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Mediterranean irrigation is diverse due to, among other factors, the relative importance of water in the economy of each country, varied levels of aridity, heterogeneous levels economic, social and technological levels of development, and differences in political and social organization. However, most of the Mediterranean countries face similar problems to meet their water demands because of the scarcity and variability of renewable resources, growing water requirements from non-agricultural sectors, increasing environmental concerns related to water quality and environmental degradation, a social demand for larger public participation, and important technological changes. The time has come to reconsider the "not one drop lost to the sea" philosophy of yesteryears largely and to 'live within limits'. This book focuses on eight selected countries (Tunisia, Morocco, Spain, France, Italy, Turkey, Israel and Egypt) and provides a comparative perspective that both thoroughly explores their specificities and identifies the common challenges faced by the irrigation sector in these countries. The book has been written at a critical moment, when the continued application of a supply-side water management model is revealing its unsustainable nature in numerous places; when significant technological changes are taking place in the irrigation sector; when new forms of management and governance are widely held as badly needed; and finally, when climate change is compounding many of the difficulties that have characterized irrigation policies and practices in the past decades. This complicated future context makes Mediterranean irrigation face various political dilemmas on water management, raising social tensions, triggering territorial and land conflicts, and stimulating new technological developments. This book provides a timely analysis of the particular trajectory of eight Mediterranean countries in these uncertain transformations, and attempts to identify the best strategies to avert or overcome future risks.
Tea is big business. After water, tea is believed to be the most widely consumed beverage in the world. And yet, as productivity increases, the real price of tea declines while labour costs continue to rise. Tea remains a labour intensive industry. With a distinguished career spanning over 50 years and rich experience in diverse crops, Mike Carr is eminently qualified to indulge in an intelligent discourse on tea agronomy. In addition to a comprehensive review of the principal tea growing regions worldwide in terms of structure, productivity and principal constraints, he has attempted to question and seeks to find the associated experimental evidence needed to support current and future crop management practices. The book will assist all those involved in the tea industry to become creative thinkers and to question accepted practices. International in content, it will appeal to practitioners and students from tea growing countries worldwide.
The global expansion of irrigated lands during the 20th century and beyond continues to contribute to food production, but also degrades the environment significantly. The consequent search for policy remedies has stimulated a vital body of economic research. The issues addressed in this comprehensive collection of previously published articles include the effects of existing government intervention on the environmental impacts of agriculture, the economic costs and benefits of environmental regulations for agriculture, and the economic and environmental merits of alternative mechanisms for water allocation and water quality protection. In this volume the editors present a sampling of economic research on the interface of irrigated agriculture with the environment. The articles included are by leading researchers in this field and span the topics of nonpoint pollution control, salinity management, and the allocation of water.
A Tradition in Transition presents an in-depth assessment of the century-old Wadi Laba indigenous spate irrigation system in Eritrea. This system has relied on earthern and brushwood structures and customary water rules to support subsistence livelihoods of the Wadi Laba communities for many years. The book presents original research, which analyzes the effectiveness of contemporary water laws and a new headwork in improving production and standard of living. It also compares the lack of success of these new approaches with traditional methods of water management.
Volume 3 takes the subject of better land husbandry further. The book first points out the sort of things which have been, and are being used, but are failing to deliver what is required. It then explains the causes of erosion, the theory and practice of soil and water conservation, and practical and lasting ways to construct terraces, including such details as how to build different kinds of terrace walls. Nothing grows from the top down, as also with soil improvement. It explains in detail the way of achieving practical and sustainable soil and water conservation, practical ways in which farmers can themselves make and use practical and lasting ways to construct terraces, including such details as how to build different kinds of terrace walls.
Egypt is a country of tremendous land resources but limited water resources The area of cultivated land is only 3.2% of the gross area. The river Nile is the main sources of water. In the recent years the Governement established large-scale agricultural projects in light of food security related to the population growth. Expansion of irrigated agriculture has to be predomantly relalized bt increasing the water use efficiency. In Egypt, the dominant irrigation method is surface irrigation, which covers approximately 83% of the irrigated areas. Surface irrigation or gravity methods are generally characterized by a low efficiency. One opportunity to increase the efficiency is to convert surface irrigation to modern irrigation systems, which are generaly highly expensive for a country like Egypt. Another option to increase the efficiency of surface irrigation systems is to convert the traditional irrigation method based on continuous flow to surge flow irrigation. Surge flow irrigation is the intermittent application of water to furrows in a series of relatively short on and off time periods. This study has been carried out to demonstrate the applicability of surge flow irrigation for water saving under the short field conditions that prevail in Egypt. The results indicate that surge flow irrigation is an effective irrigation method to save water and to increase crop production.
This book forms the proceedings of the 18th European ICID conference on irrigation and drainage. Water is not a free commodity and demand is becoming more and more intense for its allocation. This book focuses on the role of irrigation and drainage in the debate on water and should be of interest to planners, designers, policy makers in the water industry, national and local government, academic researchers and environment agencies.
As global pressure on water resources intensifies, it is essential that scientists understand the role that water plays in the development of crops and how such knowledge can be applied to improve water productivity. Linking crop physiology, agronomy and irrigation practices, this book focuses on eleven key fruit crops upon which millions of people in the tropics and subtropics depend for their livelihoods (avocado, cashew, Citrus spp., date palm, lychee, macadamia, mango, olive, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple). Each chapter reviews international irrigation research on an individual fruit crop, identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness of water allocation and encouraging readers to link scientific knowledge with practical applications. Clearly written and well illustrated, this is an ideal resource for engineers, agronomists and researchers concerned with how the productivity of irrigated agriculture can be improved, in the context of climate change, and the need for growers to demonstrate good irrigation practices.
This SpringerBrief reviews currently applied and potential solutions for improving the efficiency and quality of rural electricity supply in India, a major bottleneck for agricultural development. It provides background on the current state of supply and reviews recent and ongoing research and development projects. One selected project, designed and conducted by the authors, is outlined in detail. The research findings, project implementation, and evaluation are intended to provide development practitioners, policy makers, and applied researchers with experience from the field. At the core of this Brief is the integration of technical and social solutions, emphasizing the role of collective action, and the merits and demerits of small-scale, technically simple measures.
This book focuses on irrigation sources together with water management for agricultural development in Uttar Pradesh state of India. Being the most populous state of the country, it bears a burden of feeding about 199 million people of which major section relies on agriculture for their subsistence. This study makes comparison in the growth trends in the irrigated area, crop land use patterns and crop productivity at the district level in different periods of time. The book emphasizes on irrigation water management to optimize crop yields in order to increase Water Productivity of crops in low productivity regions of the state applying suitable technology. This book appeals to researchers and students in geography and planning working on the topics of agriculture as well as irrigation and water management aspects.
In water-scarce areas of the Middle East, greywater (household wastewater excluding toilet waste) is commonly used by poor communities to irrigate home gardens. This both supplements the water available to the household and improves food security. This book draws together material presented at a conference in Jordan in 2007, and examines the technical approaches to treating and using greywater for irrigation, including its associated risks to health and the environment. It discusses many of the non-technical issues that influence effectiveness and sustainability of greywater use. It also takes a hard look at economic issues, arguing that more clarity and consistency from policymakers is essential if low-income, water-stressed communities are to make better and safer use of their existing water supplies. The book concludes by offering suggestions for where donor efforts and research could best be focused in the near future.Greywater use in the Middle East is important reading for researchers, donors, implementing agencies, and policymakers, in the fields of water supply, water reuse, livelihoods and agriculture.
Mountain agriculture has attracted attention both for its complex adaptation to particular circumstances, and for its marginality and instability in a changing world. Irrigation plays a range of roles in mountain farming systems and their dynamics or change. Hill Irrigation examines the environmentalconstraints and socio-economic contexts to successful mountain agriculture, and reviews the policies and technological approaches used to promote irrigation in different mountain regions. This survey is accompaned by a detailed bibliography of over 500 entries of literature on the subject.
The increasing availability of mechanized irrigation pumps in rural Bangladesh has opened up the possibility for NGO-supported groups of poor people to become owners of a pump and to use the water for irrigating household land and/or for sale. Women's participation and the impact on their status has been studied in 35 female and mixed-sex irrigation groups dispersed over the country, supported by five different NGOs and the Grameen Bank. The book describes the background, methodologies and conclusions to the studies in detail, with summaries of the policy implications.
This book aims at deriving governance and sustainability lessons from analysing the implementation and management of some major irrigation programs in the Mediterranean Region. Eight countries are targeted, namely: Spain, Italy, Albania, Turkey, Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. The main focus programs include the modernisation and rehabilitation of the existing irrigation systems, the transfer of irrigation management responsibilities to water users' organizations, public private partnerships arrangements, the monitoring & evaluation of participatory irrigation management and transfer processes, and the governance of groundwater resources for irrigation. The adopted approach relies on learning from the value of each single experience, and on advancing solutions that emerge from their comparative analysis and that may be of guidance to those engaged in these programs. The country experiences indicated that often times, significant shortcomings in the implementation of these programs have occurred and hopefully, this book could be a source of inspiration for the corrective actions needed.
Today's irrigation management faces challenges and competition with other sectors (ie: household, industry, and environmental), quality degradation, and uncertain climatic conditions. To cope with these situations, the irrigation managers need precise estimation/determination of irrigation needs for crops, advance/water-saving techniques for water application, water conservation approaches, economic considerations in irrigation, and potentials for using marginal quality water in irrigation (such as saline water, and waste-water). This book focuses on all of the above issues: starting with irrigation management strategies for field crops -- to suitability of saline and waste-water as irrigation water. The book is useful to identify the need and adopt emerging technologies for irrigation management, as well as to identify appropriate methodologies for social, economic, and environmental benefits of improved irrigation management.
This book uses resource economics costing approaches incorporating externalities to estimate the returns for the country's irrigation and demonstrates how underestimating the cost of water leads farmers to overestimate profits. The importance of the subject can be judged in light of the fact that India is the largest user of groundwater both for irrigation and for drinking purposes, pumping twice as much as the United States and six times as much as Europe. Despite water's vital role in ensuring economic security for the nation and farmers alike by supporting more than 70% of food production, water resource economists are yet to impress upon farmers and policymakers the true value of water and the urgent need for its sustainable extraction, recharge and use. In an endeavor to promote more awareness, the book further delineates the roles of the demand side and supply side in the economics of irrigation, and explains how the cost of water varies with the efforts to recharge it, crop patterns, degrees of initial and premature well failure and degrees of externalities. It also discusses the importance of micro-irrigation in the economics of saving water for irrigation, estimating the marginal productivity of water and how it improves with drip irrigation, the economics of water sharing and water markets, optimal control theory in sustainable extraction of water, payment of ecosystem services for water and how India can effectively recover. In closing, the book highlights the role of socioeconomic and hydrogeological factors in the economics of irrigation, which vary considerably across hard rock areas and the resulting limitations on generalizing.
Irrigation has been used for thousands of years to maximize the performance, efficiency and profitability of crops and it is a science that is constantly evolving. This potential for improved crop yields has never been more important as population levels and demand for food continue to grow. Recognising the need for a coherent and accessible review of international irrigation research, this book examines the factors influencing water productivity in individual crops. It focuses on nine key plantation/industrial crops on which millions of people in the tropics and subtropics depend for their livelihoods (banana, cocoa, coconut, coffee, oil palm, rubber, sisal, sugar cane and tea). Linking crop physiology, agronomy and irrigation practices, this is a valuable resource for planners, irrigation engineers, agronomists and producers concerned with the international need to improve water productivity in agriculture in the face of increased pressure on water resources.
This book, the fourth volume in the series, examines the potential of solar energy and other emerging energy technologies in micro irrigation to create sustainable energy sources. The authors discuss a variety of innovative micro irrigation system designs, with a special focus on solar and photovoltaic (PV) energy.
In many countries irrigated agriculture consumes a large proportion of the available water resources, often over 70% of the total. There is considerable pressure to release water for other uses, and as a sector irrigated agriculture will have to increase its efficiency and productivity of water use. Drawing on the author's 30 years of experience in some 28 countries, this paperback reprint of a successful book offers knowledge for the management of irrigation and drainage systems, including traditional technical areas of systems operation and maintenance, and expanding managerial, institutional and organizational aspects. Chapters provide guidelines to improve management, operation and maintenance processes, which move management thinking out of traditional public-sector mindsets to a more customer-focussed, performance-oriented service delivery. As a practical guide to improve efficiency and productivity in irrigated agriculture, this book is essential reading for irrigation managers and technicians as well as students and policymakers in water management, agriculture and sustainable development.
Modern Irrigation Technologies reviews the experience of small holders with irrigation technologies under a range of diverse conditions in many different countries. Some people argue that modern irrigation technologies are the key to increased food production. However, projects introducing modern irrigation technologies in the developing world have often failed because the irrigation hardware, which has been developed for high-technology commercial agriculture, cannot be easily adapted for the use of the smallholder. The author identifies the pre-conditions relating to water availability, institutional support and economic opportunity that must be satisfied before small holders in developing countries can adopt irrigation methods and benefit from them. The circumstances in which modern technologies have been introduced are identified, and the relative success or otherwise of the initiatives are summarized. The book also contains a practical review of the range of irrigation hardware that is available and indicates the types of equipment that are more likely to meet the requirements of the smallholder sector. Modern Irrigation Technologies will be an invaluable guide to project workers, planners and small holders involved in planning and designing irrigation projects.
As our society places increasing importance on the management of our natural resources, natural resource managers in both public and private sectors will need to understand the essential elements of soil and water systems. The principles of soil and water systems are clearly presented, and examples are given to demonstrate the applications to typical problems encountered by resource managers. Also includes the basic principles for controlling water and wind erosion, the disposal of excess water in humid areas and from irrigation systems, and the management of irrigation systems.
In many countries irrigated agriculture consumes a large proportion of the available water resources, often over 70% of the total. There is considerable pressure to release water for other uses, and as a sector irrigated agriculture will have to increase its efficiency and productivity of water use. Drawing on the author's 30 years of experience in some 28 countries, this book offers knowledge for the management of irrigation and drainage systems, including traditional technical areas of systems operation and maintenance, and expanding managerial, institutional and organizational aspects. Chapters provide guidelines to improve management, operation and maintenance processes, which move management thinking out of traditional public-sector mindsets to a more customer-focussed, performance-oriented service delivery. As a practical guide to improve efficiency and productivity in irrigated agriculture, this book is essential reading for irrigation managers and technicians as well as students and policymakers in water management, agriculture and sustainable development.
The degradation of land and water resources resulting primarily from agricultural activities has had enormous impact on human society. In order to alleviate this problem, an advanced understanding of the state of our resources and the process of degradation is needed. "Conserving Land, Protecting Water" includes an overview of existing literature focusing on global patterns of land and water degradation and discussions of new insights drawn from successful case studies on reversing soil and water degradation and their impact on food and environmental security.
As human populations expand and demands upon natural resources increase, the need to manage the environments in which people live becomes more important but also more difficult. Land and water management is especially critical as the use of upstream watersheds can drastically affect large numbers of people living in downstream watersheds. An integrated approach that stresses both the importance of participatory planning and the institutional and technical constraints and opportunities is therefore necessary. The institutional and technical context for managing watersheds and river basins, including the involvement of both the public and private sectors, is also examined.
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