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Revolutions in the Desert investigates the development of pastoral nomadism in the arid regions of the ancient Near East, challenging the prevailing notion that such societies left few remains appropriate for analytic study. Few prior studies have approached the deeper past of desert nomadic societies, which have been primarily recognized only as a complement to the study of sedentary agricultural societies in the region. Based on decades of archaeological field work in the Negev of southern Israel, both excavations and surveys, and integrating materials from adjacent regions, Revolutions in the Desert offers a deeper and more dynamic view of the rise of herding societies beyond the settled zone. Rosen offers the first archaeological analysis of the rise of herding in the desert, from the first introduction of domestic goats and sheep into the arid zones, more than eight millennia ago, to the evolution of more recent Bedouin societies. The adoption of domestic herds by hunter-gatherer societies, contemporary with and peripheral to the first farming settlements, revolutionized all aspects of desert life, including subsistence, trade, cult, social organization, and ecology. Inviting processual comparison to the agricultural revolution and the secondary spread of domestication beyond the Near East, this volume traces the evolution of nomadic societies in the archaeological record and examines their ecological, economic and social adaptations to the deserts of the Southern Levant. With maps and illustrations from the author's own collection, Revolutions in the Desert is a thoughtful and engaging approach to the archaeology of desert nomadic societies.
The tomb of Pepyankh the Black (D2) at Meir was published by Blackman in his series The Rock Tombs of Meir (vol. 5, London, 1953). The Australian Centre for Egyptology (ACE) rerecorded all the scenes and inscriptions in the chapel after these had been conserved by the Supreme Council of Antiquities, with many additional details surfacing. The ACE has also undertaken conservation work in the burial chamber which yielded interesting information on the decoration of burial chambers in the Old Kingdom. The tomb is one of the most completely decorated and preserved provincial tombs of the Old Kingdom with scenes covering various themes from the life of the tomb owner as well as the most complete scenes of the funerary procession. All the scenes and inscriptions are published in detailed, coloured photographs as well as line drawings. They are accompanied by a textual description of the scenes, translation of the hieroglyphic texts and a comparative analysis with other contemporary tombs.
The Natufian culture, first recognized by Dorothy Garrod in 1928, is one of the best recorded archaeological examples of foragers at the end of the Ice Age. The many unique material finds and social aspects of this culture found their place in different hypotheses concerning the emergence of cultivation in Southwest Asia that heralds the Neolithic Revolution. In the heart of the Levant, Natufian sites are early examples for sedentism that apparently led to changes of socio-economic strategies in this region. Given the quality and quantity of its archaeological record, it is better known than most other Terminal Pleistocene cultures across Eurasia. This volume, the result of a large, international meeting on the Natufian culture, brings together a series of new discoveries and studies of sites from areas not previously investigated, thus substantially enlarging the geographic scope of this culture along the north-south axis of the Levant. Field and laboratory research reported in this book was conducted by different teams of archaeologists, archaebotanists, zooarchaelogists, and other experts both local and international. This comprehensive book adds a considerable amount of new information to our knowledge. It demonstrates the ongoing interest among numerous scholars whose efforts widen and deepen the understanding of the Natufian culture and will remain as a source of data and interpretations for years to come, just as its predecessor that was published in 1991.
The travel accounts, drawings, and collections of Frederic
Cailliaud were an important early contribution to the birth of the
new scientific discipline of Egyptology in the first half of the
nineteenth century. But one of his major works-on the arts and
crafts of ancient Egypt-was never published. For the first time
here, his exquisite color plates are presented alongside a
translation of his original French text describing them.
Explanatory material by Andrew Bednarski and other scholars put the
work in context.
The period c. 10,000-5000 BC witnessed fundamental changes in the human condition with societies across the Fertile Crescent shifting their alignment from millennia-old practices of seasonally mobile hunting and foraging to year-round sedentism, plant cultivation and animal herding. The significant role of Iran in the early stages of this transition was recognised more than half a century ago but has not been to the fore of academic consciousness in recent decades. In the meantime, investigations into Neolithic transformation have proceeded apace in all other regions of the Fertile Crescent and beyond. Here, 18 studies attempt to redress that balance in re-assessing the role of Iran in the early neolithisation of human societies. These studies, many of them by Iranian scholars, consider patterns of change and/or continuity across a variety of topographical landscapes; investigate Neolithic settlement patterns, the use of caves, animal exploitation and environmental indicators and present new insights into some well-known and some newly investigated sites. The results re-affirm the formative role of this region in the transition to sedentary farming.
Istanbul, Europe's largest city, became an urban centre of exceptional size when it was chosen by Constantine the Great as a new Roman capital city. Named 'Constantinople' after him, the city has been studied through its rich textual sources and surviving buildings, but its archaeology remains relatively little known compared to other great urban centres of the ancient and medieval worlds. Constantinople: Archaeology of a Byzantine Megapolis is a major archaeological assessment of a key period in the development of this historic city. It uses material evidence, contemporary developments in urban archaeology and archaeological theory to explore over a thousand years of the city's development. Moving away from the scholarly emphasis on the monumental core or city defences, the volume investigates the inter-mural area between the fifth-century land walls and the Constantinian city wall - a zone which encompasses half of the walled area but which has received little archaeological attention. Utilizing data from a variety of sources, including the 'Istanbul Rescue Archaeology Project' created to record material threatened with destruction, the analysis proposes a new model of Byzantine Constantinople. A range of themes are explored including the social, economic and cognitive development, Byzantine perceptions of the city, the consequences of imperial ideology and the impact of 'self-organization' brought about by many minor decisions. Constantinople casts new light on the transformation of an ancient Roman capital to an Orthodox Christian holy city and will be of great importance to archaeologists and historians.
Over a period of several millennia, from the Late Pleistocene to the Early Holocene (c. 13,000-7000 BC), communities in south-west Asia developed from hunter-foragers to villager-farmers, bringing fundamental changes in all aspects of life. These Neolithic developments took place over vast chronological and geographical scales, with considerable regional variability in specific trajectories of change. Two vital and consistent aspects of change were a shift from mobile to sedentary lifestyles and increasingly intensive human management of animal and plant resources, leading to full domestication of particular species. Building on earlier campaigns of archaeological investigation, the current phase of the Central Zagros Archaeological Project is designed to explore these issues in one key region, the Zagros zone including central west Iran. Two Early Neolithic mounds were excavated: Sheikh-e Abad in the high Zagros and Jani, in the foothills of the Mesopotamian plains, each comprising up to 10 m depth of deposits indicating occupation spanning over 2000 years, and providing great scope for diachronic and spatial analyses. These two sites make major contributions to knowledge regarding the origins of sedentism and increasing resource management in Southwest Asia, and associated developments in social, cultural and ritual practices in this formative region of human cultural development.
Penned by a scholar who was personally involved in research into
the enigmatic young pharaoh, this comprehensive and fully
illustrated new study reviews the current state of our knowledge
about the life, death, and burial of Tutankhamun in light of the
latest investigations and newest technology. Zahi Hawass places the
king in the broader context of Egyptian history, unraveling the
intricate and much debated relationship between various members of
the royal family, and the circumstances surrounding the turbulent
Amarna period. He also succinctly explains the religious background
and complex beliefs in the afterlife that defined and informed many
features of Tutankhamun's tomb. The history of the exploration of
the Valley of the Kings is discussed, as well as the background and
mutual relationships of the main protagonists.
The Neolithic site of Catalhoeyuk in Turkey has been world famous since the 1960s when excavations revealed the large size and dense occupation of the settlement, as well as the spectacular wall paintings and reliefs uncovered inside the houses. Since 1993 an international team of archaeologists, led by Ian Hodder, has been carrying out new excavations and research, in order to shed more light on the people who inhabited the site. The present volume reports on the results of excavations in 2000-2008 that have provided a wealth of new data on the ways in which humans became increasingly engaged in their material environment such that `things' came to play an active force in their lives. A substantial and heavy involvement was with alluvial clays that surrounded the site. In the absence of large local stone, humans became increasingly involved in the extraction and manipulation of clay for a wide range of purposes - from bricks to ovens, pots and figurines. This heavy use of clays led to changes in the local environment that interacted with human activity, as indicated in the first section of the volume. In the second section, other examples of material technologies are considered all of which in various ways engage humans in specific dependencies and relationships. For example, large-scale studies of obsidian trade have drawn a complex picture of changing interactions between humans over time. The volume concludes with an integrated account of the uses of materials at Catalhoeyuk based on the analysis of heavy residue samples from all contexts at the site.
The Neolithic site of Catalhoeyuk in Turkey has been world famous since the 1960s when excavations revealed the large size and dense occupation of the settlement, as well as the spectacular wall paintings and reliefs uncovered inside the houses. Since 1993 an international team of archaeologists, led by Ian Hodder, has been carrying out new excavations and research, in order to shed more light on the people who inhabited the site. The present volume reports on the results of excavations in 2000-2008 that have provided a wealth of new data on the ways in which the Catalhoeyuk settlement and environment were dwelled in. A first section explores how houses, open areas and middens in the settlement were enmeshed in the daily lives of the inhabitants, integrating a wide range of different types of data at different scales. A second section examines subsistence practices of the site's inhabitants and builds up a picture of how the overall landscape was exploited and lived within. A third section examines the evidence from the skeletons of those buried within the houses at Catalhoeyuk in order to examine health, diet, lifestyle and activity within the settlement and across the landscape. This final section also reports on the burial practices and associations in order to build hypotheses about the social organization of those inhabiting the settlement. A complex picture emerges of a relatively decentralized society, large in size but small-scale in terms of organization, dwelling within a mosaic patchwork of environments. Through time, however, substantial changes occur in the ways in which humans and landscapes interact.
Persian cities are part of a corridor of civilisation with settlements straddling thousands of years. Taking Maibud as a case study, Eisa Esfanjary traces the evolution of ancient settlements chronologically, thematically and methodologically. Maibud provides the basis from which a new interpretive approach is developed, being a city that has a history of several millennia yet has a scale that renders it manageable with archaeological remains that range across several phases of building development. An archetypal example of middle-sized Persian cities, it affords insights into the entire urban landscape and its spatial, functional and morphological iterations. Within this overall picture, a methodology is developed to explore various morphological elements of the city, the three key components of which are the town plan, the building type, and construction materials. The inter-relationships between these three components are explained in order to formulate an approach to support the management and conservation of the historic urban landscape. Combining a rigorous survey and observation of the standing structures with scarce archaeological and written sources, this book sheds light on Islamic urbanism in general and Islamic urbanism in Iran particularly.
Elam was an important state in southwestern Iran from the third millennium BC to the appearance of the Persian Empire and beyond. Less well-known than its neighbors in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, the Levant or Egypt, it was nonetheless a region of extraordinary cultural vitality. This book examines the formation and transformation of Elam's many identities through both archaeological and written evidence, and brings to life one of the most important regions of Western Asia, re-evaluates its significance, and places it in the context of the most recent archaeological and historical scholarship. The new edition includes material from over 800 additional sources, reflecting the enormous amount of fieldwork and scholarship on Iran since 1999. Every chapter contains new insights and material that have been seamlessly integrated into the text in order to give the reader an up-to-date understanding of ancient Elam.
Nishapur in eastern Iran was an important Silk Road city, its position providing links to central Asia and China, Afghanistan and India, the Persian Gulf and the west. Despite previous excavations there are many unresolved questions surrounding the site; when was the city founded? Is Nishapur a Sasanian city? Was it founded by the Sasanian king Shapur I or II? The question of chronology of occupation and the ceramic sequence is also problematic particularly for late antiquity and the medieval period, as well as a complete topography of the site. The Irano-French archaeological mission at Nishapur (2004 to 2007) (CNRS-MAEE-Musee du Louvre) focused on the Qohandez, or citadel, the oldest part of Nishapur. Excavations were conducted in different areas of the mound, in order to address these questions. After an introduction to the site and the former American and Iranian excavations, this book presents the stratigraphy and the pottery of the site. The difficulties involved in establishing a precise history of the site, as well as the complexities of studying the pottery led to a program of analysis undertaken by the Research Centre of French Museums (C2RMF). Chemical and petrographic analysis, thermoluminescence (TL) dating and archaeomagnetism analysis as support to the TL results were done. A pottery database has been created regrouping the stratigraphical and laboratory analyses data, in order to manage and present an organised corpus of 1000 samples. The combination of the data from the stratigraphical and laboratory analyses gives an accurate and completely new chronology of the site. Moreover, the study also brought to light a new typological sequence of the ceramic, as well as new data about the pottery production at Nishapur.
In the past, textile production was a key part of all ancient societies. The Ancient Near East stands out in this respect with the overwhelming amount of documentation both in terms of raw materials, line of production, and the distribution of finished products. The thirteen intriguing chapters in Textile Production and Consumption in the Ancient Near East describe the developments and changes from household to standardised, industrialised and centralised productions which take place in the region. They discuss the economic, social and cultural impact of textiles on ancient society through the application of textile tool studies, experimental testing, context studies and epigraphical as well as iconographical sources. Together they demonstrate that the textile industries, production, technology, consumption and innovations are crucial to, and therefore provide an in-depth view of ancient societies during this period. Geographically the contributions cover Anatolia, the Levant, Syria, the Assyrian heartland, Sumer, and Egypt.
Living with the Dead presents a detailed analysis of ancestor worship in Egypt, using a diverse range of material, both archaeological and anthropological, to examine the relationship between the living and the dead. Iconography and terminology associated with the deceased reveal indistinct differences between the blessedness and malevolence and that the potent spirit of the dead required constant propitiation in the form of worship and offerings. A range of evidence is presented for mortuary cults that were in operation throughout Egyptian history and for the various places, such as the house, shrines, chapels and tomb doorways, where the living could interact with the dead. The private statue cult, where images of individuals were venerated as intermediaries between people and the Gods is also discussed. Collective gatherings and ritual feasting accompanied the burial rites with separate, mortuary banquets serving to maintain ongoing ritual practices focusing on the deceased. Something of a contradiction in attitudes is expressed in the evidence for tomb robbery, the reuse of tombs and funerary equipment and the ways in which communities dealt with the death and burial of children and others on the fringe of society. This significant study furthers our understanding of the complex relationship the ancient Egyptians had with death and with their ancestors; both recently departed and those in the distant past.
Written to celebrate the centennial of the Sphinx's arrival in Philadelphia, The Sphinx That Traveled to Philadelphia tells the fascinating story of the colossal sphinx that is a highlight of the Penn Museum's Egyptian galleries and an iconic object for the Museum as a whole. The narrative covers the original excavations and archaeological history of the Sphinx, how it came to Philadelphia, and the unexpected ways in which the Sphinx's story intersects with the history of Philadelphia, the University of Pennsylvania, and the Museum just before World War I. The book features ample illustrations-photographs, letters, newspaper stories, postcards, maps, and drawings-drawn largely from the extensive materials in the Museum Archives. Images of related artifacts in the Penn Museum's Egyptian collection and other objects from the Egyptian, Near East, and Mediterranean Sections (many not on view and some never before published), as well as pieces in museums in the United States, Europe, and Egypt, place the story of the Penn Museum Sphinx in a wider context. The writing style is informal and text is woven around the graphics that form the backbone of the narrative. The book is designed to be of interest to a wide audience of adult readers but accessible and engaging to younger readers as well.
2012 American Publishers (PROSE) Awards winner for Best Archaeology
& Anthropology Book
James Henry Breasted (1865-1935) had a career that epitomizes our popular image of the archaeologist. Daring, handsome, and charismatic, he traveled on expeditions to remote and politically unstable corners of the Middle East, helped identify the tomb of King Tut, and was on the cover of "Tim""e" magazine. But Breasted was more than an Indiana Jones--he was an accomplished scholar, academic entrepreneur, and talented author who brought ancient history to life not just for students but for such notables as Teddy Roosevelt and Sigmund Freud.In "American Egyptologist," Jeffrey Abt weaves together the disparate strands of Breasted's life, from his small-town origins following the Civil War to his evolution into the father of American Egyptology and the founder of the Oriental Institute in the early years of the University of Chicago. Abt explores the scholarly, philanthropic, diplomatic, and religious contexts of his ideas and projects, providing insight into the origins of America's most prominent center for Near Eastern archaeology. An illuminating portrait of the nearly forgotten man who demystified ancient Egypt for the general public, "American Egyptologist" restores James Henry Breasted to the world and puts forward a brilliant case for his place as one of the most important scholars of modern times.
The twelfth annual Current Research in Egyptology symposium aimed to highlight the multidisciplinary nature of the field of Egyptology. Papers in these proceedings reflect this multidisciplinarity, with research based on Archaeology, Linguistics, Cultural Astronomy, Historiography, Botany, Religion and Law, amongst others. By means of one or several of these disciplines, contributors to this volume approach a broad range of subjects spanning from Prehistory to modern Egypt, including: self-presentation, identity, provenance and museum studies, funerary art and practices, domestic architecture, material culture, mythology, religion, commerce, economy, dream interpretation and the birth of Egyptology as a discipline.
Catalog of bronze figures in the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology. The museum houses 510 statuettes or fragments of statuettes made of bronze. Most of them represent Egyptian gods, but there are also Hellenistic and Roman figures.
This book presents an archaeological overview of the presence and development of Egyptian material culture in the context of Augustan Rome. The Augustan period was a crucial turning point for the urban landscape of Rome, which became specifically characterised by a complex, and often flexible repertoire of cultural diversity. Studies in the past have focused primarily on (classical) Greek influences on the development of Augustan material culture, while objects featuring Egyptian styles, themes and materials have remained generally categorised as exoticism, a fashion trend, or signs of so-called 'Egyptomania'. The research presented and discussed in this book, in contrast, raises the question whether and how 'Egypt' constituted an integral part of this Augustan material culture repertoire. By comprising for the first time a comprehensive and interpretative overview of such manifestations of Egypt in Rome, including public monuments, paintings, and architectural elements, as well as pottery, gems, and jewellery from private contexts, the study offers wide-ranging case studies, featuring object reappraisals as well as new archaeological finds and contextual analyses. By focusing on the archaeological data, rather than on the often better-known historical and textual sources, this books offers new arguments and evidence that the role of 'Egypt', as represented in the material culture of the city of Rome, was not that of an exotic outsider, but constituted a remarkably diverse and inherent part of the Augustan material culture repertoire and urban landscape.
The tomb of Pepyankh-the Middle is completely preserved, containing valuable information on various aspects of the Egyptian provincial administration and on daily life in the Sixth Dynasty. Both burial shafts of the tomb owner and his wife end in beautifully decorated and extremely well preserved burial chambers. This book presents a new record in line drawings and coloured photographs of all architectural and artistic features of the entire chapel and burial apartments.
This volume publishes 27 Greek papyri concerned with the transport of grain from Oxyrhynchus to Alexandria and Pelusium. Each text is presented with introduction, Greek text, English translation and explanatory notes. In the general introduction, the authors discuss the process of grain transport in fourth century C. E. Egypt as illustrated by the texts published here and by others, previously published, from Oxyrhynchus.
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