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In this important book, industrial and enterprise reform over the last decade in Eastern Europe is critically reviewed in light of increasing Eastern integration into the global economy. The authors argue for the further globalization of Eastern European enterprise networks as a condition for recovery and growth in the region. Empirical evidence is provided from five industrial sectors (car industry, telecommunication, shipbuilding, computers, software), including case studies and international comparisons.
The concept of equilibrium is of enormous significance in economics and is central to economic analysis. Volume I provides historical perspectives on the origins, development and criticisms of the idea of economic equilibrium and explains the meaning of modern equilibrium theory and the methods and techniques that are used. Volume II presents the classic literature on perfectly competitive equilibrium and the important models that explore equilibrium in imperfectly competitive markets. Volume III reveals the variety of recent developments and applications of the equilibrium concept, including stationary, temporary, underemployment, growth, rational expectations, Bayesian, and cooperative and non-cooperative game theoretic equilibrium. This important and comprehensive reference collection is essential reading for all microeconomic and macroeconomic theorists and students.
The globalisation of the world economy is one of the major concepts of our time and is likely to influence thinking and policy making well into the 21st century. Although officially welcomed as a major contribution to world welfare it is held by many to be responsible for low wages and mass unemployment. This book questions the seemingly inevitable progress of globalisation and the role of the state as a powerless institution in a globalised economy. Issues discussed include: * trade liberalisation and the role of the World Trade Organisation in providing global responses to global issues * the globalisation of finance; in particular the integration of capital markets * the role of EMU in limiting the social protection level in member states * the effect of globalisation on the structure of the modern nation-state * a challenge to the conventional image of globalisation, which is viewed as being far less widespread than we are led to believe This book will be of interest to scholars of the international economics, international political economy and international finance.
Traditional money and banking textbooks are long, expensive, and full of so much institutional and technical modeling detail that students cannot understand the big picture. Thomas F. Cargill presents a new alternative: a short, inexpensive book without the 'bells and whistles' that teaches students the fundamentals in a clear, narrative form. In an engaging writing style, Cargill explains the three core components of money and banking, and their interactions: 1) the financial system, 2) government regulation and supervision, and 3) central bank policy. Cargill focuses on the interaction between government financial policy and central bank policy and offers a critique of the central bank's role in the economy, the tools it uses, how these tools affect the economy, and how effective these policies have been, providing a more balanced perspective of government policy failure versus market failure than traditional textbooks.
This insightful book focuses on the economic consequences of structural reform policies in the economies at the cutting edge of reform: Denmark, The Netherlands, New Zealand and Norway. The contributors examine policies aimed at improving the underlying path of growth, employment and saving-investment balances of the economy and apply state of the art methods to measure and model structural reforms. They examine the areas of competition policy, regulation of entry barriers, non-tariff trade barriers and employment protection rules as well as the quality of education and training, the efficiency of various public sector agencies and labour supply effects of care for children and the elderly. Special attention is paid to two 'success stories': New Zealand's 'Kiwi-model' and the Dutch 'Polder-model'. The book provides a welcome addition to the scarce evidence on both the costs and the benefits of structural reform and identifies the policy problems and the analytical issues at stake. This book will be indispensable to policymakers and academics with an interest in structural reform and macroeconomic policy.
In the early 1990s, financial liberalization started in India, and it was thought that such reforms would increase economic growth. This argument formed part of the finance led industrialization hypothesis and although higher growth resulted, higher industrialization did not immediately.
This book is the first study to comprehensively apply the flow
of funds model for India.
India's Emerging Financial Market provides a thorough and rigorous analysis of policy responses in India and will be of interest to academics working on development economics in general and South Asia in particular.
The Japanese economy is beginning to show signs of recovery after years of stagnation/deflation, but many Japanese policymakers warn that this economic growth may be sluggish: slower than in the United States and certainly slower than in other East Asian countries. Japan faces significant economic problems, including an aging population, a large fiscal deficit, and the need to adjust to the IT economy and to competition with the rest of East Asia. A slow growth scenario would greatly reduce opportunities for new productive investment and would make it increasingly difficult to provide for Japan's growing social needs. The authors of this book argue that Japan can and should grow more rapidly, and examine the reasons for the sluggish performance of the Japanese economy. For example, some Japanese economic sectors, particularly in distribution and finance, have failed to take advantage of new information and communications technology to accelerate the growth of productivity, as has happened in other countries, such as the US. Production function studies and econometric model simulations suggest that with appropriate policies the Japanese economy can grow more rapidly and deal with its future problems. The book posits a number of policy proposals which would help to accelerate Japan's economic growth This book will be of interest to students of the Japanese economy, macroeconomics and international economies, and also to policymakers and professionals interested in Japan's economy.
Nancy and Richard Ruggles's seminal work on prices has a contemporary relevance for modern-day theorists and practitioners. These carefully selected essays provide a core analysis of pricing systems and the behavior and measurement of prices. Initially, the authors examine pricing systems and the role of prices in the theories of value and income distribution. They examine the theory of marginal cost pricing and the welfare basis of the marginal cost pricing principle before focusing on the problems of measuring price changes over time and space. They also examine the reliability of domestic price statistics and price indices and offer an evaluation of the wholesale price index. They expand this analysis to examine the behavior of prices, costs, wage rates and earnings in the United States economy, placing particular emphasis on inflation between 1950 and 1973 and on price stability and economic growth. This book will be invaluable to academics, statisticians and policymakers with an interest in micreoconomics and pricing.
This important book provides fascinating insights into the origins, development and current state of modern macroeconomics. The reader's imagination is instantly captured, and the subject matter brought alive, through conversations with fourteen leading economists including five Nobel Laureates. These interviews shed new light on the controversies witnessed in the field of macroeconomic theory and policy, the way macroeconomics is taught and the history and methodology of macroeconomic research. Their illuminating and contrasting discussions provide students and scholars alike with a unique, highly accessible and enjoyable way to explore the ever-changing landscape of modern macroeconomics. The major economists featured in this book are: Alberto Alesina Olivier Blanchard Mark Blaug Robert W. Clower David C. Colander Milton Friedman Robert E. Lucas, Jr. Gregory Mankiw Franco Modigliani Edward N. Prescott Paul C. Romer Robert M. Solow John B. Taylor James Tobin
This modern and comprehensive book offers a broad survey of economic growth theory, with special emphasis on the impact of natural resources on long-term development. The book begins with the standard growth models of the 1950s and 1960s and extends its analysis to the so-called `new' growth theory, in which the long-term growth rate of an economy becomes an endogenous variable. The impact of positive spillovers, human capital formation, public services and innovation on the growth process are carefully studied. Using models and empirical illustration, the author evaluates to what extent growth theory is able to explain the huge international differences in living standards prevailing in the world today. The theoretical foundation is then used to consider the issue of sustainable growth under stricter environmental regulation. Growth Theory and Sustainable Development shows that the understanding of growth theory is an important key to predict the sustainability of long-term development, making it required reading for students of economic development and environmental economics.
This volume reflects the pioneering contribution of Nancy and Richard Ruggles to the development of national accounts. It provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution of national accounting systems over the last 50 years. The book is divided into three parts: the evolution of national accounting, the United States national accounts and the United Nations system of national accounts. The authors look at the treatment of pensions, insurance, and value added in national accounting, and the relationship between national income accounting and economic policy. They then look at the conceptual basis and evolution of national accounting systems in the United States between 1947 and 1977 and the integrated economic accounts between 1947 and 1980. Finally, the book includes a review of the major issues in the United Nations system of national accounts, both in terms of measurement and in their applicability to economies in transition and developing countries.
This book examines the extent to which spatial economic convergence has taken place in the European Union and analyses the effectiveness of regional policy. The authors examine the differing economic features of the European regions and provide an institutional background to regional policy at both the national and Union level. Theories of economic growth are discussed and assessed in terms of the relative performance of regional economies in Europe. The authors then analyse the extent to which economic convergence, for example in terms of income and employment, has materialized across regions using a variety of techniques including mean reversion and time varying parameter procedures. The analysis is both at the level of the entire EU area and at more disaggregate levels that look at specific regions of the Union and at specific sectors. The book offers an assessment of some of the key regional policy instruments used and pays particular attention to the role of infrastructure investment as a tool for enhancing regional growth. It also considers the extent to which some non-regional specific policies impact upon the development of regional economies and explores the implications of closer monetary ties between member states. This book will be of interest to academics and policymakers concerned with regional science, European studies and macroeconomics.
The pursuit of economic growth is at the top of every nation's policy agenda at the end of the 20th century. This authoritative and comprehensive book goes beyond the narrowly-based convergence model of economic growth by considering global, national and regional patterns of growth from a comparative perspective. Issues examined include: * the evolution of the firm and the role of R&D * long-term implications of the loss of national sovereignty * international `openness' * social and political institutions * patterns of regional harmonization in the United States, particularly income and earnings trends across states and the reasons for convergence * persistent regional disparities in Europe including the roles of sectoral transformation, regional spillovers, human capital formation and the allocation of structural funds * the experience of convergence in individual countries including Italy, the UK, Spain and Germany
The timeliness of this book is beyond question. Since the crisis erupted in Thailand in mid-1997 and spread, with varying degrees of severity, to the rest of Asia, the export-led industrialization strategy that has driven economic growth in East and Southeast Asia over the last 50 years has come into question. Is this model still applicable to latecomers such as Vietnam? The Asian financial crisis has highlighted the dangers of implementing export-oriented industrialization through government subsidies and protection. This book finds that the strategy followed by the Asian economies in the last half-decade remains a valid model for Vietnam. In order to avoid grave damage to its financial institutions, the strategy needs to be implemented in conjunction with the development of a sound financial system and a robust private sector. Based on a detailed analysis of the causes and nature of the Asian financial crisis as well as the Vietnamese economy, this book concludes that it is unlikely that Vietnam will face a banking and currency crisis in the short term, but Vietnam could be plagued by balance of payments difficulties for some time to come unless major structural reforms are undertaken soon. This timely book will be of great use to Asian studies scholars and those interested in the role of the financial sector in economic management and development.
Macroeconomic analysis has undergone profound and controversial changes during the past twenty-five years and, as such, economists have developed and evolved their approaches to the discipline. Reflections on the Development of Modern Macroeconomics presents a collection of eight original essays, from leading scholars, each of which focuses on an important issue relating to these developments. These accessible, reflective surveys include: * to stabilize or not to stabilize: is that the question? Brian Snowdon and Howard Vane * the rhetoric and methodology of modern macroeconomics Roger Backhouse * how relevant is Keynesian economics today? Keith Shaw * what remains of the monetarist counter-revolution? Thomas Mayer * macroeconomics: before and after rational expectations Patrick Minford * the ups and downs of modern business cycle theory Cillian Ryan and Andrew Mullineux * the role of imperfect competition in new Keynesian economics Huw Dixon * politics and the macroeconomy: endogenous politicians and aggregate instability Brian Snowdon and Howard Vane This book will attract a wide readership among intermediate undergraduates, as well as postgraduates and lecturers in the fields of macroeconomics and the history of economic thought.
This important and timely book examines how corporate governance has and should be developed in China to meet the challenges of enterprise and financial reform. It highlights key economic, social and political issues that China has to confront in order to transform the state owned industrial enterprises into a competitive and modern corporate sector. On Kit Tam critically appraises the main analytical frameworks and models of corporate governance in industrialized countries. He then assesses China's development in terms of current Western debates in relation to the role, function and evolution of corporate governance arrangements. He examines how the Chinese government has adopted a top-down approach combined with a market based Anglo-American model. The author also presents surveys of company directors, managers and supervisors reporting the current environment and analyses the choices available in the light of China's particular problems. He concludes with suggestions for a model of corporate governance in China. This book will be welcomed by economists and those interested in management studies, Chinese reform, international business, Asian studies, industrial organization and business strategy.
This important book focuses on the impact of home countries on the international competitiveness of transnational corporations (TNCs). It seeks to explain the geographic concentration of the most internationally competitive TNCs in a single or very few countries, and their uneven performance at these concentration points. The theoretical framework for this analysis is based on a link between the location advantages of countries and the ownership advantages of firms. The book focuses on professional service TNCs as the competitive advantages of these firms are based entirely on intangible, often mobile assets, and they thus provide a striking illustration for the ways in which such assets shape the competitiveness of firms. Analyses of TNCs in several professional service industries based in various countries reveal the dynamic balance between the home and the foreign countries in which the TNCs operate, as well as the combination of country- and firm-specific attributes in shaping the competitiveness of TNCs and the subsequent patterns of global competition. The Origins of the International Competitiveness of Firms extends our knowledge of the determinants of the international competitiveness of TNCs, and will be of interest to scholars and students of international business and business strategy, and to those working in the fields of international competition, trade and investment.
Foreign capital has played a fundamental role in China's development and economic reconstruction during the past two decades. China is now the world's second largest host for foreign direct investment, outside the United States. This important new book, by a distinguished group of contributors, offers insights into the impact of foreign investment on China's growth and regional economic development. The book features: * an examination of China's investment policy * an analysis of the most recent industrial surveys * case studies from selected regions * applications of modern econometric techniques to data on foreign direct investment in China Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in China will be of interest to those working in the areas of international business, finance and international economics as well as Asian development and Chinese economic studies.
Privatization investment funds are the key feature of mass privatization programmes in transitional economies. This book offers a thorough survey of mass privatization programmes in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia, supported with extensive empirical analysis. The study of `top-down' privatization funds in Poland and `bottom-up' funds in the Czech Republic and Slovenia offers different solutions to the problem of how to improve the governance of privatization funds. The authors argue that the institutional structure of closed-end investment companies and open-end mutual funds has not provided the right incentives to maximize the value for the shareholders. In addition too many regulations are in place in underdeveloped markets to protect new shareholders unaccustomed to exercising their ownership rights. Instead, the authors argue that they need to promote adjustment in fund portfolios and ownership structures in order to spur the development of capital markets and effective mechanisms of corporate governance.
At the beginning of the 1990's the first encouraging results on GDP growth combined with the fulfilment of international requirements led many to believe that Albania was a `shining star' in Central and Eastern Europe. But in 1997 this progress was reversed by unprecedented institutional, political and social turmoil leading to a spiral of violence and chaos. This book presents, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of the different factors behind the 1997 political, economic and social upheaval in Albania. It shows that the crisis was both predictable and complex, and not simply a matter of a disgruntled population attempting to regain their money. Using extensive and detailed evidence Daniel Vaughan-Whitehead identifies the major reasons for the growing discontent and final explosion: - the increase in unemployment, collapse of industrial production, inefficiency of the banking system, limitations and drawbacks of foreign investment, failure of mass privatization, falling living standards, and rising poverty. He examines the consequences of the crisis at the enterprise level, by region, sector, industry and property form using a unique survey of over 1,000 enterprises. In conclusion he offers a series of policy recommendations with a view to regenerating production whilst avoiding a new social explosion in a destroyed economy, weakened by political instability and the conflict in Kosovo. This unique book will be essential reading for all academics working in the area of transition as well as policymakers from international organizations involved in transition economies.
In this carefully chosen selection of essays, Linsu Kim - one of Korea's foremost social scientists, who is advising the Korean government on reform strategy in light of the recent crisis - identifies the evolutionary processes and patterns of learning, capability building, and innovation in catch-up countries. He suggests that catch-up economies display different patterns of learning and innovation to more advanced countries. Using the example of Korea, he examines industries such as consumer electronics, machinery, pharmaceuticals, automobiles and semiconductors, all of which have been important contributors to Korea's economic growth and development. Linsu Kim analyses both the formal and informal mechanisms Korea has used in acquiring technologies from, mainly, advanced countries. He considers how these technologies are assimilated rapidly into the local economy, and in some cases improved to increase Korea's international competitiveness. This examination and extension of the theory of learning and innovation has many useful implications for both catch-up economies and also advanced countries. It offers analytical frameworks which policymakers and managers can use in formulating and evaluating public policies and corporate strategies. Learning and Innovation in Economic Development will be of interest to a wide audience including those working in the fields of technology management, innovation studies and development economics.
China's rapid economic growth has attracted much international attention in recent years, partly due to the potential purchasing power of the largest population in the world. This timely book examines general patterns of Chinese household demand for a variety of consumer goods such as food, durables, housing and health care and investigates the impact of economic and social factors on household consumption. China's Consumer Revolution focuses on comparisons between different consumer groups, such as rural versus urban and rich versus poor. Special attention is given to the impact of the newly affluent consumers, the so-called `new rich'. This book also compares China with other countries in terms of household demand for consumer goods and sheds light on the prospects for international trade in this area. Drawing upon newly released household surveys, this book is the first of its kind and it will be of interest to both academic researchers and business advisors.
The successful macroeconomic stabilization in Central and Eastern European countries has encouraged inflows of foreign capital badly needed to promote economic development. Strikingly, these countries have found capital inflows in their various forms to be a mixed blessing, threatening the macroeconomic balance that they have recently achieved. These countries have learned that it is not easy to continue to attract foreign capital and simultaneously to reduce its adverse effects on inflation, the exchange rate and the current account, and to contain disturbances resulting from reversals of the flows. This book investigates recent experiences in Central and Eastern Europe and contrasts it with that of Latin America and East Asia, and suggests appropriate policies and lessons to be learned. The authors conclude that many features of, and policy dilemmas faced by, formerly centrally planned economies in Europe are similar to those in other emerging economies. However, certain unique characteristics such as data limitations and the fragility of the banking and financial systems, compound the problems faced by policy makers in Central and Eastern Europe. This book will prove invaluable to policymakers and scholars interested in and responsible for international finance in transition economies.
Parker shows how factors such as income, aggregate savings, investment, technology, entrepreneurship, production, and outputs per worker are influenced by the more fundamental principles of physics and physiology. According to Philip Parker, the relationship between physics-based physiology and macroeconomics may come to dominate explanations of economic growth. His argument focuses on the so-called equatorial paradox-the phenomenon that a country's latitude explains up to 70 percent of cross-country variances in per capita income. After introducing concepts from physics and physiology as the building blocks of homeostatic utility, he explains the role of homeostatic utility in economic growth. Specifically, he shows that a country's performance is gauged not by its absolute level of income or consumption, but by how far it is from a homeostatic steady state governed by what he calls physioeconomics. Countries closer to their homeostatic steady state grow more slowly than those farther away. Parker shows how factors such as income, aggregate savings, investment, technology, entrepreneurship, production, and outputs per worker are influenced by the more fundamental principles of physics and physiology. He focuses particularly on the hypothalamus, the part of the brain that drives motivation, monitors homeostasis, and ultimately keeps us alive via neural, autonomic, and hormonal adjustments. He presents evidence that long-run growth can be attributed to variances in hypothalmic activity. A physioeconomic approach to growth can lead to better economic policies, measures of performance, and predictions of progress. To take just one example, policymakers would be quicker to realize that food aid to warmer regions can destroy local farming economies that supply adequate caloric needs at a lower steady state.
This carefully edited selection of Robert Eisner's essays ties together his authoritative contributions to economic analysis and macroeconomic policy issues, particularly business, investment and tax policy. He offers a trenchant analysis of the fundamental issues of employment, investment and economic welfare in an advanced market economy, offering a challenge to the conventional wisdom on macroeconomic theory and policy. Professor Eisner first examines the determinants of business investment and criticizes neoclassical theories on investment. He goes on to assess the role of tax incentives in investment and finds that tax policy is a flawed way of attempting to encourage investment. He also analyses national income accounting and offers some alternative measurements for calculating national product. Professor Eisner then examines the implications of war for the economy and explores the macroeconomic consequences of disarmament including its possible effects on unemployment. Lastly, he addresses the conflict between economic policy and principle; particularly concerning the environment, insurance and the theory of choice, academic freedom and the elderly.
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