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The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary was conceived to provide more than lexical information alone, more than a one-to-one equivalent between Akkadian and English words. By presenting each word in a meaningful context, often with a full and idiomatic translation, it recreates the cultural milieu and in many ways assumes the function of an encyclopedia.
How do the cultures of Crete and Cyprus, the two great islands of the eastern Mediterranean, compare in their history and development from the 3rd millennium to the 1st millennium BC? What was similar and what was different in their social and political, economic and technological, and religious and mortuary practices and behaviours, and in the natural settings and choices of places for settlements? Why, and how, did convergences and divergences come about? Why for instance did monumental buildings appear in Cyprus several centuries after they had emerged in Crete? And what was the impact on Cypriot society of the island's rich copper resources, while Crete as a rule had to import the metal? How and why did Cyprus manage an apparently much more peaceful transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age than Crete? These are among the important questions that a leading group of experts on the two islands addressed at Parallel Lives, a pioneering conference in Nicosia organised by the British School at Athens, the University of Crete and the University of Cyprus, to compare and discuss the islands' cultural trajectories diachronically from c. 3000 BC through their Bronze Ages and down to their loss of independence in 300 BC for Cyprus and 67 BC for Crete. Papers given then are now presented in fully revised form as chapters in this book, which is the first to bring together the study of Crete and Cyprus in this way, while starting with their insular geo-cultural identities. It will be a valuable resource for students of both islands, for all who are interested in ancient material cultures and mentalities in the Mediterranean, as well as those engaged in island studies across the world.
The Balboura Survey, conducted between 1985 and 1994, investigated the settlement history of a small district in the ancient region of Kabalia in the mountains of southwestern Turkey. Although the survey's focus was on the Hellenistic-Early Byzantine city of Balboura and its western territory, the fieldwork revealed significant prehistoric occupation, and the project included research into Ottoman and recent settlement. Vol. 1: Balboura and the history of highland settlement This first volume of the final publication analyses settlement in the survey area from the Chalcolithic to the 20th century, placing it in the context of the adjoining districts. Major themes include: - the relation of the local prehistoric sites to the long-lived cultures to the north and east, and to the sparse evidence for settlement along the coast to the south; - Balboura's foundation by immigrant Pisidians around 200BC, and the new pattern of small agricultural settlements which came with it, exploiting land up to 1700m; - the city's attachment to the Roman province of Lycia, its adoption of the civic culture of Hellenistic and Roman Anatolia, and the interplay of alternative ethnicities - Kabalian, Pisidian, Lycian and Roman; - subsistence, climate, and the stability of Balboura's rural settlement pattern through nearly 1000 years. - the balance between pastoral and settled occupation from the prehistoric period through to the present day. Vol. 2. The Balboura Survey: detailed studies and catalogues This second volume of the final publication contains detailed discussions of the prehistoric pottery and of the Hellenistic and later pottery, which provide a chronological framework for the interpretation of the survey, and a major study of Hellenistic and Roman inscriptions examined during the project, many of them unpublished. Later chapters discuss an early Balbouran soldier who died at Sidon, the fortifications and water supply of the city, funerary monuments, and churches and other early Christian remains. The final chapter discusses problems and methodological issues raised by the survey, which combined extensive and intensive fieldwork. Five detailed catalogues present the Hellenistic and later pottery, the evidence of ancient activity across the city site, the rural sites and their pottery, known inscriptions from the territory of Balboura, and Balbouran funerary monuments.
The conquests of Alexander the Great were followed by a flood of Greek migration into the lands previously ruled by Persia. In Egypt, thanks to the survival of collections of related documents written on papyrus, it is possible to study the fortunes of some of these immigrants and their families, and of some of their Egyptian neighbors, with an immediacy provided by no other ancient source. Some Egyptians, such as Menkhes the village clerk and Panebkhounis the soldier, gain through their services some of the privileges enjoyed by the Greeks; the Greek cavalry officer Dryton, on the other hand, marries an Egyptian, and in the next generation his family begins to lose its Greek identity. These and other case studies compose a vivid picture of life in a country in which the native Egyptian population is dominated by a privileged and exclusive Greek minority.
Located some one hundred kilometers southwest of Cairo, the Fayum region has long been regarded as unique, often described in terms that conjure up images of an idealized Garden of Eden. In The Fayum Landscape Claire Malleson takes a novel approach to the study of the region by exploring the ways in which people have, through millennia, perceived and engaged with the Fayum landscape. Distinguishing between the experienced landscape of state and bureaucratic record and the imagined landscape of myth, meaning, and observers' personal influences and expectations, Malleson questions in detail where those perceptions come from. She traces religious practices, follows the tracks of myths and traditions, and investigates the roots of stories found in texts from the pharaonic, classical, and Medieval Islamic periods. She also reviews many, more recent travel writings on the region from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. The work of each author is presented in its historical and cultural context, and Malleson integrates what is known about ancient activities in the Fayum, based on the archaeological evidence from the many monuments and ancient settlements that exist in the region. Scholars and students of archaeology and landscape studies as well as general readers interested in Egypt's history and archaeology will find this book highly engaging and enlightening.
Hieroglyphic script was used by the inhabitants of Egypt from its introduction in about 3000 BC until its last recorded instance in AD 394. Although hieroglyphs are pictures of people, animals, birds and various objects, they are not mere picture writing. In order to be able to read and understand a text written in Egyptian hieroglyphs, it is necessary to know how each sign was read (pronounced), and to know the language, Egyptian. This publication explains some of the rules of the hieroglyphic script and Egyptian language using illustrated examples from the Ashmolean's Egyptian collection. You can take it to the Museum and read it in front of the monuments described, but it is just as easy to use at home.
Sir John Soane's Greatest Treasure describes one of the most important antiquities ever found in Egypt - the beautiful calcite sarcophagus of the pharaoh Seti I. Re-discovered in 1817 in the tomb of Seti I in the Valley of the Kings by the flamboyant explorer Giovanni Belzoni, the sarcophagus now resides in Sir John Soane's Museum in London's Lincoln's Inn Fields. Leading Egyptologist John H. Taylor outlines the life of Seti I, the background to the creation of the sarcophagus, the excitement surrounding its re-discovery and the fascinating story of its journey to London and its acquisition by Sir John Soane. At the heart of the book is a fully illustrated interpretation of the complex imagery and hieroglyphic inscriptions which cover the delicately carved surfaces of the sarcophagus. The book also includes an essay by Helen Dorey on the celebrations held at the Museum to welcome the arrival of the sarcophagus of Seti I in 1825. Sir John Soane's Greatest Treasure is published to mark the 200th anniversary of the re-discovery of the sarcophagus in 1817, and to accompany a major exhibition at Sir John Soane's Museum, opening in October 2017.
The foothills of the Theban massif, not far from Egypt s Valley of the Kings, are filled with hundreds of impressive tombs from the New Kingdom belonging to the people who served the pharaohs. Just a handful are open to the public; many others are closed and can be visited only by scholars; still others have been hidden under villages built over the past centuries and have only recently been discovered. Written by world-renowned Egyptologist Zahi Hawass and illustrated with spectacular new photographs by Sandro Vannini, this new book gives an unprecedented access to these largely inaccessible tombs. It reveals some of the most exquisite examples of Egyptian art to be found anywhere in the land of the Nile, reflecting the aristocratic status of the tombs owners. At the heart of the book, three major chapters examine the glorious paintings and exquisitely sculpted reliefs that depict daily life on earth and life in paradise. Other chapters place the tomb owners in their historical context, explore the architecture and construction of the tombs, display the lavish burial equipment, and discuss the vital ongoing work of restoration and conservation. A reference section includes maps, plans, and a checklist of tombs.
This work explores the theological defences conceived by the Egyptians at Thonis-Heracleion to guard the Canopic gate, which in the Saite period was the main entrance to the port of Thonis-Heracleion, the entry-point to Egypt for foreign vessels. The divine forces, including Khonsu-Thoth and Neith, were deployed alongside military forces that were also located at the Canopic gate. The temple to Khonsu-Thoth, Lord of the Gezirah, was dedicated by Amasis, and also served to legitimate the power of the Saite kings. This study brings together a range of material evidence for these theological defences.
This volume serves as a catalog and handbook for the description for Pan-Grave ceramics, and that considers the Pan-Grave tradition and its ceramic production within the broader socio-cultural framework of Ancient Egypt and Nubia during the mid-Second Millennium BC.
The Egyptian Collection at Norwich Castle Museum represents the first full publication of this important collection which contains several outstanding objects. Part 1 begins with an outline of the acquisition history of the Egyptian collection and its display within Norwich Castle in 1894, when it was converted from a prison to a museum. The collection was largely acquired between the nineteenth and first part of the twentieth centuries. Its most prominent donor was Flaxman Spurrell, whose varied collection of flints, faience beads and necklaces as well as Late Antique cloths was obtained from Sir Flinders Petrie. Also prominent was the Norwich-based Colman family, most notable for its manufacture of mustard, whose collection was purchased in Egypt during the late-C19. Also included in this part are essays on several of the museum's outstanding items - Ipu's shroud, a rare early 18th Dynasty example with fragments also held in Cairo; the 22nd Dynasty finely decorated and well-preserved cartonnage and wooden lid of the priest, Ankh-hor; and the exceptional model granary of Nile clay painted with lively scenes, one showing the owner, Intef, playing senet. Part 2 is a detailed catalogue of the complete collection. It is organised into sections with objects grouped together mainly according to type - stelae, shabtis, scarabs, jewellery, amulets, vessels, flints, lamps, inscribed Book of the Dead fragments, metal figurines, and Late Antique cloths; and also according to function - such as cosmetics& grooming, and architectural & furniture elements. The inscribed materials have all been translated and individual entries give examples or parallels. Seventy colour plates illustrate each object.
A provocative thesis that the historical Jesus was connected to the
royal 18th dynasty of Egypt
This monograph presents a translation, commentary and interpretation of the bilingual monumental Stele of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II, which stood in the temple district of Heracleion-Thonis in the north-western Nile Delta of Egypt. The six metre high stele was erected sometime between either 141/140 and 131 or 124 and 116 BC and was discovered during the excavations of the European Institute of Underwater Archaeology. Unfortunately immersion in the sea has damaged the surface of the stele and little of the Greek text can be made out. Nevertheless much of the hieroglyphic portion of the document can be read and interpreted. It is laid out in traditional style complete with a royal protocol and eulogy and contains information about the local affairs of the priests of Heracleion.
"Distinguishes itself...with clear, concise entries on a range of
The Byzantine cathedral of Hagia Sophia has been a source of wonder and fascination since its sixth-century construction. It was the premier monument of the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, and remains one of the most recognisable symbols of modern Istanbul. Often seen as encapsulating Byzantine history and culture, the building has been the subject of much scholarly interest since the Renaissance. However, while almost all previous archaeological work has focussed on the church itself, the surrounding complex of ecclesiastical buildings has been largely neglected. The research project presented here (co-directed by the authors) is the first to focus on the archaeology of the immediate environs of the church in order to understand the complex as a whole. Previously unrecorded material includes parts of the Patriarchal complex, from which the Orthodox Church was governed for almost a millennium, what may be the 'Great Baptistery' north of the church, and what are perhaps the first fragments of the fourth-century phase of the cathedral yet identified. The discovery of an unrecognised porch, surviving to its full height within the standing building, changes the known plan of the famous sixth-century church. This new information provides fresh evidence about the appearance and function of the complex, illustrating its similarities to, and dissimilarities from, episcopal centres elsewhere in the Byzantine world. Combined with other archaeological sources, these discoveries enable us to place the sixth-century cathedral in its urban context and to reconsider what Hagia Sophia can tell us about the wider Byzantine world.
Here is the definitive account of the Valley of the Kings, visited by millions of tourists and famous throughout the world as the burial place of the great New Kingdom pharaohs. Some eighty tombs were dug in the valley at the height of Egyptian power more than 3,000 years ago, their chambers stocked with incredible treasures and decorated with magnificent wall paintings. It was here, in 1922, that Howard Carter stumbled upon the virtually intact tomb of the boy-king, Tutankhamun. Recently the valley has made international headlines with the discovery of the burial chapels of Ramesses the Great's many sons; The Complete Valley of the Kings is the first book to publish an account of these remarkable findings. Reeves and Wilkinson, both acknowledged authorities on the valley, bring together the art, archaeology and history in one exciting account.
The ultimate book on King Tut and his tomb--the most exciting
archaeological find the world has ever known.
In this volume the principal focus is on the presence/absence of the city walls on the east side of the city from the Iron Age onwards. The evidence for major walls and their structure from Iron Age II to the Byzantine periods in Sites S.II and R.II is described and substantial revisions suggested, as inter alia no evidence for the tenth century/Solomonic date in Site S.II as suggested by E. Mazar was uncovered. The strategic reasons for the location of the northern boundary of the earlier town is discussed in relation to evidence from Kenyon's Site H. There is only sparse evidence for the PostExilic period in both areas. Parts of plastered basement rooms survived the destruction of AD 70. For the Roman period more evidence of the presence of the Roman army in the city is collated, including a possible watch tower, rare fragments of terra cottas and of fine imported South Gaulish pottery. Additionally John Hayes presents the catalogue of all the Late Roman fine wares from all remaining unpublished sites excavated by the Joint Expedition. Site S.II adds a little to the picture of the busy and extensive Byzantine city; and Site R.I provides a glimpse of extramural activities in the eighth/ninth centuries AD. A major contribution to the study of Ayyubid ceramics is provided by an assemblage from a large dump of the period. The analysis of iron working debris from Site L (the Armenian Garden) by Gethin and a reconsideration of the use of that area in Ayyubid and Mamluk times illustrates historical data, with ongoing activity in the late Ottoman period illustrated from Site S.II. The finds of the Ayyubid period were especially interesting for the insight provided into the lives of the inhabitants of the city.
The Pyramids of Giza are the only one of the Seven Wonders of the World that still stands today. Defying the centuries, these gigantic tombs, built more than 4,500 years ago by three great pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty, have long been objects of wonder, speculation and mystery, but it was not until the archaeological discoveries of the 19th century that a true picture of their fascinating history began to emerge. This pocket-sized, profusely illustrated book separates fact from fiction to tell the ongoing story of the Great Pyramids.
This volume presents the geoarchaeological analysis of the Akboukir Bay by the Smithsonian Institute. This study outlines the reasons for the submergence of the ancient coast line through detailed analysis of geological core samples.
This book presents the first topographic outline of the city of Heracleion and the nearby Ptolemaic and Byzantine sites, all currently being excavated underwater in the Bay of Aboukir. This volume is the product of ten years of survey and excavation.
The discovery of ancient Egypt and the development of Egyptology are momentous events in intellectual and cultural history. The history of Egyptology is the story of the people, famous and obscure, who constructed the picture of ancient Egypt that we have today, recovered the Egyptian past while inventing it anew, and made a lost civilization comprehensible to generations of enchanted readers and viewers thousands of years later. This, the third of a three-volume history of Egyptology, follows the progress of the discipline from the trauma of the First World War, through the vicissitudes of the twentieth century, and into Egyptology's new horizons at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Wonderful Things affirms that the history of ancient Egypt has proved continually fascinating, but it also demonstrates that the history of Egyptology is no less so. Only by understanding how Egyptology has developed can we truly understand the Egyptian past.
One hundred and fifty years of sustained archaeological investigation has yielded a more complete picture of the ancient Near East. The Old Testament in Archaeology and History combines the most significant of these archaeological findings with those of modern historical and literary analysis of the Bible to recount the history of ancient Israel and its neighboring nations and empires. Eighteen international authorities contribute chapters to this introductory volume. After exploring the history of modern archaeological research in the Near East and the evolution of "biblical archaeology" as a discipline, this textbook follows the Old Testament's general chronological order, covering such key aspects as the exodus from Egypt, Israel's settlement in Canaan, the rise of the monarchy under David and Solomon, the period of the two kingdoms and their encounters with Assyrian power, the kingdoms' ultimate demise, the exile of Judahites to Babylonia, and the Judahites' return to Jerusalem under the Persians along with the advent of "Jewish" identity.Each chapter is tailored for an audience new to the history of ancient Israel in its biblical and ancient Near Eastern setting. The end result is an introduction to ancient Israel combined with and illuminated by more than a century of archaeological research. The volume brings together the strongest results of modern research into the biblical text and narrative with archaeological and historical analysis to create an understanding of ancient Israel as a political and religious entity based on the broadest foundation of evidence. This combination of literary and archaeological data provides new insights into the complex reality experienced by the peoples reflected in the biblical narratives.
Religion in the ancient world, and ancient Egyptian religion in particular, is often perceived as static, hierarchically organised, and centred on priests, tombs, and temples. Engagement with archaeological and textual evidence dispels these beguiling if superficial narratives, however. Individuals and groups continuously shaped their environments, and were shaped by them in turn. This volume explores the ways in which this adaptation, negotiation, and reconstruction of religious understandings took place. The material results of these processes are termed 'cultural geography'. The volume examines this 'cultural geography' through the study of three vectors of religious agency: religious practices, the transmission of texts and images, and the study of religious landscapes. Bringing together papers by experts in a variety of Egyptological disciplines and other fields of study, this volume presents the results of an interdisciplinary workshop held at the University of Leiden, 7-9 November 2018, kindly funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) Vidi Talent Scheme. The 16 papers presented here discuss the archaeology of religion and religious practices, landscape archaeology and 'cultural geography', and the transmission and adaptation of texts and images, across not only the history of Egypt from the Early Dynastic to the Christian periods, but also in ancient Sudanese archaeology, the Arabian peninsula, early and medieval south-eastern Asia, and contemporary China.
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