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The Tomb in question was built for a Chief of Police and his wife in the city of Thebes (modern Luxor) at the height of the ancient Egyptian empire. It was reused by numerous people over the next few hundred years before being sealed and lying undisturbed until it was excavated in 1857. Many of the objects found were among the first to be acquired by what is now called the National Museum of Scotland. This is the souvenir guide to the exhibition The Tomb: Ancient Egyptian Burial which was shown at the National Museum of Scotland in 2017.
The Hittite language is the earliest preserved member of the Indo-European family of languages. It was written on clay tablets in central Asia Minor over a five hundred year span (ca. 1650-1180 B.C.) which witnessed the rise, the floruit, and the decline of many political powers in the Near East. The Hittite Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (CHD) is a comprehensive, bilingual Hittite-English dictionary. The CHD is not just a list of words and their meanings, but rather a dictionary that reflects and illustrates the ideas and material world of Hittite society through its lexicon. Published letter by letter, the CHD is a long-term project and the result of a painstaking process of cultural, historical, and lexical investigation for all those interested in Hittite culture and history. The CHD is the only such project in the English speaking world.
The excavations at Ramat Rahel, just south of Jerusalem, revealed a complex of structures that existed for hundreds of years in which the Kingdom of Judah was a vassal of diverse empires. Over some 500 years, jars bearing seals were stored at the site. The findings throw new light on the late First Temple period and on most of that of the Second Temple. During these centuries Ramat Rahel was the administrative contact point between Judah and the ruling empires. This is what enabled independent Judean control of Jerusalem and the Temple, and the ability to maintain Jewish identity within Jerusalem almost without outside intervention and supervision. All this came to an end during the Hasmonean revolt.
The Old Kingdom of Egypt (Dynasties 4-6, c. 2600-2180 BC) is famous as a period of the builders of the largest Egyptian pyramids. It is generally accepted that the evidence on the use of copper alloy tools from this era is meagre. Martin Odler gathers the textual, iconographic and palaeographic evidence and examines Old Kingdom artefacts in order to revise this view on the use of copper alloy tools and model tools. Furthermore, he provides updated definitions of tool classes and tool kits, together with the context of their use. Besides rare specimens of full-size tools, the largest corpora of the material have been preserved in the form of model tools in the burial equipment of the Old Kingdom elite and were most probably symbols of their power to commission and fund craftwork. Moreover, the size and elaboration of the model tools were probably connected to the social status of the buried persons. The long-standing division in the Egyptological literature between full-size tools and model tools is questioned. The ancient sources also enable to show that the preservation of material culture from the Old Kingdom was largely dependent on a conscious selection made within the past culture, with completely different settlement and funerary contexts and a conspicuous absence of weapons. The volume is completed by co-authored case studies on archaeometallurgy of selected Old Kingdom artefacts in the collection of the Egyptian Museum of Leipzig University, on morphometry of Old Kingdom adze blades and on the finds of stone and ceramic vessels associated with the findings of so-called Old Kingdom model tools.
This fully illustrated catalogue of essays, descriptions, and commentary accompanies the Oriental Institute special exhibit Picturing the Past: Imaging and Imagining the Ancient Middle East (on exhibit February 7 through September 2, 2012). Picturing the Past presents paintings, architectural reconstructions, facsimiles, models, photographs, and computer-aided reconstructions that show how the architecture, sites, and artifacts of the ancient Middle East have been documented. It also examines how the publication of those images have shaped our perception of the ancient world, and how some of the more "imaginary" reconstructions have obscured our real understanding of the past. The exhibit and catalog also show how features of the ancient Middle East have been presented in different ways for different audiences, in some cases transforming a highly academic image into a widely recognized icon of the past.
This book includes thirty contributions - twenty-nine papers and one artistic contribution - by John's colleagues, former students, and friends, on a variety of topics that represent John's versatility and many interests, including philology, history, natural history, and art. Many of the papers concentrate on the Akkadian speaking world, reflecting one of the major languages John Huehnergard has worked on throughout the years. Eran Cohen reviews and discusses the functional value of Akkadian iprus in conditional clauses in epistolary and legal texts. Lutz Edzard discusses the Akkadian injunctive umma, used in oath formulae. Daniel Fleming asks who were the 'Apiru people mentioned in Egyptian texts in the Late Bronze Age and what was their social standing as is reflected in the Amarna letters. Shlomo Izre'el offers a revised and improved version of his important study of the language of the Amarna letters. Leonid Kogan offers a comparative etymological study of botanical terminology in Akkadian, while Josef Tropper argues that Akkadian poetry, as well as Northwest Semitic poetry, are based on certain metric principles. Wilfred von Soldt lists and discusses personal names ending in -ayu from Amarna. A number of papers deal with Arabic grammarians and their concepts of language. Gideon Goldenberg discusses the concept of vocalic length in Arabic grammatical tradition and in the medieval Hebrew tradition that was its product. Wolfhart Heinrichs's contribution shows that Ibn Khaldun held innovative views of language and its evolution. Several other papers deal with Hebrew and the Hebrew Bible. Steven Fassberg deals with verbal t-forms that do not exhibit the expected metathesis in Hebrew and Aramaic of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Randall Garr studies one class of denominal hiphil verbs and asks why these verbs are assigned to the causative stem despite their non-causative semantic content. Ed Greenstein suggests that the roots of biblical wisdom can be located in second-millennium Canaanite literature by identifying wisdom sayings and themes in the Ugaritic corpus. Jeremy Hutton sheds more light on tG forms in Biblical Hebrew. Paul Korchin explains occurrences of the cohortative in Biblical Hebrew that do not conform to the normative volitive function. Dennis Pardee provides a detailed study of the Hebrew verbal system as primarily expressing aspect, not tense. Gary A. Rendsburg argues in favor of Late Biblical Hebrew features in the book of Haggai. Four papers deal with linguistic aspects of non-Classical Semitic languages. Charles Haberl looks into predicates of verbless sentences in Semitic and particularly in Neo-Mandaic. Geoffrey Khan discusses the functional differences between the preterite and the perfect in NENA. Aaron D. Rubin provides Semitic etymologies of two Modern South Arabian words. Ofra Tirosh-Becker discusses the language of the Judeo-Arabic translation of the books of Prophets. Papers on comparative Semitics are likewise numerous. Jo Ann Hackett takes another look at Ugaritic yaqtul and argues for the existence of a preterite yaqtul on comparative grounds, among others. Rebecca Hasselbach tackles the evasive origin of the Semitic verbal endings -u and -a. Na'ama Pat-El continues the discussion of the origin of the Hebrew relative particle seC- from a syntactic and comparative perspective. Richard C. Steiner proposes a new vowel syncope rule for Proto Semitic. David Testen argues for a different reconstruction of the Semitic case system. Tamar Zewi shows that prepositional phrases can function as subjects in a variety of Semitic languages. Andrzej Zaborski suggests that Berber and Cushitic preserve archaic features that have been lost for the most part in the Semitic languages. There is one paper on an Indo-European language with important ties to Semitic languages in P. Oktor Skjaervo discussion of the Pahlavi verb *awas 'to dry.' Finally, Richard Walton contributes a paper about the jumping spiders of Concord, Massachusetts, a project he labored on with John Huehnergard. The book is beautifully decorated by the drawings of the artist X Bonnie Woods, who prepared special illustration for this volume, based on cuneiform.
Originally published in 1916, this book was written by the renowned British biblical scholar, archaeologist and manuscript specialist J. Rendel Harris (1852-1941). The text is composed of nine loosely connected essays following the theme of Boanerges, a 1913 work by Harris. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in mythology and the works of Harris.
The Ptolemaic period witnessed an enormous increase in the number of hieroglyphic signs and iconographic elements (composite crowns, scepters and cult objects). The ancient scribes exploited this complexity when composing the reliefs used in temple decoration, selecting particular words, hieroglyphic signs, and iconographic elements in order to create interconnected multiple layers of meaning, forming a tapestry of sound and sight. The Theology of Hathor of Dendera examines these techniques on both micro- and macro-levels, from their smallest details to their broadest thematic connections, foregrounding individual techniques to determine the words and phrases singled out for emphasis. By synthesizing their use in the three-dimensional space of the most important cult chamber in the Temple of Hathor at Dendera, this new method of analysis not only reveals the most essential characteristics of the local theology, but also shows how the ancient scribes envisioned the universe and the place of humankind within it.
In this interdisciplinary study, Leire Olabarria examines ancient Egyptian society through the notion of kinship. Drawing on methods from archaeology and sociocultural anthropology, she provides an emic characterisation of ancient kinship that relies on performative aspects of social interaction. Olabarria uses memorial stelae of the First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom (ca.2150-1650 BCE) as her primary evidence. Contextualising these monuments within their social and physical landscapes, she proposes a dynamic way to explore kin groups through sources that have been considered static. The volume offers three case studies of kin groups at the beginning, peak, and decline of their developmental cycles respectively. They demonstrate how ancient Egyptian evidence can be used for cross-cultural comparison of key anthropological topics, such as group formation, patronage, and rites of passage.
In this book, Nadine Moeller challenges prevailing views on Egypt's non-urban past and argues for Egypt as an early urban society. She traces the emergence of urban features during the Predynastic period up to the disintegration of the powerful Middle Kingdom state (c.3500-1650 BC). This book offers a synthesis of the archaeological data that sheds light on the different facets of urbanism in ancient Egypt. Drawing on evidence from recent excavations as well as a vast body of archaeological data, this book explores the changing settlement patterns by contrasting periods of strong political control against those of decentralization. It also discusses households and the layout of domestic architecture, which are key elements for understanding how society functioned and evolved over time. Moeller reveals what settlement patterns can tell us about the formation of complex society and the role of the state in urban development in ancient Egypt.
This new study is the first translation of the papyrus of Padikakem, with an extensive commentary. The complete early Ptolemaic manuscript from the Walters Art Museum contains two uncommon texts in hieratic. The initial text, a Ritual of Introducing the Multitude on the Last Day of Tekh, is identified as a temple liturgy by its rubric title, while its themes recall love poetry and the Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys. The second text, a rarely attested Book III of glorification spells (sakhw) has an exclusively mortuary character. The spells of this section largely originate in the Pyramid Texts and include specific instructions for recitation by the lector priest. The two texts are established as a coherent composition that belongs to the Greco-Roman tradition of merging Egyptian funerary practices with temple liturgies. The diverse sources and themes of the texts shed light on the evolution of Osirian and mortuary theologies from the Old Kingdom onwards. The study also thoroughly examines the development of grammar and paleography among the parallels.
This volume publishes 534 new Demotic graffiti recorded at the temple of Isis on Philae Island, presented with drawings and photographs. New editions of 101 of the graffiti that were published by F. Griffith in his Catalogue of the Demotic Papyri in the Dodecaschoenus (1937) are published here. These re-edited texts were mainly chosen because new drawings provided significant new readings from those made by Griffith, or they helped elucidate the scope and meaning of some of the new graffiti by placement. The volume also includes an essay interpreting the role of the graffiti in understanding the political and religious activities at Philae temple during the last centuries of worship of the goddess Isis, mainly by Nubian priests and pilgrims.
First published in 2005. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Substantial ceramic and architectural remains attributable to the Late Bronze Age were excavated in Field XIII in 1968 by the Drew-McCormick Expedition. The Late Bronze Age sequence spanning the Late Bronze I, IIA, and IIB contains ceramics from occupational contexts and also from a cache of 850 restorable and complete vessels from a Basement Chamber sealed below destruction debris. This analysis provides data on the ceramic typological development and the technological processes or chaine operatoire at a Northern Hill Country site. While mostly domestic in nature, the ceramic assemblage also comprises imported Cypriot White Slip and Base Ring Wares that place the territorial kingdom, governed by the ambitious ruler Lab'ayu, within a wider regional trade system encompassing the Dothan-Jezreel and Beth Shean Valley routes. The findings from this investigation align with recent scholarship that shows the early Late Bronze I was defined by contracted settlement over a protracted period of time, in contrast to the architectural and ceramic complexity exhibited in the Late Bronze IIA, and to a limited extent in the Late Bronze IIB. This report continues the effort to publish the excavation findings from ten seasons of excavations spanning 1957 to 1972 and originally led by Expedition Director G. Ernest Wright. 33 b&w illustrations and 33 tables.
First published in 1989. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
As continuation of the two preceding volumes of Short Texts with demotic votive inscriptions (vol. I) and mummy labels (vol. II), this volume brings together all but 800 demotic and Greek-demotic graffiti. These are in principle all the graffiti published in periodicals, congress proceedings and colloquia and Festschrifts, as well as in monographs that are not exclusively concerned with demotic graffiti (chiefly excavations reports). The texts are presented in topographical order from South to North, with those from a single monument kept together. The texts show the full gamut of themes encountered in demotic graffiti, which are more varied than their reputation would suggest: the commemorative inscriptions often have more to offer than just names and provide information about the careers of the inscribers, occasionally even touching on historical events of a larger scale. Specifically the numerous and variegated graffiti from the stone quarries in Middle Egypt and at Tura and Masara opposite ancient Memphis deserve to be mentioned because many of these texts are published here for the first time. Several clusters of these quarry graffiti belong to the first demotic texts that were recorded in the nineteenth century, and they constitute the only extant copies for many texts that have now been destroyed. In addition, there are some three hundred brief inscriptions on various objects such as coins, hieratic papyri and mummy linen, stelae, sculptors' models and plaques, various vases and amphoras, containers for embalming materials, dishes for the preparation of kyphi, and various other objects. Although only a few of these may be regarded as proper graffiti, most of them show a comparable close relationship with the objects on which they are to be found - for example the notes on stelae, papyri and mummy bandages, or the marks on wooden coffin boards or drums of stone columns - which is why we have collected them in this volume, trusting that the reader will not be misled as to their nature by the title of the volume. There are also some sixty further additions to Short Texts volumes I and II: some stelae, a number of mummy labels and strips of mummy linen, including two previously unpublished linen pieces from Lille University.
The Sinai Peninsula is a vast region encompassing some 60,000 square kilometers with hundreds if not thousands of archaeological sites, only a relatively small sample of which have been fully explored. The Sinai attracted people in ancient times and continues to do so today, whether as a dwelling place, an area rich in resources, a defensive zone, a refuge, a holy site, or simply as a land through which merchants, armies, emissaries, and others might travel from one region to another. The papers presented here contribute to a greater understanding and appreciation of the rich heritage of the Sinai Peninsula in its role as a key land bridge Africa and Asia and as a region important in its own right.
The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary was conceived to provide more than lexical information alone, more than a one-to-one equivalent between Akkadian and English words. By presenting each word in a meaningful context, usually with a full and idiomatic translation, it recreates the cultural milieu and thus, in many ways, assumes the function of an encyclopaedia. Its source material ranges in time from the 3rd millennium BC to the 1st century AD and in geographic area from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Zagros Mountains in the east. The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary has become an invaluable source for the study of the civilisations of the ancient Near East; their political and cultural history; their achievements in the sciences of medicine, astronomy, mathematics and linguistics; and not least, the timeless beauty of their poetry. Volume 21, alphabetically the last, was published in the early years of the project; Volume 20: U/W is the final volume and its publication marks the completion of the set.
Until comparatively recently, there has been little attempt to produce a detailed study of the architectural make-up of multi-roomed mastaba tombs and the implications of these observations for understanding the ways in which this type of tomb was really used. No thorough and comprehensive investigation has ever been dedicated to the building techniques, materials and design of mastabas or, indeed, who built them. The Architecture of Mastaba Tombs considers the architectural components of tomb design that made an ideal burial and explores different aspects of the design and construction of mastabas in the late Old Kingdom (c. 2375 - 2181 BC). It focuses on a group of multi-roomed mastabas in the Unas Cemetery at Saqqara that can be characterised by their complex design and large size. This includes an appraisal of tombs within this cemetery and examines the layout and development of the cemetery from the reign of King Unas, at the end of the 5th Dynasty. Specific attention is paid to the techniques that were used to build tombs via the recording of masonry and examination of specific architectural elements within different monuments. Features such as doorways and the security of the tomb and other aspects, for example the provision of storage space for the maintenance of the mortuary cult, are all considered. The study utilises published sources and survey work carried out by the author. Finally, this study addresses the imbalance of data collection within the recording of Old Kingdom mastabas.
This volume contains a collection of compositions from cave 4 at Qumran written during the Second Temple period and linked to the Hebrew Bible through text, characters, themes, or genre. While some of the documents represent a reworking, rewriting, or paraphrase of biblical books, all greatly enhance our understanding of biblical interpretation during the period and the phenomenon of pseudepigraphy.
The Journal of the Canadian Society for Coptic Studies is published annually on behalf of the Canadian Society for Coptic Studies by Lockwood Press. The Canadian Society for Coptic Studies is a Toronto-based nonprofit organization whose purpose is to bring together individuals interested in Coptic studies and to promote the dissemination of scholarly information on Coptic Studies through the organization of meetings and conferences and through the preparation of scholarly works for publication.
After the death of RamesesII, the Nineteenth Dynasty, soon fell into decline and familial conflict, culminating in a final civil war that ended with the accession of a new dynasty. Sethy I and Rameses II's promotion of a concept of a wider 'royal family' may have sown the seeds for the conflicts among their descendants.Aidan Dodson explores the mysteries of the origins of the usurper-king Amenmeses and the career of the 'king-maker' of the period, the chancellor Bay. Having helped to install at least one pharaoh on the throne, Bay's life was ended by his abrupt execution, ordered by the woman with whom he had shared the regency of Egypt for the young and disabled King Siptah. Finally, the author considers how that woman-Tawosret-became the last true female pharaoh, and how she finally lost her throne to the founder of the Twentieth Dynasty, Sethnakhte.
Archaeological excavation of the ancient city of Bethsaida has retrieved a wealth of information on some of the most intriguing topics from 10th century BCE to 4th century CE. This volume includes reports on archaeological and geological findings from 1997 to 2006 and the cultural and historical contexts of the findings. This volume completes the series. Twenty years of excavations at Bethsaida are marked with a timely publication of the latest results at this important Galilean Site. Interdisciplinary in content, this volume will be a helpful addition to the library of those interested in the Iron Age and the Roman era, the times of the Old and New Testaments.' (James K. Hoffmeier)
Hellenistic Alexandria: Celebrating 24 Centuries' presents the proceedings of a conference held at the Acropolis Museum in Athens, on December 13-15, 2017, and includes high-level dialogues and philosophical discussions between international experts on Hellenistic Alexandria. The goal was to celebrate the 24 centuries which have elapsed since its foundation and the beginning of the Library and the Museum of Alexandria. The conference was divided into two parts, to include in the first part archaeology, history, philosophy, literature, art, culture and legal issues and in the second part science, medicine, technology and environment. A total of 28 original and peer-reviewed articles point to the importance of the brilliantly-original ideas that emerged during the Hellenistic age and the curious modernity of the whole atmosphere of the time. The range of presented topics covers a variety of new data on the foundation of Alexandria to comparison between Ptolemaic Alexandria and Ptolemaic Greece through philosophy, culture and drama to the forgotten revolution of science, medicine and the prevailing climatological and geophysical conditions throughout the Hellenistic Period. The conference and its proceedings were co-sponsored by the arianna V. Vardinoyannis Foundation, the Acropolis Museum, the Alexandria Center for Hellenistic Studies at Bibliotheca Alexandrina and the Mariolopoulos-Kanaginis Foundation for the Environmental Sciences. The Publication also celebrates the 10th anniversary of the Alexandria Center for Hellenistic Studies, a joint collaboration between the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, the Vardinoyannis Foundation and the University of Alexandria. Scholars from around the world follow the Center's programme in various specialisations, ranging from historyliterature- art, to archaeology and architecture-philosophy, and science.
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