in this endeavour. In Lepidoptera and Conservation, various themes are treated through relevant examples and case histories, and sufficient background given to enable non-specialist access. Intended for not only entomologists but conservation managers and naturalists due to its readable approach to the subject.
Animal migration is a magnificent sight: a mile-long blanket of cranes rising from a river and filling the sky; hundreds of thousands of wildebeests marching across the Serengeti; a blaze of orange as millions of monarch butterflies spread their wings to take flight. Nature's great migrations have captivated countless spectators, none more so than premier ecologist David S. Wilcove. In "No Way Home", his awe is palpable - as are the growing threats to migratory animals. We may be witnessing a dying phenomenon among many species. Migration has always been arduous, but today's travelers face unprecedented dangers. Skyscrapers and cell towers lure birds and bats to untimely deaths, fences and farms block herds of antelope, salmon are caught en route between ocean and river, breeding and wintering grounds are paved over or ploughed, and global warming disrupts the synchronised schedules of predators and prey. The result is a dramatic decline in the number of migrants. Wilcove guides us on their treacherous journeys, describing the barriers to migration and exploring what compels animals to keep on trekking. He also brings to life the adventures of scientists who study migrants. Often as bold as their subjects, researchers speed wildly along deserted roads to track birds soaring overhead, explore glaciers in search of frozen locusts, and outfit dragonflies with transmitters weighing less than one one-hundredth of an ounce. Scientific discoveries and advanced technologies are helping us to understand migrations better, but alone, they won't stop sea turtles and songbirds from going the way of the bison or passenger pigeon. What's required is the commitment and cooperation of the far-flung countries migrants cross - long before extinction is a threat. As Wilcove writes, 'protecting the abundance of migration is key to protecting the glory of migration'. "No Way Home" offers powerful inspiration to preserve those glorious journeys.
The global illegal wildlife trade is a burgeoning black market which is threatening the survival of numerous species. Wyatt's unique analysis provides new theoretical conceptualisations of the victims and offenders of wildlife trafficking, and furthers the discussion of these crimes through a distinctive green criminological perspective.This book begins with essential background information into the scale and scope of the smuggling of animals and plants bringing to light the often unknown magnitude of this black market. Wyatt considers the threats posed to the environment, people and the economy and evaluates the reasons behind wildlife trafficking by exploring the demand for wildlife. Detailing the interdisciplinary stakeholders involved in fighting wildlife trafficking as well as the collaborative efforts that they are engaged in to end this black market, the book ends with a look to the future of the illegal wildlife trade and the chances of survival for those species targeted for human consumption.Exploring how law enforcement, environmentalists, policy makers, and the public must find a common ground in regards to criminalisation and conservation in the diverse regions supplying the illegal wildlife trade, this book will appeal to scholars in the areas of Green Criminology, Environmental Sociology, Environmental Justice, Victimology and Organized Crime as well as conservationists and ecologists more broadly.
The Natura 2000 network of protected areas is the centrepiece of European Union nature policy, currently covering almost one-fifth of the EU's entire land territory plus large marine areas. This vast EU-wide network, which aims to conserve Europe's most valuable and threatened species and habitats, has major impacts on land use throughout all Member States of the EU. This book critically assesses the origins and implementation of the Natura 2000 network, established under the Birds Directive of 1979 and the Habitats Directive of 1992. Based on original archival research and interviews with key participants, the book records a detailed history of the origins and negotiation of Natura 2000 policy and law, with the history of EU environmental policy provided as a framework. An historical institutionalist approach is adopted, which emphasises the importance of understanding legal and policy development as processes that unfold over time. Three phases in the history of EU environmental policy are identified and described, and the history of EU nature policy is placed within the context of these three phases. Informed by this history, the author presents a comprehensive summary and assessment of the law and policy that protects Natura 2000 sites at EU level, and reviews the nature conservation outcomes for the targeted species and habitats. The book reveals how a knowledge of the history of Natura 2000 enriches our understanding of key issues such as conflicts in establishing and conserving the Natura 2000 network, EU integration in the field of nature conservation, and the future of EU nature policy.
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) consists of 19 million acres in north-east Alaska. It is administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Department of the Interior (DOI). It is a 1.5 million acre coastal plain on the North Slope of the Brooks Range that is currently viewed as one of the most likely undeveloped US onshore oil and gas prospects. According to the US Geological Survey, there is even a small chance that taken together, the fields on this federal land could hold as much economically recoverable oil as the giant field at Prudhoe Bay, found in 1967 on the coastal plain west of ANWR. That state-owned portion of the coastal plain is now estimated to have held 11-13 billion barrels of oil. The Refuge, and especially the coastal plain, is home to a wide variety of plants and animals. The presence of caribou, polar bears, grizzly bears, wolves, migratory birds, and many other species in a nearly undisturbed state has led some to call the area America's 'Serengeti'. The Refuge and two neighbouring parks in Canada have been proposed for an international park, and several species found in the area (including polar bears, caribou, migratory birds, and whales) are protected by international treaties or agreements. The analysis in this book covers, first, the economic and geological factors that have triggered new interest in development, followed by the philosophical, biological, and environmental quality factors that have triggered opposition to it. The book begins with a review of the nature and issues of the ANWR.
For the first time a broad cross-section of distinguished researchers come together to address the conservation of Florida's rich but imperiled herpetofauna. The 36 contributions represent original research, essays, and reviews that identify contemporary threats to amphibians and reptiles and to the system that supports them. In the Synthesis of the book, Meshaka and Babbitt draw from these works and from prior discussions with the contributors to provide consensus regarding the most important threats facing the conservation of Florida's herpetofauna and proffer clear courses of action to ensure a viable future for this segment of Florida's natural legacy. Ultimately, the reader will see convincingly that conservation of Florida amphibians and reptiles can be achieved at several levels. Readable in style, contemporary in subject matter, this work is a snapshot of the present and a blueprint for the future of conservation action in Florida.
By the turn of the millennium, it had become painfully apparent that the United States had made some serious misjudgments in its interactions with the natural world. The country's treasured national parks, while remaining immensely popular tourist destinations, were not immune to the damage. Preservation alone would no longer be enough; by this time, repair and restoration were necessary.
Can the United States reverse the mistaken policies that severely damaged the crown jewels of its national park system? This thoughtful and hopeful book, in turns analytical and personal, investigates that critical question by focusing on four of America's most-loved public paces. In "Repairing Paradise," William Lowry, an eminent expert on U.S. natural resource policy, details and assesses four ambitious efforts to reverse environmental damage in the national parks:
- The reintroduction of wolves in Yellowstone
- Reducing the impact of vehicle traffic in Yosemite
- Restoring fresh water to the Everglades
- Removing structural impairments to river flows in the Grand Canyon
"Repairing Paradise" combines authoritative research with extensive personal experience. Lowry has spent time in all four of the parks --observing conditions, talking to the most informed decisionmakers, and taking photos. He deftly combines his field research with solid public policy analysis to paint an instructive portrait of the mission to restore the natural health and glory of some of the world's most wondrous places.
It is the world's best-known national park, with a controversy that no amount of snow can bury. Rosy-cheeked snowmobilers extol the glories of riding through a winter wonderland, while environmentalists decry the noise, the air pollution, and the harm to wildlife. There seems to be no room for compromise. In this first book-length study of winter use in any national park, Michael Yochim examines the long standing conflict between the National Park Service and groups who favor or object to snowmobiles in Yellowstone. By illuminating the fundamental drivers of the controversy - American values, community identity, industry influence, and political tampering with policy - he doesn't merely document the debate but shows how increasingly politicized battles have taken a toll on the autonomy of the NPS and its ability to protect the park. The debate itself, Yochim observes, is not over whether one mode of transportation is more appropriate than another, but whether it is more important to embrace nature's sacredness or one's personal liberties. With motorized snow travel sanctioned for forty years, snowmobilers see their sport as an expression of freedom and rugged individualism, and attempts to curtail their activity as un-American. Conversely, environmentalists see parks as sacred space, so snowmobiles to them are inappropriate in what they regard as a temple. Yochim discusses the political and legal intricacies of arguments on both sides in a balanced presentation - one that does not spare the NPS from close scrutiny - and he examines influence on the Park Service from both political parties. Along the way, he teases out the role of science as a policy guide, the place of values in the controversy, and the influence of strident personalities in the debate. In tracing the history of motorized winter recreational use of the park from the earliest days of winter visitation in the 1930s to the present, Yochim shows that what is at stake is more than recreation in one park but the very mission of the NPS - and whether political machinations will keep it from protecting the park and accomplishing that mission. ""Yellowstone and the Snowmobile"" allows readers to better understand this controversy, one that is unlikely to go away any time soon.
The thought-provoking articles in Conservation can assist in catalyzing the transition to a new green economy by shaping the mind-sets of leaders, students, teachers and the public alike.' Achim Steiner, UN Under-Secretary General and Executive Director, UN Environment Programme (UNEP) 'An extremely useful compilation of articles on the complex issues underlying nature conservation.' Ashish Kothari, Co-chair, IUCN Intercommission Strategic Direction on Governance, Equity, and Livelihoods in Relation to Protected Areas (TILCEPA) 'In this intelligently chosen, broadly ranging set of readings on conservation, Professor Adams assembles a set of vital readings for professionals, teachers, students, and the interested public.' Kent Redford, Director, Wildlife Conservation Society Institute This 4-volume set, edited by a leading expert on nature conservation, brings together in one collection a series of papers fundamental to understanding the social, political, cultural and scientific dimensions of conservation. Each volume is introduced by a new review essay, which both sets the scope for the collection and advances analytical understanding of conservation issues. Volume I covers the historical development of conservation ideas and reviews the diverse contemporary philosophical, ethical, cultural and practical arguments for conservation. Volume II addresses the core issue of conservation: the maintenance of living diversity in the face of human demands on the biosphere. The intention here is not to offer a sourcebook of conservation science, but to include the key texts that have changed the way conservation is understood and practised. Volume III explores the overlaps and conflicts between conservation and development, andwin-win solutions to conflicts between the two, including ideas of sustainable development. Volume IV presents work on conservation as an essentially political process, drawing chiefly on social science and, in particular, political ecology and environmental history.
A comprehensive handbook covering all aspects of the conservation of Barn Owls. Written by the Barn Owl Trust, this book includes in-depth information on Barn Owl survey techniques, relevant ecology, Barn Owls and the law, mortality, habitat management, use of nest boxes and barn Owl rehabilitation. Essential reading for ecologists, planners, land managers and ornithologists.
The unexpected and fascinating interspecies relationship between humans and horseshoe crabs. Horseshoe crabs are considered both a prehistoric and indicator species. They have not changed in tens of millions of years and provide useful data to scientists who monitor the health of the environment. From the pharmaceutical industry to paleontologists to the fishing industry, the horseshoe crab has made vast, but largely unknown, contributions to human life and our shared ecosystem. Catch and Release examines how these intersections steer the trajectory of both species' lives, and futures. Based on interviews with conservationists, field biologists, ecologists, and paleontologists over three years of fieldwork on urban beaches, noted ethnographer Lisa Jean Moore shows how humans literally harvest the life out of the horseshoe crabs. We use them as markers for understanding geologic time, collect them for agricultural fertilizer, and eat them as delicacies, capture them as bait, then rescue them for conservation, and categorize them as endangered. The book details the biomedical bleeding of crabs; how they are caught, drained of 40% of their blood, and then released back into their habitat. The model of catch and release is essential. Horseshoe crabs cannot be bred in captivity and can only survive in their own ecosystems. Moore shows how horseshoe crabs are used as an exploitable resource, and are now considered a "vulnerable" species. An investigation of how humans approach animals that are essential for their survival, Catch and Release questions whether humans should have divine, moral, or ethical claims to any living being in their path.
Devoted to birds and wildlife since childhood, Mark's early scientific research at Oxford, Aberdeen and the RSPB provided a solid background for his management, ambassadorial, and political lobbying activities which were to follow - and his larger than life, yet quietly humane personality has provided the final tools in his own, unique, nature conservationists' toolbox. In this book, Mark mixes a great many stories from his professional life at the RSPB with personal anecdotes and passionate arguments on past and present issues in bird and nature conservation. He shows us something of the many scientists whose work paves the way for conservation action, places domestic conservation into an international context, takes us behind the scenes to glimpse the politicians who have worked with him, or against him, along the way. Mark leaves us armed with practical tips and a guiding philosophy to take wildlife conservation though the troubled years that lie ahead. A personal, philosophical and political history of 25 years of bird conservation, this book provides an instructive and amusing read for all those who would like a glimpse into the birds and wildlife conservation world - what the issues are, what must be done, how it can be done, and the challenges, highs and lows involved.
One important element of the energy debate in the 107th Congress is whether to approve development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and, if so, under what restrictions or whether to continue to prohibit energy development in order to protect the area's biological resource values. This book discusses legal issues that relate to possible development of the Refuge and the current provisions in bills before Congress are discussed as well.
Recent decades have seen unprecedented growth in the scale and intensity of industrial forestry. Directly and indirectly, it has degraded the wildlife and ecological integrity of these tropical forests, prompting a need to evaluate the impact of current forest management practices and reconsider how best to preserve the integrity of the biosphere.
Synthesizing the body of knowledge of leading scientists and professionals in tropical forest ecology and management, this book's thirty chapters examine in detail the interplay between timber harvesting and wildlife, from hunted and protected habitats to invertebrates and large mammal species.
Collectively, the contributors suggest that better management is pivotal to the maintenance of the tropics' valuable biodiversity, arguing that we must realize that tropical forests harbor the majority (perhaps 70 to 80 percent) of the world's animal species. Further, they suggest modifications to existing practices that can ensure a better future for our valuable resources.
This edited book, composed of chapters written by scholars of the environmental and biological sciences, examines selected topics from the vast field of conservation biology, with a focus on some of the issues that dominate the current discourses and practices on the conservation biology of large wildlife. The first chapter examines the history and status of conservation biology and examines the status of large wildlife in conservation biology research. The second chapter examines the issues related to urban forestry and conservation, justified by the vast expansion of urban landcover into the habitats of large wildlife and the consequences for people and animals. Chapters Three and Four focus on big cats in the Americas and apply ideas from the theory of conservation biology to assess their conservation possibilities. Chapter Five examines the land cover conflicts that occur between people and animals when transportation networks intrude on habitats. Chapter Six looks at the nuances of governance and the impact on conservation policy. Chapter Seven describes the value of integrated research and geomatics in the applications to protected management. Chapter Eight takes a novel, total ecosystem approach by examining micro- and meso-fauna and their function in ecosystems inclusive of macro-fauna. Chapter Nine takes a case study of vultures, which are the most important scavengers in the world, and examines the impacts of recent diseases that severely decimated their numbers. Chapter Ten takes a case study of a unique savanna area on the forested West African coast, and investigates the ecology of the area and the factors for the extinction of large wildlife.
Habitat Conservation examines the relationship between habitat and ecosystem dynamics. Over the last decade scientists have made advances in their understanding of this relationship and this has had major impacts on their approach to nature conservation management.
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