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On the prairies of North America, wind and water were pervasive, but whereas wind was tangible, water in quantity was hidden beneath the surface. The vast grasslands fed great herds of animals, which in turn sustained Native Americans, but it was not until water could be brought to the surface that the plains could be cultivated and developed into a great agricultural bread-basket for the growing nation. The self-governing windmill forever changed the culture of this vast region. In Windmill Tales, in nearly one hundred beautiful full-color images, photographer Wyman Meinzer shows American windmills as they appear today. Many of them are still working, and others have fallen or are preserved at the American Wind Power Center in Lubbock, Texas, but all illustrate the way of life that was made possible by the windmill. Brief reminiscences and stories told by visitors to the American Wind Power Center give the reader a sense of the central importance of windmills in the lives of early pioneers in the West. Some of the stories reflect the sense of humour ranch and farm families developed to help them through hard times, whereas others hint at disappointment and tragedy. Together with the photographs they give us a fascinating insight into our history.
The definitive visual history of the tractor The complete history of farm machinery, from steam and vintage tractors to the latest combine harvesters is showcased in this lavishly illustrated volume. Packed with images and tractor data on more than 200 iconic machines, The Tractor Book explores the entire range of tractors and farming machines from around the world, such as Fordson Model F and Massey-Harris GP. Histories of famous marques, such as John Deere and Massey Ferguson, sit alongside immersive visual tours of celebrated machines. The Tractor Book covers how tractors work, their history, major marques and catalogues tractors from every era making this a must-have for anyone fascinated by these extraordinary machines.
Mediterranean irrigation is diverse due to, among other factors, the relative importance of water in the economy of each country, varied levels of aridity, heterogeneous levels economic, social and technological levels of development, and differences in political and social organization. However, most of the Mediterranean countries face similar problems to meet their water demands because of the scarcity and variability of renewable resources, growing water requirements from non-agricultural sectors, increasing environmental concerns related to water quality and environmental degradation, a social demand for larger public participation, and important technological changes. The time has come to reconsider the "not one drop lost to the sea" philosophy of yesteryears largely and to 'live within limits'. This book focuses on eight selected countries (Tunisia, Morocco, Spain, France, Italy, Turkey, Israel and Egypt) and provides a comparative perspective that both thoroughly explores their specificities and identifies the common challenges faced by the irrigation sector in these countries. The book has been written at a critical moment, when the continued application of a supply-side water management model is revealing its unsustainable nature in numerous places; when significant technological changes are taking place in the irrigation sector; when new forms of management and governance are widely held as badly needed; and finally, when climate change is compounding many of the difficulties that have characterized irrigation policies and practices in the past decades. This complicated future context makes Mediterranean irrigation face various political dilemmas on water management, raising social tensions, triggering territorial and land conflicts, and stimulating new technological developments. This book provides a timely analysis of the particular trajectory of eight Mediterranean countries in these uncertain transformations, and attempts to identify the best strategies to avert or overcome future risks.
The first axial flow combine transformed the industry and was hailed as the most significant piece of farm equipment built in the 20th century. The axial flow used advanced technology to process crops faster and more efficiently than anything else on the market. The axial flow started with research done by a rogue Swedish engineer in the 1950s, was continued in secret by a group of dedicated engineers from East Moline, Illinois, who did their work in a top-secret garage that only a select few were allowed to enter. The book tells the story of how extensive research and development allowed IH to build a new machine that took the market by storm. Done with dozens of interviews of engineers, salespeople, and customers, the book captures the behind the scenes drama and the cloak and dagger encounters with rival companies personnel and machines. The dramatic text is accompanied by more than 300 archival images, concept drawings, sketches, and new photogrpahy of the machines and men at work.
Tea is big business. After water, tea is believed to be the most widely consumed beverage in the world. And yet, as productivity increases, the real price of tea declines while labour costs continue to rise. Tea remains a labour intensive industry. With a distinguished career spanning over 50 years and rich experience in diverse crops, Mike Carr is eminently qualified to indulge in an intelligent discourse on tea agronomy. In addition to a comprehensive review of the principal tea growing regions worldwide in terms of structure, productivity and principal constraints, he has attempted to question and seeks to find the associated experimental evidence needed to support current and future crop management practices. The book will assist all those involved in the tea industry to become creative thinkers and to question accepted practices. International in content, it will appeal to practitioners and students from tea growing countries worldwide.
'The embodiment of the spirit of rural Ireland' Anna May McHugh's name is synonymous with 'the Ploughing' - the annual Championships of the National Ploughing Association. The event is the biggest outdoor agricultural show in Europe and Anna May is the driving force behind its spectacular growth. Anna May now tells her story. Her description of growing up as part of a large family in rural County Laois is an evocative and affectionate account of an Ireland that is now gone. But in her account of how she went from being a secretary of the Ploughing Association, her first job, to becoming - to her own amazement - its managing director twenty years later is a story of leadership and people skills that are very much of the twenty-first century. Anna May was truly ahead of her time. Still living in County Laois, close to where she grew up, and now in her eighties, Anna May still runs the multi-million euro operation from her home, alongside her daughter, Anna Marie. Queen of the Ploughing is a captivating read, full of warmth, lively stories and Anna May's sharp observations. And it's not just about Anna May's life, but is also a celebration of the best of Irish life over eight decades.
The global expansion of irrigated lands during the 20th century and beyond continues to contribute to food production, but also degrades the environment significantly. The consequent search for policy remedies has stimulated a vital body of economic research. The issues addressed in this comprehensive collection of previously published articles include the effects of existing government intervention on the environmental impacts of agriculture, the economic costs and benefits of environmental regulations for agriculture, and the economic and environmental merits of alternative mechanisms for water allocation and water quality protection. In this volume the editors present a sampling of economic research on the interface of irrigated agriculture with the environment. The articles included are by leading researchers in this field and span the topics of nonpoint pollution control, salinity management, and the allocation of water.
A Tradition in Transition presents an in-depth assessment of the century-old Wadi Laba indigenous spate irrigation system in Eritrea. This system has relied on earthern and brushwood structures and customary water rules to support subsistence livelihoods of the Wadi Laba communities for many years. The book presents original research, which analyzes the effectiveness of contemporary water laws and a new headwork in improving production and standard of living. It also compares the lack of success of these new approaches with traditional methods of water management.
Farmers, ranchers, and homesteaders who know how to weld can repair and even fabricate some equipment on their own, saving both time and money. Basic Welding for Farm and Ranch introduces this crucial skill and covers the most popular techniques used by the home hobbyist and DIY devotee, with chapters and detailed illustrations dedicated to oxyacetylene welding (or gas welding), stick welding, MIG, and arc welding, as well as brazing and soldering. Along with guidance on equipment selection and use, and safety precautions, this book offers 12 projects and repairs commonly faced on the small farm or homestead, with step-by-step photography guiding readers through building a wall-mount hay feeder, repairing a garden rake, making horseshoe hooks, and more.
Volume 3 takes the subject of better land husbandry further. The book first points out the sort of things which have been, and are being used, but are failing to deliver what is required. It then explains the causes of erosion, the theory and practice of soil and water conservation, and practical and lasting ways to construct terraces, including such details as how to build different kinds of terrace walls. Nothing grows from the top down, as also with soil improvement. It explains in detail the way of achieving practical and sustainable soil and water conservation, practical ways in which farmers can themselves make and use practical and lasting ways to construct terraces, including such details as how to build different kinds of terrace walls.
Egypt is a country of tremendous land resources but limited water resources The area of cultivated land is only 3.2% of the gross area. The river Nile is the main sources of water. In the recent years the Governement established large-scale agricultural projects in light of food security related to the population growth. Expansion of irrigated agriculture has to be predomantly relalized bt increasing the water use efficiency. In Egypt, the dominant irrigation method is surface irrigation, which covers approximately 83% of the irrigated areas. Surface irrigation or gravity methods are generally characterized by a low efficiency. One opportunity to increase the efficiency is to convert surface irrigation to modern irrigation systems, which are generaly highly expensive for a country like Egypt. Another option to increase the efficiency of surface irrigation systems is to convert the traditional irrigation method based on continuous flow to surge flow irrigation. Surge flow irrigation is the intermittent application of water to furrows in a series of relatively short on and off time periods. This study has been carried out to demonstrate the applicability of surge flow irrigation for water saving under the short field conditions that prevail in Egypt. The results indicate that surge flow irrigation is an effective irrigation method to save water and to increase crop production.
This book forms the proceedings of the 18th European ICID conference on irrigation and drainage. Water is not a free commodity and demand is becoming more and more intense for its allocation. This book focuses on the role of irrigation and drainage in the debate on water and should be of interest to planners, designers, policy makers in the water industry, national and local government, academic researchers and environment agencies.
The third edition of this book exposes the reader to a wide array of engineering principles and their application to agriculture. It presents an array of more or less independent topics to facilitate daily assessments or quizzes, and aims to enhance the students' problem solving ability. Each chapter contains objectives, worked examples and sample problems are included at the end of each chapter. This book was first published in the late 60's by AVI. It remains relevant for post secondary classes in Agricultural Engineering Technology and Agricultural Mechanics, and secondary agriculture teachers.
As global pressure on water resources intensifies, it is essential that scientists understand the role that water plays in the development of crops and how such knowledge can be applied to improve water productivity. Linking crop physiology, agronomy and irrigation practices, this book focuses on eleven key fruit crops upon which millions of people in the tropics and subtropics depend for their livelihoods (avocado, cashew, Citrus spp., date palm, lychee, macadamia, mango, olive, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple). Each chapter reviews international irrigation research on an individual fruit crop, identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness of water allocation and encouraging readers to link scientific knowledge with practical applications. Clearly written and well illustrated, this is an ideal resource for engineers, agronomists and researchers concerned with how the productivity of irrigated agriculture can be improved, in the context of climate change, and the need for growers to demonstrate good irrigation practices.
This trusted text provides a thorough introduction to agricultural mechanics, covering fundamental mechanical and engineering theory, common tools and materials, and a wide range of practical applications. Units explore essential topics such as career opportunities, shop orientation and procedures, woodworking and metal working, tool fitting, project planning, cutting and welding, paints and paint application, power mechanics, electrical wiring, plumbing, hydraulics, concrete and masonry, and agricultural structures.Safety is also emphasized strongly throughout the text, both within each chapter and in a dedicated unit. To engage today's students and make even complicated principles easier to apply, the text features abundant, full-color images, illustrations, charts, and data tables, as well as detailed drawings of over 50 complete project plans. More than 300 of these visuals have been added or updated for the Seventh Edition, which also boasts a suite of dynamic digital teaching resources, such as an online Coursemate with lecture materials, videos, interactive quizzes, and more. The new edition also includes updates to reflect the latest innovations in materials, machinery, and methods, providing a current and comprehensive guide to help students plan and execute agricultural projects effectively.
This SpringerBrief reviews currently applied and potential solutions for improving the efficiency and quality of rural electricity supply in India, a major bottleneck for agricultural development. It provides background on the current state of supply and reviews recent and ongoing research and development projects. One selected project, designed and conducted by the authors, is outlined in detail. The research findings, project implementation, and evaluation are intended to provide development practitioners, policy makers, and applied researchers with experience from the field. At the core of this Brief is the integration of technical and social solutions, emphasizing the role of collective action, and the merits and demerits of small-scale, technically simple measures.
This book focuses on irrigation sources together with water management for agricultural development in Uttar Pradesh state of India. Being the most populous state of the country, it bears a burden of feeding about 199 million people of which major section relies on agriculture for their subsistence. This study makes comparison in the growth trends in the irrigated area, crop land use patterns and crop productivity at the district level in different periods of time. The book emphasizes on irrigation water management to optimize crop yields in order to increase Water Productivity of crops in low productivity regions of the state applying suitable technology. This book appeals to researchers and students in geography and planning working on the topics of agriculture as well as irrigation and water management aspects.
In water-scarce areas of the Middle East, greywater (household wastewater excluding toilet waste) is commonly used by poor communities to irrigate home gardens. This both supplements the water available to the household and improves food security. This book draws together material presented at a conference in Jordan in 2007, and examines the technical approaches to treating and using greywater for irrigation, including its associated risks to health and the environment. It discusses many of the non-technical issues that influence effectiveness and sustainability of greywater use. It also takes a hard look at economic issues, arguing that more clarity and consistency from policymakers is essential if low-income, water-stressed communities are to make better and safer use of their existing water supplies. The book concludes by offering suggestions for where donor efforts and research could best be focused in the near future.Greywater use in the Middle East is important reading for researchers, donors, implementing agencies, and policymakers, in the fields of water supply, water reuse, livelihoods and agriculture.
Mountain agriculture has attracted attention both for its complex adaptation to particular circumstances, and for its marginality and instability in a changing world. Irrigation plays a range of roles in mountain farming systems and their dynamics or change. Hill Irrigation examines the environmentalconstraints and socio-economic contexts to successful mountain agriculture, and reviews the policies and technological approaches used to promote irrigation in different mountain regions. This survey is accompaned by a detailed bibliography of over 500 entries of literature on the subject.
The increasing availability of mechanized irrigation pumps in rural Bangladesh has opened up the possibility for NGO-supported groups of poor people to become owners of a pump and to use the water for irrigating household land and/or for sale. Women's participation and the impact on their status has been studied in 35 female and mixed-sex irrigation groups dispersed over the country, supported by five different NGOs and the Grameen Bank. The book describes the background, methodologies and conclusions to the studies in detail, with summaries of the policy implications.
This book provides a comprehensive review of key advances in the use of robots in agriculture. Chapters summarise developments in location and guidance systems, GPS technologies, machine vision, navigation, actuation, communication and control technologies. The second part of the book discusses deploying these techniques to save labour, improve precision, speed and efficiency in agricultural operations. Chapters review the state of the art on the use of agricultural robots in planting, crop monitoring, spraying, irrigation and weed management. There are also reviews of orchard management and harvesting, harvesting of soft fruit and in-field grading of harvested produce. Other chapters cover the application of robotics in the livestock sector.
In the history of heavy equipment development, no single man's name is more respected or revered as that of R. G. LeTourneau. Robert Gilmour LeTourneau is considered by many to be the dean of high-speed mobile earthmoving equipment. His designs of the 1920s, 30s, and 40s laid the fundamental groundwork for many of the earthmoving machines we see today. Self-propelled, rubber tired scrapers, bulldozing blades, and rippers were all conceived under his engineering genius in the quest for moving material at the lowest-cost-per-yard. The time period of 1953 to 1971 saw many more innovative machine and engineering achievements in the fields of earth-moving, off-shore oil exploration, logging, and defense. This second volume of fantastic machine creations covers the later years up until the sale of the company to Marathon in 1971. Standard production, specials, and experimental machines are shown in rare archival images, some being shown in print for the very first time, help showcase what made R. G. LeTourneau so important in the heavy equipment industry.
Today's irrigation management faces challenges and competition with other sectors (ie: household, industry, and environmental), quality degradation, and uncertain climatic conditions. To cope with these situations, the irrigation managers need precise estimation/determination of irrigation needs for crops, advance/water-saving techniques for water application, water conservation approaches, economic considerations in irrigation, and potentials for using marginal quality water in irrigation (such as saline water, and waste-water). This book focuses on all of the above issues: starting with irrigation management strategies for field crops -- to suitability of saline and waste-water as irrigation water. The book is useful to identify the need and adopt emerging technologies for irrigation management, as well as to identify appropriate methodologies for social, economic, and environmental benefits of improved irrigation management.
This book aims at deriving governance and sustainability lessons from analysing the implementation and management of some major irrigation programs in the Mediterranean Region. Eight countries are targeted, namely: Spain, Italy, Albania, Turkey, Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. The main focus programs include the modernisation and rehabilitation of the existing irrigation systems, the transfer of irrigation management responsibilities to water users' organizations, public private partnerships arrangements, the monitoring & evaluation of participatory irrigation management and transfer processes, and the governance of groundwater resources for irrigation. The adopted approach relies on learning from the value of each single experience, and on advancing solutions that emerge from their comparative analysis and that may be of guidance to those engaged in these programs. The country experiences indicated that often times, significant shortcomings in the implementation of these programs have occurred and hopefully, this book could be a source of inspiration for the corrective actions needed.
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