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This book provides a self-contained introduction to the simulation of flow and transport in porous media, written by a developer of numerical methods. The reader will learn how to implement reservoir simulation models and computational algorithms in a robust and efficient manner. The book contains a large number of numerical examples, all fully equipped with online code and data, allowing the reader to reproduce results, and use them as a starting point for their own work. All of the examples in the book are based on the MATLAB Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (MRST), an open-source toolbox popular popularity in both academic institutions and the petroleum industry. The book can also be seen as a user guide to the MRST software. It will prove invaluable for researchers, professionals and advanced students using reservoir simulation methods. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
The past few decades have witnessed remarkable growth in the application of passive seismic monitoring to address a range of problems in geoscience and engineering, from large-scale tectonic studies to environmental investigations. Passive seismic methods are increasingly being used for surveillance of massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and development of enhanced geothermal systems. The theoretical framework and techniques used in this emerging area draw on various established fields, such as earthquake seismology, exploration geophysics and rock mechanics. Based on university and industry courses developed by the author, this book reviews all the relevant research and technology to provide an introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring. It integrates up-to-date case studies and interactive online exercises, making it a comprehensive and accessible resource for advanced students and researchers in geophysics and engineering, as well as industry practitioners.
This new title in the Juta’s Pocket Companions series will serve as an ideal companion to the Mine Health and Safety Act & Regulations Pocket Statute.
Understanding the Mine Health and Safety Act is derived from the highly regarded Commentary on the Mine Health & Safety Act by Masilo and Rautenbach, the leading South African work on this Act.
The book contains commentary on a variety of sections contained in the eight chapters of the Act, set out in a manner that ensures that discussions are accessible to all without sacrificing detail. All commentary is supported by footnotes containing further references as well as citation of relevant case law.
Investigations of multi-physical processes in geomaterials have gained increasing attention due to the ongoing interest in solving complex geoenvironmental problems. This book provides a comprehensive exposition of the classical theory of thermo-poroelasticity, complemented by complete examples to problems in thermo-poromechanics that are used to validate computational results from multi-physics codes used in practice. The methodologies offer an insight into real-life problems related to modern environmental geosciences, including nuclear waste management, geologic sequestration of greenhouse gases to mitigate climate change, and the impact of energy resources recovery on groundwater resources. A strong focus is placed on analytical approaches to benchmark the accuracy of the computational approaches that are ultimately used in real-life problems. The extensive coverage of both theory and applications in thermo-poroelasticity and geomechanics provides a unified presentation of the topics, making this an accessible and invaluable resource for researchers, students or practitioners in the field.
Perfect for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students in geophysics, physics, mathematics, geology and engineering, this book is devoted exclusively to seismic wave theory. The result is an invaluable teaching tool, with its detailed derivations of formulas, clear explanations of topics, exercises along with selected answers, and an additional set of exercises with derived answers on the book's website. Some highlights of the text include: a review of vector calculus and Fourier transforms and an introduction to tensors, which prepare readers for the chapters to come; and a detailed discussion on computing reflection and transmission coefficients, a topic of wide interest in the field; a discussion in later chapters of plane waves in anisotropic and anelastic media, which serves as a useful introduction to these two areas of current research in geophysics. Students will learn to understand seismic wave theory through the book's clear and concise pedagogy.
This carefully targeted and rigorous new textbook introduces engineering students to the fundamental principles of applied Earth science, highlighting how modern soil and rock mechanics, geomorphology, hydrogeology, seismology and environmental geochemistry affect geotechnical and environmental practice. Key geological topics of engineering relevance including soils and sediments, rocks, groundwater, and geologic hazards are presented in an accessible and engaging way. A broad range of international case studies add real-world context, and demonstrate practical applications in field and laboratory settings to guide site characterization. End-of-chapter problems are included for self-study and evaluation, and supplementary online materials include electronic figures, additional examples, solutions, and guidance on useful software. Featuring a detailed glossary introducing key terminology, this text requires no prior geological training and is essential reading for senior undergraduate or graduate students in civil, geological, geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering. It is also a useful reference and bridge for Earth science graduates embarking on engineering geology courses.
Comprehensive insight into the offshore oil and gas industry for those intending to choose it as a career Full syllabus coverage for OPITO BOSIET, FOET, MIST and IMIST courses Produced in full colour with over 180 images Basic Offshore Safety covers everything that newcomers to the offshore oil and gas industry need to know prior to travelling offshore or when attending OPITO's Basic Offshore Safety Induction and Emergency Training (BOSIET), Minimum Industry Safety Training (MIST), Further Offshore Emergency Training (FOET) and International MIST courses. Primarily focused on the oil industry, this book introduces readers to the key safety topics in the offshore support vessel industry and common to the renewable industry. Written in easy to follow steps and including references to both the legislation and guidance where relevant, Abdul Khalique walks the reader through the hazards they are likely to encounter when travelling to, from or working offshore, showing how to minimise risks and deal with any issues that may arise at any stage of the work.
Since the beginning of the US shale gas revolution in 2005, the development of unconventional oil and gas resources has gathered tremendous pace around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the key geologic, geophysical, and engineering principles that govern the development of unconventional reservoirs. The book begins with a detailed characterization of unconventional reservoir rocks: their composition and microstructure, mechanical properties, and the processes controlling fault slip and fluid flow. A discussion of geomechanical principles follows, including the state of stress, pore pressure, and the importance of fractures and faults. After reviewing the fundamentals of horizontal drilling, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, and stimulation of slip on pre-existing faults, the key factors impacting hydrocarbon production are explored. The final chapters cover environmental impacts and how to mitigate hazards associated with induced seismicity. This text provides an essential overview for students, researchers, and industry professionals interested in unconventional reservoirs.
Hydrocarbon production, gas recovery from shale, CO2 storage and water management have a common scientific underpinning: multiphase flow in porous media. This book provides a fundamental description of multiphase flow through porous rock, with emphasis on the understanding of displacement processes at the pore, or micron, scale. Fundamental equations and principal concepts using energy, momentum, and mass balance are developed, and the latest developments in high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and associated modelling are explored. The treatment is pedagogical, developing sound physical principles to predict flow and recovery through complex rock structures, while providing a review of the recent literature. This systematic approach makes it an excellent reference for those who are new to the field. Inspired by recent research, and based on courses taught to thousands of students and professionals from around the world, it provides the scientific background necessary for a quantitative assessment of multiphase subsurface flow processes, and is ideal for hydrology and environmental engineering students, as well as professionals in the hydrocarbon, water and carbon storage industries.
The miners of the North-East, working in the most dangerous of conditions, supplied the coal which fuelled the engines of the Industrial Revolution and provided heating and lighting to millions of homes. Throughout much of County Durham and Northumberland pit communities sprang up because of the need for coal. Mining was fundamental to the development of the region. Illustrated with numerous colour photographs, Echoes of the North-East Miners throws the spotlight on the physical heritage left by the pitmen and their communities, including the numerous memorials and banners which speak so eloquently of their struggles in the face of adversity, their compassion and their enduring spirit of friendship.
The expansion of unconventional petroleum resources in the recent decade and the rapid development of computational technology have provided the opportunity to develop and apply 3D numerical modeling technology to simulate the hydraulic fracturing of shale and tight sand formations. This book presents 3D numerical modeling technologies for hydraulic fracturing developed in recent years, and introduces solutions to various 3D geomechanical problems related to hydraulic fracturing. In the solution processes of the case studies included in the book, fully coupled multi-physics modeling has been adopted, along with innovative computational techniques, such as submodeling. In practice, hydraulic fracturing is an essential project component in shale gas/oil development and tight sand oil, and provides an essential measure in the process of drilling cuttings reinjection (CRI). It is also an essential measure for widened mud weight window (MWW) when drilling through naturally fractured formations; the process of hydraulic plugging is a typical application of hydraulic fracturing. 3D modeling and numerical analysis of hydraulic fracturing is essential for the successful development of tight oil/gas formations: it provides accurate solutions for optimized stage intervals in a multistage fracking job. It also provides optimized well-spacing for the design of zipper-frac wells. Numerical estimation of casing integrity under stimulation injection in the hydraulic fracturing process is one of major concerns in the successful development of unconventional resources. This topic is also investigated numerically in this book. Numerical solutions to several other typical geomechanics problems related to hydraulic fracturing, such as fluid migration caused by fault reactivation and seismic activities, are also presented. This book can be used as a reference textbook to petroleum, geotechnical and geothermal engineers, to senior undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students, and to geologists, hydrogeologists, geophysicists and applied mathematicians working in this field. This book is also a synthetic compendium of both the fundamentals and some of the most advanced aspects of hydraulic fracturing technology.
Isotopes provide important information on many geological processes, with key relevance to the mining and petroleum industries, yet the techniques to obtain, process and interpret the data can be complex to master. This accessible book provides broad coverage of radiogenic isotopes in geochronology and geochemistry, explaining the basic principles and state-of-the-art techniques used to study them, with an emphasis on industry applications. The major isotopic systems are fully summarised with relation to real-world applications, enabling readers to decide which technique is most relevant for the problem they want to solve, and then to rigorously evaluate existing data, or recalculate and reassess datasets to avoid duplication of effort. A comprehensive glossary clarifies the numerous acronyms used in the field. Written at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate students, the book also includes detail which allows more experienced practitioners to maximise the potential value of isotopic datasets.
This volume describes how controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods are used to determine the electrical conductivity and hydrocarbon content of the upper few kilometres of the Earth, on land and at sea. The authors show how the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured data may be maximised via suitable choice of acquisition and processing parameters and selection of subsequent data analysis procedures. Complete impulse responses for every electric and magnetic source and receiver configuration are derived, providing a guide to the expected response for real data. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D modelling and inversion procedures for recovery of Earth conductivity are presented, emphasising the importance of updating model parameters using complementary geophysical data and rock physics relations. Requiring no specialist prior knowledge of electromagnetic theory, and providing a step-by-step guide through the necessary mathematics, this book provides an accessible introduction for advanced students, researchers and industry practitioners in exploration geoscience and petroleum engineering.
Clays are increasingly becoming a major problem in the mining, extraction and value-adding processes for a wide range of commodity raw materials. Clays can impact negatively on virtually every unit process within the mining and minerals processing sector, having long-term environmental implications that go well beyond the lifetime of the mining operation. This book is the first to compile, explain and evaluate the effects of clays in the mineral processing value chain, from mining to minerals processing, and finally, tailings disposal. Focusing on topics from the chemistry and rheology of clays to their detection and dissolution behaviour, this book provides comprehensive coverage of the effects on processes such as settling, preg-robing, flotation and comminution. It is an excellent reference for professional mineralogists and geologists, industrial engineers, and researchers interested in clays and clay minerals.
Here, for the first time, is a clear account in words and pictures of the methods by which gold and silver were extracted and processed in the Old West. The author describes the early days of Spanish and Indian mining and the wild era inaugurated by the American prospector who rushed west to get rich quick, ending with the year 1893, when repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act virtually closed the mining frontier.
The account gives in laymen's language the techniques employed in prospecting, placering, lode mining, and milling, particularly those employed by the Spaniards, Indians, and Cornishmen, and shows how the ever-practical Americans adapted and improved them. Special attention is given to the methods employed in the California and Montana gold fields, Colorado and the Comstock Lode, the Black Hills, and Tombstone, Arizona. In these pages the reader also meets some of the unforgettable personalities whose lives enriched (and sometimes impoverished) the mining camps.
This book illustrates how mine seismology can be used to improve underground safety standards. It describes several preventive actions that have been put into practice at the 5B Area of No. 5 Shaft Vaal Reefs gold mine after issuing seismic warnings. These included additional safety pillars, changes in mining sequences and directions, and a review of the mining strategy for the entire 5B area. The presented experiment with seismic warning concept was a success because it was an internal mine project. Further, the Vaal Reefs management adopted the philosophy that the success rate should be measured in the preventive actions taken, not in the success of the prediction itself. Reviewing these and other aspects, the book clearly demonstrates how mine seismology can effectively improve underground safety standards. Stefan Glazer's book (...) addresses in a very comprehensive manner both technical and practical problems of implementing and then effectively using microseismic networks and data. (...) Stefan proves that through comprehensive microseismic data analysis the location of potential rock burst can be assessed and then prevention action plans can be developed, providing more confidence to management and workers that deposit[s] can be mine[d] safely. Michal Stawski, VP Strategic Geomechanical Specialist, PT Freeport Indonesia I began reading this story expecting to find a technical review of the science of seismology and its application in mining, [but] this book is much more than that. (...) This is a must-read for those managing seismically active mines and should provide a wake-up call to the industry as the complex morality surrounding the management of seismic risk needs to be clarified in order for this to advance. Eric Strom, Director Underground Mining, New Gold Inc. As a mining geotechnical practitioner having experience in large open pit and underground massive mining operations, I have learned that mining induced seismicity can have a significant impact on the safety and economics of operations. However, seismicity is a complex field that is generally left to specialists with little input from geotechnical engineers and engineering geologists. (...) This is a must read for mine seismologists, geotechnical practitioners and mining engineers alike, and will be a welcome and much needed addition to my own book cabinet. This will be [an] invaluable work as our industry progresses to the mining of new depths in both the underground and open pit environments. Desmond Mossop Pr.Sci.Nat., Principal Engineering Geologist, SRK Consulting
Geosequestration involves the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide from major industrial sources, providing a potential solution for reducing the rate of increase of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and mitigating climate change. This volume provides an overview of the major geophysical techniques and analysis methods for monitoring the movement and predictability of carbon dioxide plumes underground. Comprising chapters from eminent researchers, the book is illustrated with practical examples and case studies of active projects and government initiatives, and discusses their successes and remaining challenges. A key case study from Norway demonstrates how governments and other stake-holders could estimate storage capacity and design storage projects that meet the requirements of regulatory authorities. Presenting reasons for embracing geosequestration, technical best practice for carbon management, and outlooks for the future, this volume provides a key reference for academic researchers, industry practitioners and graduate students looking to gain insight into subsurface carbon management.
This text covers the use of computer applications in the mineral industries, encompassing topics such as the use of computer visualization in mining systems and aspects such as ventilation and safety.
This text provides a process oriented discussion of the theory, methodology and philosophy of geologic and mine modelling using two commercial software packages: Techbase, a leader for mineral exploration and modelling bedded deposits; and Lynx, for modelling geology.
This volume focuses on the engineering geological and environmental problems of major engineering works, rock and soil properties, and protection of the geoenvironment and reduction of geohazards, reflecting the major achievements and advancement of engineering geological science and technology.
Covering the subject of ground control in mining, this volume looks at such topics as: rock-slab theory of ground pressure in work and practice, the role of in situ-stress in mine planning, and the status of the art of cable bolting.
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