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This ambitious book is about a way of building that for centuries dominated the making of monumental architecture - yet now not only is it lost as practice, but knowledge of its very existence is consigned to oblivion. In pre-modern Europe, the architect built not just with imagination, brick and mortar, but with time, using vast quantities of duration to erect monumental buildings that otherwise would have been impossible. Not mere medieval muddling-through, this entailed a sophisticated set of norms and practices. Virtually all the great cathedrals of France and the rest of Europe were built under this regime, here given the name 'Building-in-Time'. In particular, the major works of pre-modern Italy, from the Pisa cathedral group to the cathedrals of Milan, Venice and Siena, and from the monuments of fourteenth-century Florence to the new St Peter's - the apotheosis of the practice - are thus cast in an entirely new light.
Even as 'Building-in-Time' was flourishing, the fifteenth-century Italian architect Leon Battista Alberti proposed a new temporal regime whereby time would ideally be excluded from the making of architecture ('Building-outside-Time'). Planning and building, which had formed one fluid, imbricated process, were to be sharply divided, and the change that always came with time excluded from architectural facture. Ironically, it was Brunelleschi, as creator of the cupola of Florence cathedral and one of the supreme practitioners of Building-in-Time, who was the lynchpin of Alberti's turn to the arts in the mid-1430s. That he arrived in Florence just at the moment Brunelleschi's dome was being completed was crucial to Alberti's subsequent career in visual culture. Yet his relationship to Brunelleschi was conflicted; first praising and attaching himself to Brunelleschi, later Alberti silently sought to banish him from history's central stage.
In telling this story, Marvin Trachtenberg rewrites the history of medieval and Renaissance architecture in Italy and recasts the turn to modernity in new terms, those of temporality and its role in architectural theory and practice. Recovering this lost element of the deep architectural past allows us also to see the present in a new way: that temporality is not any neutral or secondary factor in modern architecture culture, but an epistemic condition that silently affects all production and experience of the built environment.
The fame and influence of Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) were as immediate as they were unprecedented. It is not surprising, therefore, that he was the only living artist Giorgio Vasari included in the first edition of "Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects", published in 1550. Revised and expanded in 1568, Vasari's monumental work comprises more than two hundred biographies; for centuries it has been recognised as a seminal text in art history and one of the most important sources on the Italian Renaissance. Vasari tells the grand story of the artist's expansive career, profiling his working habits; describing the creation of countless masterpieces, from the David to the Sistine Chapel ceiling; and illuminating his relationships with popes and other illustrious patrons. A lifelong friend, Vasari also quotes generously from the correspondence between the two men; the narrative is further enhanced by an abundance of colourful anecdotes. The volume's 40 illustrations convey the range and richness of Michelangelo's art. An introduction by the scholar David Hemsoll traces the textual development of Vasari's "Lives" and situates his biography of Michelangelo in the broader context of Renaissance art history.
This book celebrates the reunion-- for the first time in twenty-four years and only the second time in their history--of two masterpieces of early Netherlandish painting commissioned by the Carthusian monk Jan Vos during his tenure as prior of the Charterhouse of Bruges in the 1440s: The Frick Collection's Virgin and Child with St. Barbara, St. Elizabeth, and Jan Vos, commissioned from Jan van Eyck and completed by his workshop; and the Gem ldegalerie's Virgin and Child with St. Barbara and Jan Vos, painted by Petrus Christus. These panels are examined with a selection of objects that place them for the first time in the rich Carthusian context for which they were created. Drawing on recent technical examination and new archival research, this volume explores the panels' creation, patronage, and function in their rich Carthusian context. The Carthusian order was one of the most austere strands of late medieval monasticism. In apparent contradiction to this asceticism, Carthusian monasteries became remarkable repositories of art, a material accumulation often attributed to lay patronage. However this explanation overlooks the ways in which the Carthusians themselves commissioned and used images for their daily devotions and liturgy, as well as their commemoration. The story of Jan Vos and his patronage of Jan van Eyck and Petrus Christus fundamentally informs our understanding of the role played by images in shaping monastic life and funerary strategies in late medieval Europe.
Tracing the evolution of the newly emerging iconographical patterns of fools and folly, this book sheds light on the original and innovative invention that was an exclusive creation of northern Renaissance art and culture. The novel theme of the fools' journey, as expressed mainly through prints in Germany and later in the Netherlands in the sixteenth century is revealed as an ironical paraphrase, parodying the well established Christian topos, the Pilgrimage of Life or the Pilgrimage of the Human Soul, which offered the believer the opportunity to travel on the road toward redemption. The new mythical image of the fools' journey, however, confronts the contemporary reader/viewer with the image of the fool on his voyage that leads him, instead, to his doomed fate, thereby reflecting a pessimistic world-view. The newly emerging visual vocabulary is considered in relation to analogical contemporary didactic and satirical theatrical performances such as the rederijkers plays, the sotties, and also carnival processions. Proposing a new reading of Sebastian Brant's The Ship of Fools (Das Narrenschiff, Basel 1494), a landmark in the new iconography of the allegorical journey, this study recognizes as well the power of the visual image employed in the woodcuts-illustrations accompanying the treatise as a tool of moral teaching, used as a means of influencing the larger urban audience for whom word and image were sometimes interchangeable. Concomitantly, the divergence between verbal expression and visual language may be seen to define the inherent codes of the visual expressions. It is precisely the gap between literary sources and visualization, the very moment when visual vocabulary crystallizes, and image departs from word creating its own autonomous expression and language, that attracts our attention. The range and diversity of visual material related to the fools' journey topos, addresses a wide spectrum of audiences. This study also takes into consideration the strategies of communicating meanings and values to various publics. Addressing the wider urban public that was not necessarily lettered, notably women, illustrated-books and images were envisaged first of all as didactic tools. In accordance, the painters-engravers attended their public with rather simple visual elaborations that could be easily deciphered. Paintings, drawings, and prints intended for highly cultivated elite circles of urban society, among them works by Albrecht Durer and Hieronymus Bosch, demanded greater intellectual involvement on the part of the beholder, challenging the sophisticated viewer to re-create a meaningful ensemble out of the various scenes and motifs presented within complex compositions.
Using the still, small and sombre image of "Christ Mocked" by Bosch as a basis, this book works around the painting in five 'circles' to explore the political, scientific, psychological and devotional world of early modern Europe and its implications for us today.Unlike Bosch's better-known, fantastical, 'proto-surrealist' paintings, "Christ Mocked" is small, still and sombre, and yet, with a little effort of knowledge and interpretation, it reveals a depth of understanding of both the Passion, and of human nature, that speaks as much to the twenty-first century as it did to the sixteenth.By exploring the political, scientific, psychological and devotional world of early modern Europe, and applying those insights to our own time, the author shows how Bosch used his sophisticated artistic skills to convey a similarly sophisticated understanding of humanity. In "Christ Mocked" - a painting '500 years old but passionately modern' - "Christ's Passion" is so portrayed as to make us reassess the cosmic significance of Christ's death, and its profound implications for what we think it means to be human.
In January of 1469, the accounts of Duke Charles the Bold of
Burgundy record a payment to the scribe Nicolas Spierinc for having
written "some prayers for my lord." Seven months later, the same
account notes a payment to the illuminator Lievin van Lathem for
twenty-five miniatures plus borders and decorated initials in the
same manuscript. In this seminal study, the late Antoine de
Schryver presents an argument that the documents refer to the
exquisite prayer book of Charles the Bold now in the J. Paul Getty
Museum (Ms. 37)--one of Charles's most splendid commissions,
belonging to the greatest era of Netherlandish Burgundian book
Michelangelo Buonarroti was a very complicated being. Not only was he a multitalented artist--renowned equally as a sculptor, painter, and architect--he was also an impressive military engineer, student of Dante, and poet in his own right. What is more, his behavior was full of contradictions. He was renowned for his fiery temper and yet wrote tender love poetry. In spite of his legendary impatience, he committed himself to tasks that required years of sustained attention. He skimped on his own food and lodging, paying little attention to his own bodily needs, and yet created some of the most beautiful human figures ever imagined. He constantly complained about not having any money but amassed a considerable fortune that kept his family comfortable for two centuries. Though he enjoyed the reputation of being a solitary genius, he directed dozens of assistants, quarrymen, and stonemasons to carry out his work.Still more Michelangelos were invented by others. The sixteenth-century artist and biographer Giorgio Vasari made him into an artistic savior, imagining that a gracious God had given the world Michelangelo to inspire and perfect the arts. His family transformed part of their home (the Casa Buonarroti) into a shrine to their famous forebear. In the twentieth century, novelists and movie producers have portrayed him as a tortured, manic genius.This exhibition catalog explores multiple facets of Michelangelo's life, art, and reputation. Beginning with portraits of the artist, examples of his literary works, printed editions of his poetry, and an example of modern music inspired by his sonnets, the catalog shows representative examples of his work as a military engineer, architect, anatomist, poet, painter, and sculptor. Lavishly illustrated, including five fold-out 11" x 14" pages, this book provides viewers an unprecedented opportunity to grasp the range of Michelangelo's ambitions and accomplishments, revealing a man and a myth that are even greater than we might have imagined.
Tracing the history of St. Antoninus' cult and burial from the time of his death in 1459 until his remains were moved to their final resting place in 1589, this interdisciplinary study demonstrates that the saint's relic cult was a key element of Florence's sacred cityscape. The works of art created in his honor, as well as the rituals practiced at his fifteenth- and sixteenth-century places of burial, advertised Antoninus' saintly power and persona to the people who depended upon his intercessory abilities to negotiate life's challenges. Drawing on a rich variety of contemporary visual, literary, and archival sources, this volume explores the ways in which shifting political, familial, and ecclesiastical aims and agendas shaped the ways in which St. Antoninus' holiness was broadcast to those who visited his burial church. Author Sally Cornelison foregrounds the visual splendor of the St. Antoninus Chapel, which was designed, built, and decorated by Medici court artist Giambologna and his collaborators between 1579 and 1591. Her research sheds new light on the artist, whose secular and mythological sculptures have received far more scholarly attention than his religious works. Cornelison draws on social and religious history, patronage and gender studies, and art historical and anthropological inquiries into the functions and meanings of images, relics, and ritual performance, to interpret how they activated St. Antoninus' burial sites and defined them in ways that held multivalent meanings for a broad audience of viewers and devotees. Among the objects for which she provides visual and contextual analyses are a banner from the saint's first tomb, early printed and painted images, and the sculptures, frescoes, panel paintings, and embroidered textiles made for the present St. Antoninus Chapel.
As part of a unique collaboration between the National Gallery and the Royal Opera House, fourteen leading poets were invited to respond to three great masterpieces by the Renaissance painter, Titian: "Diana and Callisto", "Diana and Actaeon" and "The Death of Actaeon". Titian's paintings were inspired by Ovid's "Metamorphoses" - stories of transformation - and depict the fatal consequences of a mortal tragically caught up in the affairs of the gods. Titian would have known Ovid's poem from a contemporary translation in Italian. This book's introduction by Nicholas Penny, Ovid, Titian, and English Poetry, shows how Titian incorporated specific elements from Ovid's verses in his paintings, and compares some of the most famous translations in English, from the first version by Arthur Golding (1565) to those by Joseph Addison (1717) and Ted Hughes (1997). The late Lucian Freud described "Diana and Callisto" and "Diana and Actaeon" as 'simply the most beautiful pictures in the world'. These new poems, each illustrated with full-colour details from Titian's paintings, demonstrate the quality and range of writing in Britain today, and show how Old Master paintings continue to inspire living artists.
In this book, Louise Bourdua examines how Franciscan church decoration developed between 1250 and 1400. Focusing on three important churches - San Fermo Maggiore, Verona, San Lorenzo, Vicenza and Sant'Antonio, Padua - she argues that local Franciscan friars were more interested in their own conception of how artistic programs should work than merely following models for decoration issued from the mother church at Assisi. In addition, lay patrons also had considerable input into the decoration programs. These case studies serve as a multiform model of patronage, which is tested against other commissions of the Trecento.
This accompanying publication will explore the development and diversity of this legendary dynasty of Flemish painters over four generations and 150 years. From the proverb pictures and peasant festivals of Pieter Bruegel the Elder and his eldest son Pieter Brueghel the Younger to the exquisite flower pieces of Jan 'Velvet' Brueghel and the captivating cabinet paintings of Jan van Kessel, the book will unravel the mysteries of the dynasty, and will explore how Bruegel's sons were able to emulate their father's model despite having no access to his paintings. The book will turn the spotlight on to the major Bruegel holdings in UK collections for the first time, telling the story of the dynasty through masterpieces from British public collections and a number of previously unseen works from private collections.
Chiaroscuro woodcuts are among the most immediately appealing of all historic prints, displaying exquisite invention, refined draftsmanship, technical virtuosity, and sumptuous color. Printing two or more woodblocks inked in different tones to create an image, the chiaroscuro woodcut was the earliest, most successful foray into color printing in Europe. Following its invention in Germany, the technique was first adopted around 1516 in Italy where it flourished through the 16th century. This novel art form engaged the interests of the most celebrated artists of the Renaissance, including Titian, Raphael, Parmigianino, and Beccafumi, and underwent sophisticated developments in the hands of such master printmakers as Ugo da Carpi, Antonio da Trento, Niccolo Vicentino, and Andrea Andreani. Featuring more than 100 prints and related drawings, this book incorporates pioneering art historical research and scientific analysis to present a comprehensive study of the subject. Essays trace its creative origins and evolution, describing both materials and means of production. Brimming with full-color illustrations of rare and beautiful works, this book offers a fresh interpretation of these remarkable prints, which exemplify the rich imagery of the Italian Renaissance.
`The Rape of Europa' is one of Titian's great masterpieces, a work charged with eroticism and classical mystique behind which lies a tale as compelling as the painting itself. Here Charles FitzRoy weaves a unique account of its history and the painting's movement following the rise and fall of the countries in which it has been housed. The story ranges from its place at the court of King Philip II of Spain, through French revolution and English intrigue, to its final move to America, engineered by the brilliant but devious art historian Bernard Berenson. This is the tale of how Titian's masterpiece has captivated kings, nobles, artists, and lovers alike for over four centuries since its conception and continues to do so today.
Much has been written about the identity of the sitter in this portrait. In 1568, Vasari noted that Pontormo painted a beautiful work, a portrait of Francesco Guardi. In 1612, however, the name of Cosimo i de' Medici was attached to a description of the portrait. In this volume, Cropper argues that the subject of the painting is indeed Francesco Guardi. She discusses not only the specific determination of the sitter but the tools and methods used in general for establishing the people and places portrayed in works of art.
CONTENTS: Karls V. zweite Reise nach Bologna 1532/33; Enjeux politiques et artistiques des premiers portraits imperiaux par Titien; Carlos V con un perro, de Tiziano. Problemas de una imagen; Jakob Seiseneggers Bildnis Kaiser Karls V. Die Geschichte einer Entdeckung; Jakob Seiseneggers Portrait Karls V. mit Hund: Anmerkungen zu Technik, Erhaltungszustand und Restaurierung; Jakob Seiseneggers Bildnisse Kaiser Karls V. in ganzer Figur; Herkommen und Nachfahren des Malers Jakob Seisenegger und eine Neubewertung seines Ganzportraits Karls V; Titian and some Portraits of Charles V; Des Kaisers bevorzugte Kleidung. Zur Bekleidung Kaiser Karls V. in den Portraits von Tizian und Seisenegger; Auf den Hund gekommen. Das Portrait Karls V. mit Hund von Tizian und Seisenegger; Tizians 'Mann mit Hund'-im Widerspruch zur Tradition des ganzfigurigen Herrscherportraits am Kaiserhof; L'uso della copia de trivial pennello e l'attualita cronologica nella ritrattistica di Tiziano; Karl V. in der politisch-dynastischen Ikonographie des Historismus der Habsburgermonarchie; Chloridis Epigrammata. Zwei zeitgensische (?) lateinische Gedichte zu Tizians Portrait Karls V. mit englischem Wasserhund; Tizian versus Seisenegger: Ein Holbeinstreit. Der Wiener Bilderstreit; Zugelaufen!
Jacopo Sansovino was the leading sculptor and architect of sixteenth-century Venice. His position and abilities enabled him to reshape Venetian sculpture, and his influence remained dominant long after his death. This beautiful book by Bruce Boucher is the first study of Sansovino's sculpture in over fifty years and the first ever to present a catalogue raisonne of his works. Boucher begins by discussing Sansovino's career chronologically and thematically. He describes how the sculptor was trained in his native Florence and in Rome, how he established himself as a serious rival to Michelangelo, and how the Sack of Rome in 1527 forced him to flee to Venice where he enjoyed a second, even more successful career. In Venice, says Boucher, Sansovino was taken up by a small band of influential patrons, became architect of the Doge's chapel, and received important commissions from both the state and individuals. Boucher discusses in detail commissions such as the Loggetta and the colossal Mars and Neptune for the Doge's Palace, critically assesses Sansovino's artistic style, analyzes the relationship between Sansovino's sculpture and sixteenth-century paintings, describes Sansovino's workshop and the division of labor in his major commissions, and explores Sansovino's influence during his life and after his death. The text and catalogue raisonne are complemented by an appendix of documents, some of which have never been published before, that add greatly to our knowledge of the sculptor in his social and artistic context. The resulting book is a superb visual and analytical record of the work and career of one of the greatest sculptors of the High Renaissance.
Focusing on a turbulent time in the history of the Roman Catholic Church, The Power and the Glorification considers how, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the papacy employed the visual arts to help reinforce Catholic power structures. All means of propaganda were deployed to counter the papacy's eroding authority in the wake of the Great Schism of 1378 and in response to the upheaval surrounding the Protestant Reformation a century later. In the Vatican and elsewhere in Rome, extensive decorative cycles were commissioned to represent the strength of the church and historical justifications for its supreme authority. Replicating the contemporary viewer's experience is central to De Jong's approach, and he encourages readers to consider the works through fifteenth- and sixteenth-century eyes. De Jong argues that most visitors would only have had a limited knowledge of the historical events represented in these works, and would likely have accepted (or been intended to accept) what they saw at face value. With that end in mind, the painters' advisors did their best to "manipulate" the viewer accordingly, and De Jong discusses their strategies and methods.
Was the Renaissance just a period of extraordinary art and architecture? The Renaissance: All That Matters examines the major developments of the Renaissance era from its beginnings in Italian city/states to later cultural, political, and scientific achievements in France, Spain, England, and Germany. By examining original sources and introducing readers to new research and important debates, this accessible book provides an exciting introduction to the Renaissance age. This book attempts to answer two questions. Firstly, what are the essential features of the Renaissance movement that gradually transformed Europe in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries? Secondly, how many of these cultural, artistic, and intellectual transformations continue to influence modern societies today? The Renaissance began as a renewal of classical Greek and Roman culture that originated in fourteenth-century Italy, gradually spread throughout Europe, and continues to influence Western societies up to the present. The Renaissance: All That Matters introduces the brilliant writers and cultural innovators of the Renaissance, who transformed the West through their scholarly, artistic, and scientific activities, including Francesco Petrarch, Leonardo da Vinci, Niccolo Machiavelli, Thomas More, and Galileo Galilee. Throughout the Renaissance, intriguing visionaries revived the study of literature, reformed medieval universities, invigorated the arts, enhanced the economy, explored new geographic worlds, and invented machines and devices such as the printing press, the telescope, firearms, and clocks.
Contemporary biographies of Galilei emphasize, in several places, that he was a masterful draughtsman. In fact, Galilei studied at the art academy, which is where his friendship with Ludovico Cigoli developed, who later became the official court artist. The book focuses on this formative effect - it tracks Galilei's trust in the epistemological strength of drawings. It also looks at Galilei's activities in the world of art and his reflections on art theory, ending with an appreciation of his fame; after all, he was revered as a rebirth of Michelangelo. For the first time, this publication collects all aspects of the appreciation of Galilei as an artist, contemplating his art not only as another facet of his activities, but as an essential element of his research.
This striking publication examines two masterful armors for man and horse recently acquired by the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Among the earliest complete European examples in existence, these German works demonstrate the superior design and craftsmanship of princely armor in the early 16th century. The celebrated master Wilhelm von Worms the Elder (d. 1538) of Nuremberg made the luxurious, exquisitely decorated steel horse armor for Duke Ulrich of Wurttemberg (1487-1550). The man armor was crafted by Matthes Deutsch (last documented c. 1505) of Landshut, another distinguished armorer patronized by German princes; it is his latest and most sumptuous work.
"Princely Armor in the Age of Durer" discusses the function, design, decoration, and manufacture of these masterpieces and situates them within German art, culture, and politics, and within the development of European armor in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance.
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