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Route 66 is a beloved and much studied symbol of twentieth-century America. But until now, no book has focused on the bridges that spanned the rivers, creeks, arroyos, and railroads between Chicago and Santa Monica. In this handsome volume, Route 66 authority and veteran writer and photographer Jim Ross examines the origins and history of the bridges of America's most famous highway, structures designed to overcome obstacles to travel, many of them engineered with architectural aesthetics now lost to time. Featuring hundreds of Ross's own photographs, Route 66 Crossings showcases bridges ranging in design from timber to steel and concrete, and provides schematics, maps, and global coordinates to help readers identify and locate them. Ross's comprehensive accounting of structures along the Mother Road's various alignments includes bridges still in use, those that have vanished or have been abandoned, and the few consciously preserved as monuments. He also recognizes ancillary structures that enhanced safety and helped facilitate traffic, such as railway grade separations, tunnels, and pedestrian underpasses. Ross seeks to encourage ongoing preservation of the structures that remain. In brilliant color and precise detail, Route 66 Crossings expands our knowledge of the bridges that linked America's first all-weather national highway.
Despite being South Africa’s capital city, Pretoria has often played a supporting role to bold and brash Johannesburg and Cape Town’s cosmopolitan charms. However, when it comes to architectural heritage, the ‘Jacaranda City’ is well-endowed.
From the skyline-dominating Union Buildings and Voortrekker Monument, to the imposing edifices that make up its administrative precincts, Pretoria might almost be deserving of a second moniker: the city of sandstone, brick and granite. But when you look beyond the impressive fašades, soaring columns and linear planes of buildings that were intended to convey power and authority, you’ll find light-filled interiors embellished with decorative touches that are only hinted at from the pavement. Murals, mosaics, domes, galleries, stained glass windows, gleaming brass and impressive woodwork are often hidden from view behind doors that are closed to the public. Even those museums, buildings and places of worship that are open to all have architectural and design features that are easily overlooked unless they’ve been pointed out.
The history of the city and, often, the country too, has been played out in many of the places featured in Hidden Pretoria. This story of our shared heritage deserves to be captured for a new generation so that they recognize the value in the built environment and the need to preserve the past in order to protect the future.
The castles and other properties owned and managed by the National Trust for Scotland are precious jewels in the crown of the nation's heritage. Ensuring they provide a wonderful experience for visitors requires expertise and enthusiasm from many people, mostly unseen, who offer specialist knowledge and long-term thinking. This book pays tribute to the craftspeople, gardeners, foresters, managers, guides, surveyors, architects, archaeologists, conservators, planners and more, who have made the Trust's properties so very special to so many people. It celebrates their many and various contributions as part of a long and continuing tradition in this beautiful large-format, highly illustrated volume.
This book expounds on progress made over the last 35 years in the theory, synthesis, and application of triboluminescence for creating smart structures. It presents in detail the research into utilization of the triboluminescent properties of certain crystals as new sensor systems for smart engineering structures, as well as triboluminescence-based sensor systems that have the potential to enable wireless, in-situ, real time and distributed (WIRD) structural health monitoring of composite structures. The sensor component of any structural health monitoring (SHM) technology - measures the effects of the external load/event and provides the necessary inputs for appropriate preventive/corrective action to be taken in a smart structure - sits at the heart of such a system. This volume explores advances in materials properties and structural behavior underlying creation of smart composite structures and sensor systems for structural health monitoring of critical engineering structures, such as bridges, aircrafts, and wind blades.
Edward Jenner is perhaps the world's most famous doctor. He developed a vaccination for smallpox beginning in 1796, long before the world knew about bacteria and viruses. He has been described as `the man who saved more lives than anyone else'. He bought The Chantry at Berkeley in 1785 and modified it to make a home fit for his beloved wife, Catherine. This book is the result of a three-year investigation that set out to discover the house that Jenner prepared for Catherine. It traces the origin of the house, which was built in 1707, and the many changes throughout the next 300 years. It turns out that the site has a history going back to Anglo-Saxon times. Edward Jenner lived there for only thirty-six years, but the house has been much changed since. The investigation set out to define the house that Edward Jenner lived in, separating it from the original and many changes afterwards. The book includes a great deal of information and stories about the people involved, including Edward Jenner and his family and estate. It also includes the inventory of Jenner's goods in 1823 and profiles of the internal plasterwork, which may be of interest to restorers and historians.
This book addresses the failures of structural elements, i.e. those components whose primary mission is to withstand mechanical loads. The book is intended as a self-contained source for those with different technical grades, engineers and scientists but also technicians in the field can benefit from its reading.
This book is a resumption of the work "Integrated M/E Design: Building Systems Engineering" published by Anil Ahuja in 1997. Together with an international group of authors from the engineering, urban planning, and architecture fields, Mr. Ahuja discussed new trends and paradigms in the smart buildings and smart city sectors and extended the topic of the previous publication from the building to the entire city. A smart, sustainable building is not just about the building itself. There are things happening in the inside of the building and on the outside. A smart building connects the inside with the outside, provides efficiencies on both sides, synchronizes the outside infrastructure with its inside systems, and integrates nature and its occupants in its design. A smart building doesn't just provide technology solutions. It is about constant exchange between the inside and the outside of the building, the contribution of the building to the quality of the entire neighborhood and the rest of the city, how the smart building can connect people in a sharing community, and how technology can be the key to make it happen.
Principles of conservation and sustainability are easily married but often at odds for architects under increasing pressure to navigate the energy needs of older buildings. By incorporating UK and international case studies together with more theoretical essays the book seeks to identify overlaps in the interests of energy and building conservation. The varied expertise of the contributors; architects, surveyors, consultants and academics, demonstrate the use of qualitative and quantitative frames of reference. The second part of the book showcases sustainable domestic and non-domestic heritage projects, translating the challenges of the preceding research into varied methods that practitioners can use to question and review their everyday work. The book will be appeal to all architects, building professionals and designers working with traditional buildings and will enhance readers' ambitions, so that they feel equipped and inspired to work with old buildings sensitively, creatively and sustainably.
Living Buildings celebrates the 50th Anniversary of Donald Insall Associates, the Practice founded by distinguished British architect Donald Insall, a leading exponent in the field of Architectural Conservation. Probably best known for the restoration of Windsor Castle after a devastating fire in 1992, the team's dedicated work has ensured the longevity of many of Britain's national treasures. This book presents a detailed examination of a painstaking approach to architectural conservation, comprehensively illustrated by case-studies, drawings, plans and in-depth descriptions. It is designed for a wide readership among all those who love and care for old buildings and appreciate good new design in sensitive areas.
In 1881, after decades of mouldering into ruin, the grand fifteenth-century church of Blythburgh, Suffolk, "The Cathedral of the Marshes", was closed as unsafe. The church was saved - but its rescue involved a bitter twenty-five year long dispute between Blythburgh vicars and committees, and William Morris and his Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, who feared that the medieval fabric would be over-restored and the character of the building lost forever. This volume presents an edition, with notes and introduction, of original documents from both sides - providing unique insights into a rancorous conflict, with vicars pitted against patrons as well as the Society. The need was local, but the significance national, with elites ranged against another. From a description of the Blythburgh committee headed by a royal princess, to accounts of lavish fund-raising fetes and garden parties, the story is vividly brought to life. Alan Mackley, an honorary research fellow at the University of East Anglia, studied history after a career as a scientist in the oil industry. He has lived in Suffolk for over 35 years.
This guidance note provides advice on the principles, risks, materials and methods for improving the thermal performance of buildings built with early forms of masonry cavity walls dating from before the Second World War. Builders and architects started to experiment with cavity or `hollow walls' from early in the Victorian period. By the first decade of the 20th century, most pattern books for houses included examples of outer walls with two separate leaves of brickwork. Initially the development of the hollow wall was to provide as much protection as possible from the elements, especially driving rain, together with enhanced stability and economy of materials. These types of wall first appeared in exposed areas, particularly coastal locations. Since the energy crisis of the early 1970s it has become common to fill or partially fill the cavity with a variety of insulation materials to reduce the heat loss through the wall. Modern cavity walls (post-Second World War) often provide a good opportunity to improve thermal performance with cavity insulation. Such insulation is invisible, cheap and quick to install, with no reduction to room sizes. However, cavity insulation is not generally suitable for all cavity walls particularly those classed as `early cavity walls'. The performance of early cavity walls will differ from that of later cavity walls and these differences need to be taken into account when considering the addition of insulation. However, some early cavity walls can be insulated using cavity insulation and this guidance discusses how to determine whether any particular wall is suitable. For some early cavity walls, cavity fill insulation will always be unsuitable and the construction needs to be treated as a solid wall, insulated either internally or externally or not at all. This guidance forms one of a series of thirteen guidance notes covering the thermal upgrading of building elements such as roofs, walls and floors.
This book presents the fundamentals of strengthening and retrofitting approaches, solutions and technologies for existing structures. It addresses in detail specific techniques for the strengthening of traditional constructions, reinforced concrete buildings, bridges and their foundations. Finally, it discusses issues related to standards and economic decision support tools for retrofitting.
In architectural terms, rehabilitation is all about breathing new life into an old building using modern materials and designs that both compliment and updated the existing features. This superbly illustrated volume, featuring full-colour photography and detailed architectural plans, brings together a number of "rehabilitation" projects that have successfully overcome the challenges of re-purposing old buildings for a modern setting.
Here, for the first time, is a completely authoritative guide on how to look after your old house - whether it's a timber framed medieval cottage, an eighteenth century urban terrace or an example of Victorian or Edwardian speculative development. Taking it's lead from the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (who have approved and authorised this volume), the book's approach is one of respect, restraint and repair rather than 'restoration' which can so easily and permanently destroy the rich historical legacy of any old building. Providing richly and deeply informed practical guidance on everything from breathability and damp to structural movement, roofs, windows and doors, this is the essential reading for anyone with an old house in need of any kind of repair or maintenance.
Historic buildings and places play an essential role in the everyday lives of the people of the UK, their cultural identity and the economy. They can inspire creativity and enterprise, bring communities together, and make people happier about where they live. This book explores how historic buildings across the UK have been brought back to life through the technical and enabling skills, creativity and sensitivity of architects. Exemplar projects explored through richly illustrated case studies demonstrate the value to society of re-using historic buildings, and will inspire a new generation of architects to get involved with community heritage projects at a time of great opportunity. Drawing on interviews with architects and their community clients, this book explores the challenges that they face, how they are overcome, and the benefits that follow. Exemplar projects across the UK demonstrate what can be achieved through the creative use of heritage architecture, and provide inspiration for those interested in taking over the ownership of a historic building or adapting one for new uses Shows how complex projects can benefit from collaboration between communities, statutory bodies and architects Celebrates the creativity of architects, their ability to add value, and the role they can play in shaping both our built environment and cultural identity Puts forward a powerful argument for the benefits to society of re-using historic buildings
This book gathers select contributions from the 32nd International Congress and Exhibition on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management (COMADEM 2019), held at the University of Huddersfield, UK in September 2019, and jointly organized by the University of Huddersfield and COMADEM International. The aim of the Congress was to promote awareness of the rapidly emerging interdisciplinary areas of condition monitoring and diagnostic engineering management. The contents discuss the latest tools and techniques in the multidisciplinary field of performance monitoring, root cause failure modes analysis, failure diagnosis, prognosis, and proactive management of industrial systems. There is a special focus on digitally enabled asset management and covers several topics such as condition monitoring, maintenance, structural health monitoring, non-destructive testing and other allied areas. Bringing together expert contributions from academia and industry, this book will be a valuable resource for those interested in latest condition monitoring and asset management techniques.
This guidance note provides advice on the principles, risks, materials and methods for insulating pitched roofs at ceiling level. When insulation is placed in this position, the roof is often referred to as a `cold roof'. Insulating above the top floor ceiling is one of the easiest and cheapest means of improving the energy efficiency of buildings and such work can be carried out successfully in older buildings if approached with some care. Even very thick layers of insulation will not cause problems if installed with materials that are compatible with the existing construction. However, the installation can be made much more difficult if part of the ceiling to the top floor rooms is within a pitched roof space. The installation of insulation at ceiling level allows high levels of ventilation to be achieved within the roof space above, either through eaves ventilation or through the gaps between tiles. This ventilation is extremely beneficial in reducing the danger of rot within roof timbers and also allowing any interstitial condensation occurring within the insulation to evaporate harmlessly away. Its main disadvantage is in restricting the potential use of the roof space. Installing insulation at ceiling level is usually possible without any modification to significant parts of the building. However, it is important that the significance of a building is not compromised by alterations to install insulation, such as changing the appearance of the roof with roof ventilators or removing historically significant plaster ceilings. Such changes are likely to require consent if the building is listed. Any change to the external appearance of a roof in a conservation area may also require permission. In each case all proposed changes should be discussed in advance with the local planning authority. This guidance forms one of a series of thirteen guidance notes covering the thermal upgrading of building elements such as roofs, walls and floors.
This advice note is for churchwardens, trustees, fabric officers, volunteers and owners who care for historic buildings, especially places of worship. Preventing metal theft, especially from roofs, is the priority but dealing with an attack appropriately is crucial to protect historic buildings and keep them in use. At Historic England, we recognise the serious impact of metal theft. As well as damage to historic buildings, it causes expense, distress and frustration. Replacement and subsequent insurance can be costly.. The note deals mainly with theft of lead roofs from historic churches but the information applies to other types of building and traditional metal. It is an update of our 2011 note, Theft of Metal from Church Buildings, and reflects our updated advice to those dealing with metal theft and how to prevent it.
Danson House (1762-66) is one of the finest surviving villas by the architect Robert Taylor (1714-88). Restrained, compact and ingeniously planned, it was built for the City merchant John Boyd (1718-1800), who had made his fortune in the West Indies sugar trade. Boyd had a keen eye for the arts. He engaged William Chambers to design chimney pieces, picture frames and garden buildings, the French Provencal artist Charles Pavillon to paint a vibrant suite of allegorical panels for the dining room, and the landscape architect Nathaniel Richmond to remodel the grounds in the manner of Capability Brown. This book tells the story of the house, the estate, its owners, and its restoration by English Heritage between 1995 and 2004 after a long period of neglect. Written by two specialists who were closely involved in the conservation and repair work, it explains how the building evolved from the start of construction in 1762, as wings were added and then demolished, and how the interiors were later modified to accommodate Victorian standards of comfort. Restoring these interiors to their appearance when the house was finished in the late 1760s has revealed Danson House as one of the glories of Georgian domestic architecture.
Public art can be enjoyed by us all. Everyone can play a part in valuing and caring for it. This guidance is aimed at anyone who manages or has responsibility for post-war public art, including local authorities, charitable bodies, community groups, heritage professionals and custodians. Public art is defined here as fixed artworks which members of the public are able to access and enjoy, in public, semi-public or privately owned public space, whether outdoors or indoors. This document outlines good practice on the care and management of post-war public art, including regular maintenance and planned conservation work. It sets out the different ways that the best of our public art can be identified and protected and the statutory duties that relate to its ownership and care. Key principles include a clear understanding of ownership and lines of responsibility; inclusive and transparent decision making; regular condition checks to detect potential sources of harm; and engaging the public in valuing and caring for public art.
This short guide provides an introduction to the history and development of Drill Hall buildings. It is intended to support the listing selection guide on Sports and Recreation.
This short guide provides an introduction to the history and development of buildings associated with C20 coal- and oil-fired power stations. It is intended to support the listing selection guide on Industrial Structures.
Refurbishment and repair accounts for approximately 50 per cent of annual construction turnover. It is therefore essential that practitioners and those students who aspire to work in this sector are equipped with the best tools to do the job. This book has been produced to fill that gap in construction literature. The nature of refurbishment and repair is markedly different from new-build work since it is necessary to work within the restraints of a pre-determind situation. Those who do so are faced with an existing building or structure that may be many years old. It may have been built to standards hardly recognisable when compared to those of today.It is therefore necessary to build safely and to match as closely as possible comtemporary standards on sustainability and energy conservation. It is also apparent that existing buildings may not conform to 21st century standards of structural analysis or stability - and yet have stood without distress for many years. Guidence is provided to deal with such situations together with ideas on how to assess the residual life of a refurbished or repaired building.First and foremost it is essential for those involved in this type of work to gain an intimate knowledge of the structure under consideration. This book suggests ways of seeking this knowledge. Failure to investigate the history of existing develpoments may add considerably to the cost of construction and, in the extreme, to structural collapse involving injury or loss of life. This book proceeds logically through the reasons to consider refurbishment and repair and offers advice on risks, discovery, contracts, materials, learning from the past and legal restraints. Best practice is illustrated by a series of case studies. Extensive bibliographies have been provided to assist those with the need for further research. "Refurbishment and Repair in Construction" provides a companion volume to "Site Engineers Manual" which will be available as a second edition.
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