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This volume contains a selection of articles on and by Nicholas Kaldor which concentrate on his theoretical and applied economics of growth. Part 1 features an autobiographical article by Kaldor, three biographical sketches, and a hitherto unpublished conversation with A.P. Thirlwall on Kaldor's life and work. Part 2 includes his early contributions to steady-state growth theory, including two of his best-known models, a number of critical appraisals, and Kaldor's replies. Part 3 deals with his long flirtation with Verdoorn's Law, while the articles in Part 4 cover the last stage of Kaldor's thinking on growth and concentrate on world economy models of increasing returns and export-constrained growth.
This volume brings together the most innovative and important work on implicit contract theory, a key area of research which has developed over the past 20 years. Implicit contract theory is concerned with the workings of the macro-labour market over business cycles and focuses on a series of key questions including, how economists can explain unemployment levels and employment fluctuations during recessions in terms of rational economic behaviour, and, why wages do not fall to clear the market.
The question of free banking - or laissez-faire in money - raises fundamental theoretical, historical and normative issues. Discussions of free banking contemplate the consequences of abolishing government central banks, and allowing unrestricted money issue by private banks. Research on free banking questions has expanded tremendously in the past two decades. These three volumes collect the most important modern articles on the theory, history and policy implications of free banking. The literature is marked by a number of sharp intellectual controversies, and the editor has included both sides of the most important debates. The editor's introduction provides a fresh perspective on the developments in monetary theory and in the real world that have stimulated the several strands of research represented here.
Why are banking systems unstable in so many countries--but not in others? The United States has had twelve systemic banking crises since 1840, while Canada has had none. The banking systems of Mexico and Brazil have not only been crisis prone but have provided miniscule amounts of credit to business enterprises and households. Analyzing the political and banking history of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Brazil through several centuries, "Fragile by Design" demonstrates that chronic banking crises and scarce credit are not accidents due to unforeseen circumstances. Rather, these fluctuations result from the complex bargains made between politicians, bankers, bank shareholders, depositors, debtors, and taxpayers. The well-being of banking systems depends on the abilities of political institutions to balance and limit how coalitions of these various groups influence government regulations.
"Fragile by Design" is a revealing exploration of the ways that politics inevitably intrudes into bank regulation. Charles Calomiris and Stephen Haber combine political history and economics to examine how coalitions of politicians, bankers, and other interest groups form, why some endure while others are undermined, and how they generate policies that determine who gets to be a banker, who has access to credit, and who pays for bank bailouts and rescues.
For more than 20 years, William Lazonick has been one of the world's leading analysts of the dynamics of industrial development and change in international economic leadership. This impressive volume presents a coherent selection of Professor Lazonick's most important work on industrial development in Britain and the United States. The first part of the book contains articles on the decline of the British economy, including a recent summary of the debates on the British cotton textile industry and international competition. The second part focuses on labour, management and technology in the rise and recent decline of the US economy, and includes an up-to-date summary essay on organizational capabilities in American industry. Professor Lazonick's essays make historical analysis relevant to the present and put economic analysis back in touch with evolving reality. This approach, together with his unique combination of historical, statistical and theoretical methodologies, will ensure that this volume proves invaluable to economists and historians alike.
The promise of the European pursuit of ever closer union created tremendous optimism that conflict was the past and harmony would be the future. The enthusiasm for economic integration and monetary union, through the Euro, enhanced the confidence that differences among countries could be overcome. In this dynamic and incisive overview of the European project from its beginnings, Ashoka Mody convincingly demonstrates that the tensions and flaws of the European project were both baked-in and foreseen from the beginning. He focuses on personalities whose ambitious and relentless push for integration led them to choose facts and analysis consistent with their visions and to dismiss warnings of turbulence. They thus laid the seeds for disappointment. Mody examines key moments when contradictions were papered-over, compromising the integrity of integration. And throughout he shows how political and economic leaders believed the stories they told themselves about the inevitability of a united Europe as a foundation of peace, prosperity, and democratic ideals, even in the face of warnings from the earliest stages that while the political pillars seemed strong, the economic foundations were weak. Mody compellingly shows how monetary union impaired European integration rather than enhancing it. European countries have always has vastly different economic conditions, and the common currency increased divergences rather than smoothing them, as many analysts warned at the time. The economic, financial, and political pathologies of the euro were there from the beginning, even if the global economic boom hid them. With political and economic elites benefitting, they could ignore the growing the discontent of those who suffered and the growing antipathy to the European project in national heartlands. When crisis inevitably hit, leaders denied, delayed, and took half-measures that only further alienated people. And if once the inability to deliver on the economic promise caused the political handicaps to worsen, now the political splintering is making it harder to mount an economic response.
Protectionism has been an enduring feature in the world economy even though economic theory can prove that free trade is a superior regime. Protectionism is, of course, caused primarily by interest groups who lose out under free trade and are able to organize to protect their interests. This major reference collection brings together some different theoretical approaches to the issue of commercial policy and how it is constructed. It also illuminates some of the complexities behind alternating phases of comparatively free trade and protectionism in the world economy over the last two centuries. Individual country studies bring out some variety in the experience, both in the origins of protectionist policies and of their impact. The conclusions add up to a considerable indictment of protectionism.
Over the past two decades the new classical macroeconomics has become the single most coherent school of macroeconomic thought. Always controversial, it has nonetheless captured centre-stage, and has become the standard by which competing schools of thought are judged. These volumes contain the most important and influential articles of the new classical school, as well as some important articles critical of new classical thinking. The volumes are arranged thematically, beginning with the rational expectations hypothesis and the application of general equilibrium to labour markets, and continuing with various new classical arguments for the ineffectiveness of government policy. The core of the volumes is Lucas's famous critique of econometric policy evaluation and responses to it in the areas of econometric technique, monetary theory and business-cycle theory. The final section covers the rapidly developing area of models of growth with increasing returns.
This book provides a concise yet rigorous discussion of the main issues in modern macroeconomics. In particular, it examines the controversy over the role and conduct of macroeconomic stabilization policy. While the book is written in such a way as to allow students to read individual chapters in isolation, according to their interests and needs, the book follows a structured direction. After providing a review of mainstream macro-models and the chief areas of controversy between Keynesian, Monetarist and New Classical approaches to stabilization policy, subsequent chapters focus on selected key controversies: the balance of payments and exchange rates; inflation and unemployment; money and economic activity; fiscal policy and aggregate demand; and business cycles. The approach adopted by the authors make this book highly responsive to teaching and student needs. This authoritative state-of-the-art survey of modern macroeconomics will be essential reading for intermediate level courses in macroeconomics.
This volume is concerned with periods of very rapid inflation in the period before 1950 and shifts the emphasis from hyperinflation as commonly defined to a wider range of experience. It examines the source and origins of these inflationary episodes, how they started and what measures were used to bring them to an end. The experience of the last twenty years, when the entire world has been on fiat money and inflation has burgeoned, sometimes in excess of 100 per cent per annum, has led economists to reflect on historical examples of this phenomena. The extreme nature of episodes such as the German inflation of the early 1920s ensures that they offer a special kind of evidence on money and prices that is of considerable interest at the present time. Much of the material here is very recent, as relatively little contemporary attention was given to inflations and much of the best scholarship has only appeared in the last twenty years. However, this volume also provides the reader with access to the reflections of contemporary economists, such as Joan Robinson and Gordon Tullock.
As the prevailing winds of the global economy have changed, so Britain has been buffeted from boom to bust and back again. But how much is our country's economic landscape shaped by the huge forces of international capital - and the hope that 'something will turn up' - and how much by the individual men and women at the heart of our economic policy? David Smith forged his career as Britain's leading economic journalist during the country's traumatic transition from the 'workshop of the world' in the Midlands where he grew up, to an economy built on the sometimes shaky foundations of services and the City. Something Will Turn Up is his account of the chancellors, prime ministers, Bank of England governors and senior officials he has encountered and interviewed over the last five decades, and their impact on the realities of modern British life since the war. Smith leads us through the mire of government policy and long-term trends with wit and clarity to paint a vivid, personal picture of how we got to now - and where we might go from here.
An examination of Liquidity Crunch in triggering and characterizing financial crises. Since the subprime mortgage crisis that began in 2007, advanced economies have felt a nagging sense of insecurity. In parallel, the profession has witnessed phenomena that are alien to mainstream macroeconomic models. Financial crises are systemic, occurring simultaneously in different economies. In this book, Guillermo Calvo focuses on liquidity factors as a commonality in financial crises. Specifically, he examines the role of "liquidity crunch" in triggering crises. He also identifies a fundamental (but overlooked) idea in Keynes's General Theory, termed by Calvo the price theory of money, to rationalize the resiliency of the U.S. dollar when other dollar-backed assets suffered a devastating liquidity crunch. Calvo shows that a sharp focus on liquidity reveals some characteristics of liquid assets that are easy to miss otherwise. He argues for liquidity's centrality, presenting what he calls the Liquidity Approach. He shows that simple extensions of standard monetary models help rationalize the implications of the liquidity crunch, and then examines slightly more technical models that highlight liquidity issues. He explores the empirical effects of liquidity crunch by studying systemic sudden stops (of capital inflows), presuming that they are triggered by liquidity crunch-type phenomena.
MACROECONOMICS: PRINCIPLES AND POLICY, 12, International Edition teaches the principles of economics, including current economic situations, and is an essential resource for faculty and students looking for a solid introduction using policy-based information for examples and applications.
See Economics in Action! In a world full of volatility, uncertainty and conflicting approaches, this market leading, concise text in introductory economics looks at the key economic issues of today and helps you make sense of them. This new edition has been updated with the most recent data and coverage of economic issues such as growth, unemployment, the environment, Brexit and behavioural economics. Its classic features and clear, engaging writing style are complemented by strong theoretical basis and a wealth of pedagogical features to support learning. Expect real-life examples, case studies, questions and problems to guide your understanding. Always up-to-date! The Sloman Economics News Site Make use of the leading student-friendly blog that's updated several times a month with news and topical stories, all linked to your textbook chapters, so you can understand current affairs more deeply. New! Access additional resources on the open Companion Website The website is full of supporting material such as threshold concepts, audio animations, case studies, web appendices, glossary, flashcards and answers to selected questions from the book. This book can also be supported by a premium homework and assessment system, MyLab Economics. Learn more inside.
This book describes practical techniques to formulate multiannual macroeconomic projections for developing economies. The approach is broadly similar to that of well-known financial-programming "models", but some of the material, including solution procedures for the external and fiscal projections and the external-debt projection methodology, is innovative. The basic aim of macroeconomic programming exercises is to determine whether a quantitatively specified macroeconomic and government-expenditure policy program would be "financially feasible" - that is, consistent over time with external and internal financing likely to be available. Exercises of the kind described here formulate national-, external-, fiscal-, and monetary-accounts projections, based on (i) assumed behavioral parameters; (ii) assumed "exogenous" world conditions and internal variables; (iii) programmed macroeconomic objectives such as real growth, inflation, and exchange-rate evolution; (iv) programmed real government expenditure; (v) an external-debt program; and (vi) data for the "base" year preceding the projection period. The projections include estimates of the external and internal financing the public sector and economy as a whole would require, which may be evaluated for feasibility. Among other applications, macroeconomic programming exercises may be used to help gauge the financial feasibility of development and poverty-reduction objectives (like the UN Millennium Development Goals), or to address external-debt "sustainability".
This textbook provides a concise introduction to micro- and macroeconomics and demonstrates how economic tools and approaches can be used to analyze environmental issues. Written in an accessible style without compromising depth of the analysis, central issues in the public policy debate on environmental problems and environmental policy are discussed and analyzed from an economics perspective. The book is meant as an introductory (and in some parts intermediate) text for undergraduate students in environmental sciences without a background in economics. It also serves as a companion for economists interested in a presentation of the micro and macro foundations of environmental economics, in a nutshell. The second edition has been revised, updated and extended in may ways, for instance by adding a microeconomic section on environmental technical change, a discussion of the significance of technical change for a sustainable development and a considerably extended macroeconomic section on economic growth.
Although the economy has always been changing, ever more innovations now seem to accelerate the transformation process. Are there any laws governing the incessant global change? Does it accord with our intentions and desires and make us happier? Do our institutions and our democracies cope with the challenges? How does economic theory explain what is going on? In this volume, experts in the field discuss the advances that evolutionary economics has made in exploring questions like these. The broad range of topics include a review of the development of the field: its conceptual and methodological characteristics are outlined; problems posed by macroeconomic evolution and the institutional challenges are highlighted; and, last but not least, the implications of the evolution of the economy for wellbeing and sustainability are addressed. Taken together, the contributions demonstrate the potential of an evolutionary paradigm for making sense of economic change and for assessing its consequences.
Much has been written about the rise of the Asian economies in
recent decades, and their coming economic dominance in the next
century. The New Asian Emperors shows how and why overseas Chinese
companies are achieving dominance in the Asia Pacific. In the wake
of the Asian Currency crisis, this book takes a fresh look at the
role of the overseas Chinese as they continue to create some of
Asia's most wealthy and successful companies.
This book explores contemporary empirical issues in Islamic economics. It begins by outlining current trends in Islamic economics and before identifying gaps in the empirical research. It then goes on to discuss the role of institutions in economic growth for Islamic countries, and the fiscal aspects of Islamic economics. It explores issues in debt and growth, as well as the instruments of monetary management in Islamic economics. It analyses the trade-off between growth and stability and concludes with discussion of Zakat and Waqf in driving growth.
A Macroeconomics Reader brings together a collection of key
readings in modern macroeconomics. Each article has been carefully
chosen to provide the reader with accessible, non-technical, and
reflective papers which critically assess important areas and
current controversies within modern macroeconomics.
This book collects my scholarly research on the behavior of foreign exchange rates conducted over the past twenty-five years. The collection includes papers that study the behavior of exchange rates from the traditional macroeconomic and newer microstructure perspectives. The former perspective considers the linkages between the macro economy and currency prices in an effort to understand the behavior of exchange rates over quarters, years and decades. By contrast, the microstructure perspective considers how the details of currency trading affect how macroeconomic information becomes embedded in currency prices, a process which drives exchange-rates over intraday horizons. The book also contains papers with a hybrid perspective that consider the details of currency trading and macroeconomic linkages in an effort to understand exchange-rate dynamics across all horizons.
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