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Leading economists discuss post-financial crisis policy dilemmas, including the dangers of complacency in a period of relative stability. The Great Depression led to the Keynesian revolution and dramatic shifts in macroeconomic theory and macroeconomic policy. Similarly, the stagflation of the 1970s led to the adoption of the natural rate hypothesis and to a major reassessment of the role of macroeconomic policy. Should the financial crisis and the Great Recession lead to yet another major reassessment, to another intellectual revolution? Will it? If so, what form should it, or will it, take? These are the questions taken up in this book, in a series of contributions by policymakers and academics. The contributors discuss the complex role of the financial sector, the relative roles of monetary and fiscal policy, the limits of monetary policy to address financial stability, the need for fiscal policy to play a more active role in stabilization, and the relative roles of financial regulation and macroprudential tools. The general message is a warning against going back to precrisis ways-to narrow inflation targeting, little use of fiscal policy for stabilization, and insufficient financial regulation. Contributors David Aikman, Alan J. Auerbach, Ben S. Bernanke, Olivier Blanchard, Lael Brainard, Markus K. Brunnermeier, Marco Buti, Benoit C ure, Mario Draghi, Barry Eichengreen, Jason Furman, Gita Gopinath, Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas, Andrew G. Haldane, Philipp Hildebrand, Marc Hinterschweiger, Sujit Kapadia, Nellie Liang, Adam S. Posen, Raghuram Rajan, Valerie Ramey, Carmen Reinhart, Dani Rodrik, Robert E. Rubin, Jay C. Shambaugh, Tharman Shanmugaratnam, Jeremy C. Stein, Lawrence H. Summers
This book provides a comprehensive review of income inequality issues in the OECD in a cross-country setting. It presents a wealth of data and analysis on the formation of inequality and identifies groups of countries that share similar inequality patterns. It also reviews developments at the extremes of the income distribution, namely poverty, top incomes as well as the distribution of wealth. An important contribution of the book is the careful examination of the determinants of the income distribution, such as globalisation and technical progress as well as the effect of a wide range of economic policies that shape the distribution of income. These include in particular labour market regulations, household taxes and transfers as well as in-kind public services. It also sheds light on an under-researched issue: do policies aimed at boosting economic growth raise or reduce income inequality?
The 2008 financial collapse, the expansion of corporate and private wealth, the influence of money in politics-many of Wall Street's contemporary trends can be traced back to the work of fourteen critical figures who wrote, and occasionally broke, the rules of American finance. Edward Morris plots in absorbing detail Wall Street's transformation from a clubby enclave of financiers to a symbol of vast economic power. His book begins with J. Pierpont Morgan, who ruled the American banking system at the turn of the twentieth century, and ends with Sandy Weill, whose collapsing Citigroup required the largest taxpayer bailout in history. In between, Wall Streeters relates the triumphs and missteps of twelve other financial visionaries. From Charles Merrill, who founded Merrill Lynch and introduced the small investor to the American stock market; to Michael Milken, the so-called junk bond king; to Jack Bogle, whose index funds redefined the mutual fund business; to Myron Scholes, who laid the groundwork for derivative securities; and to Benjamin Graham, who wrote the book on securities analysis. Anyone interested in the modern institution of American finance will devour this history of some of its most important players.
Help today's learner visualize microeconomics in action with the most pedagogically rich, complete book available--Tucker's MICROECONOMICS FOR TODAY'S WORLD, 7e, International Edition. A quick look at this engaging, dynamic text will show you why this is the book that is famous for helping readers at all levels of skill and preparation grasp and master microeconomic principles. Written by an award-winning educator recognized for his work in relating basic economic principles to global issues, Irvin Tucker's MICROECONOMICS FOR TODAY'S WORLD, 7e, International Edition continues its unique textual and visual learning system. This edition concisely presents and reinforces core concepts, then immediately assesses student comprehension. You will find the latest microeconomic information and developments presented in an engaging, easy-to-follow format applicable to everyday life. MICROECONOMICS FOR TODAY, Seventh Edition, provides a full complement of instructor resources, including new PowerPoint (R) slides, and optional CourseMate website and complete array of videos.
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General Equilibrium Theory studies the properties and operation of free market economies. The field is a response to a series of questions originally outlined by Leon Walras about the operation of markets and posed by Frank Hahn in the following way: `Does the pursuit of private interest, through a system of interconnected deregulated markets, lead not to chaos but to coherence - and if so, how is that achieved?' This is always an apt question, but particularly so given the `Global Financial Crisis' that emerged from the operation of market economies in the Americas and Europe in mid to late 2008.The answer that General Equilibrium Theory provides to the Walras-Hahn question is that, under certain conditions coherence is possible, while under certain other conditions chaos, in various forms, is likely to prevail. The conditionality of either outcome is not always well understood - neither by proponents of, or antagonists to, the `free market position'. Consequently, this book attempts to show something of what General Equilibrium Theory has to say about the wisdom or otherwise of always relying on `market forces' to manage complex socio-economic systems.
The Post-Keynesian methodology emphasising uncertainty is indispensable to analysing and understanding the major challenges of the 21st Century. On that basis, this book focuses on the failures of the market economic system to secure stability and sustainability, and demonstrates why this is not recognised by conventional economic theory. The Post-Keynesian economics set out here aims for an understanding of the economy as a whole and as an integral part of society. Chapters analysing money, banks and finance as dynamic phenomena open the book. They are followed by chapters focusing on methodological issues such as uncertainty, longer-term aspects, sustainability and other non-monetary economic activities. This important book is a useful tool for students and researchers who wish to gain a better understanding of real world economics. In these areas where conventional macroeconomic theory may not be sufficient, this book offers viable Post-Keynesian alternatives.
The bankruptcy of the investment bank Lehman Brothers was the pivotal event of the 2008 financial crisis and the Great Recession that followed. Ever since the bankruptcy, there has been heated debate about why the Federal Reserve did not rescue Lehman in the same way it rescued other financial institutions, such as Bear Stearns and AIG. The Fed's leaders from that time, especially former Chairman Ben Bernanke, have strongly asserted that they lacked the legal authority to save Lehman because it did not have adequate collateral for the loan it needed to survive. Based on a meticulous four-year study of the Lehman case, The Fed and Lehman Brothers debunks the official narrative of the crisis. It shows that in reality, the Fed could have rescued Lehman but officials chose not to because of political pressures and because they underestimated the damage that the bankruptcy would do to the economy. The compelling story of the Lehman collapse will interest anyone who cares about what caused the financial crisis, whether the leaders of the Federal Reserve have given accurate accounts of their actions, and how the Fed can prevent future financial disasters.
While it is central to today's politics, few people fully understand the National Debt and its role in shaping the course of British history. Without it, Britain would not have gained--and lost--two empires, nor won its wars against France and Germany. But Britain has also been moulded by attempts to break free of the Debt, from postwar Keynesian economics to today's austerity. Martin Slater writes a vivid tale coloured with some of the most dramatic incidents and personalities of Britain's past--from clashes between King and Parliament, American independence and war in Europe, to the abolition of slavery, the development of the Union and the role of leading figures such as Pitt, Gladstone, Adam Smith and Keynes. From medieval times to the 2008 financial crash and beyond, The National Debt explores the changing fortunes of the Debt, and so of Great Britain.
All specialist economics students, plus students taking a non-specialist module, and social science students taking an economics module will need this book.
Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes makes the case that one percenters like him should pay their fortune forward in a radically simple way: a guaranteed income for working people The first half of Chris Hughes' life followed the perfect arc of the American Dream. He grew up in a small town in North Carolina. His parents were people of modest means, but he was accepted into an elite boarding school and then Harvard, both on a scholarship. There, he met Mark Zuckerberg and Dustin Moskovitz and became one of the co-founders of Facebook. In telling his story, Hughes demonstrates the powerful role fortune and luck play in today's economy. Through the rocket-ship rise of Facebook, Hughes came to understand how a select few can become ultra-wealthy nearly overnight. He believes the same forces that made Facebook possible have made it harder for everyone else in America to make ends meet. To help people who are struggling, Hughes proposes a simple, bold solution: a guaranteed income for working people, including unpaid caregivers and students, paid for by the one percent. Hughes believes that a guaranteed income is the most powerful tool we have to combat poverty. Money - cold hard cash with no strings attached - gives people freedom, dignity and the ability to climb the economic ladder. A guaranteed income for working people is the big idea that's missing. This book, grounded in Hughes' personal experience, will start a frank conversation about how we earn, how we can combat income inequality, and ultimately, how we can give everyone a fair shot.
Richard Curtin has directed the University of Michigan's consumer sentiment surveys for more than four decades. His analyses of recent trends in consumer expectations are regularly covered in the worldwide press. In this book, Curtin presents a new theory of expectations. Whereas conventional theories presume that consumers play a passive role in the macro economy, simply reacting to current trends in incomes, prices, and interest rates, Curtin proposes a new empirically consistent theory. He argues that expectations are formed by an automatic process that utilizes conscious and nonconscious processes, passion and reason, information from public and private sources, and social networks. Consumers ultimately reach a decision that serves both the micro decision needs of individuals and reflects the common influence of the macro environment. Drawing on empirical observations, Curtin not only demonstrates the importance of consumer sentiment, but also how it can foreshadow the cyclical turning points in the economy.
Japan's dramatic transformation from economic success to economic stagnation offers important policy lessons to advanced countries everywhere that are struggling with stagnation. The term `Japanization' is often used by economists to describe long-term stagnation and deflation. Symptoms include high unemployment, weak economic activity, interest rates near zero, quantitative easing, and population aging. In the global context, what can governments do to mitigate the downward trends experienced by Japan? This judiciously timed book investigates in depth the causes of Japan's `lost decades' versus the real recovery achieved by the United States, and the lessons that can be learned. This book helps to provide a basis for assessing a wide range of policy approaches from which policymakers and governments can choose to avoid economic decline. The expert contributions provide an overview of the pattern of `Japanization' in a global economic perspective, analyze similarities and differences between the Korean and Japanese economies, and examine policy measures taken by Japan during the lost decades. From this analysis, the book proposes future policy solutions for countries experiencing `Japanization'. Economic stagnation and the relevant policy reactions have been of keen interest around the globe since the global financial crisis and this book will be an invaluable resource for scholars, policymakers, and economic commentators alike.
Leading economists consider the shape of future economic policy: will it resume the pre-crisis consensus, or contend with the post-crisis "new normal"? What will economic policy look like once the global financial crisis is finally over? Will it resume the pre-crisis consensus, or will it be forced to contend with a post-crisis "new normal"? Have we made progress in addressing these issues, or does confusion remain? In April of 2015, the International Monetary Fund gathered leading economists, both academics and policymakers, to address the shape of future macroeconomic policy. This book is the result, with prominent figures-including Ben Bernanke, John Taylor, and Paul Volcker-offering essays that address topics that range from the measurement of systemic risk to foreign exchange intervention. The chapters address whether we have entered a "new normal" of low growth, negative real rates, and deflationary pressures, with contributors taking opposing views; whether new financial regulation has stemmed systemic risk; the effectiveness of macro prudential tools; monetary policy, the choice of inflation targets, and the responsibilities of central banks; fiscal policy, stimulus, and debt stabilization; the volatility of capital flows; and the international monetary and financial system, including the role of international policy coordination. In light of these discussions, is there progress or confusion regarding the future of macroeconomic policy? In the final chapter, volume editor Olivier Blanchard answers: both. Many lessons have been learned; but, as the chapters of the book reveal, there is no clear agreement on several key issues. Contributors Viral V. Acharya, Anat R. Admati, Zeti Akhtar Aziz, Ben Bernanke, Olivier Blanchard, Marco Buti, Ricardo J. Caballero, Agustin Carstens, Jaime Caruana, J. Bradford DeLong, Martin Feldstein, Vitor Gaspar, John Geanakoplos, Philipp Hildebrand, Gill Marcus, Maurice Obstfeld, Luiz Awazu Pereira da Silva, Rafael Portillo, Raghuram Rajan, Kenneth Rogoff, Robert E. Rubin, Lawrence H. Summers, Hyun Song Shin, Lars E. O. Svensson, John B. Taylor, Paul Tucker, Jose Vinals, Paul A. Volcker
The financial system is a densely interconnected network of financial intermediaries, facilitators, and markets that serves three major purposes: allocating capital, sharing risks, and facilitating intertemporal trade. Asset prices are an important mechanism in each of these phenomena. Capital allocation, whether through loans or other forms of investment, can vary both across sectors-at the broadest, manufactures, agriculture, and services-and within sectors, for example different firms. The risk that various investors are willing to take reflects their financial position and alternative opportunities. Risk and asset allocation are also influenced by whether money, and especially its expenditure, is more important now or in the future. These decisions are all influenced by governmental policies. When there are mismatches, the results include financial meltdowns, fiscal deficits, sovereign debt, default and debt crises. Harold L. Cole provides a broad overview of the financial system and assets pricing, covering history, institutional detail, and theory. The book begins with an overview of financial markets and their operation and then covers asset pricing for standard assets and derivatives, and analyzes what modern finance says about firm behavior and capital structure. It then examines theories of money, exchange rates, electronic payments methods, and cryptocurrencies. After exploring banks and other forms of financial intermediation, the book examines the role they played in the Great Recession. Having provided an overview of the provate sector, Cole switches to public finance and government borrowing as well as the incentives to monetize the public debt and its consequences. The book closes with an examination of sovereign debt crises and an analysis of their various forms. Finance and financial intermediation are central to modern economies. This book covers all of the material a sophisticated economist needs to know about this area.
Exam Board: OCR Level: A-Level Subject: Economics First Teaching: September 2015 First Exam: Summer 2016 Create confident, numerate and well-prepared students with skills-focused, topic-specific workbooks. - Prepare students to meet the demands of the 2015 OCR A-Level Economics specification by practising exam technique and developing literacy and numeracy skills - Supplement key resources such as textbooks to adapt easily to existing schemes of work - Reinforce and apply topic understanding with flexible material for classwork or revision - Create opportunities for self-directed learning and assessment with answers to tasks and activities supplied online
How did economic "experts" worldwide fail to predict the financial crisis of 2007-2008? Eminent economist Paul Davidson discusses how mainstream economic theory may not be applicable to the world of experience. Post Keynesian theory is designed to be applicable to the real world, and this book demonstrates how applying it to policy formulation could help practically resolve economic problems. Davidson goes on to demonstrate how many Post Keynesian economists warned of the impending financial crisis as early as 2002. Post Keynesian Theory and Policy challenges the axioms on which orthodox economic theory is based and argues against their applicability to a money using, market oriented economy. It explores the basis for Keynes's revolutionary general theory and seeks to dispel misconceptions often found in orthodox textbooks. This accessible and expertly constructed book explains why modern economies use money denominated contracts to organize all market transactions for production and exchange and why the law of comparative advantage argument for free trade is not applicable to mass production industries' exports and imports. This book is a valuable resource for professional economists as well as students and academics in economics, political science, and history, who will appreciate its new perspective and analysis of global financial events.
"This will become the definitive empirical basis for analysis of the world's capital markets over the twentieth century. It is an important work of scholarship; no one else has calculated the equity premium of a large number of countries over the long term. In doing so, the book contributes to the very lively debate on the magnitude of the equity premium and will make a splash."--William Goetzmann, Yale University
"Recent years have seen unprecedented public interest in the stock market, but there is a tendency for investors to concentrate on recent U.S. stock market performance. Progress in understanding financial markets requires a much longer timeframe and a global perspective. This book presents and analyzes data from many countries in a simple, standardized way that makes comparisons easy. It makes a number of extremely important points and goes well beyond simple summaries of average returns and historical volatilities to look at such issues as seasonality and industrial structure."--John Campbell, Harvard University
"No investor can afford to risk a penny in the markets without studying this book and absorbing its fascinating lessons. That advice applies whether you are professional or amateur, a youngster or hardened from experience, bold or conservative. This book is history at its most challenging and illuminating. The facts are astonishing, the presentation dazzling, the analysis brilliant, and the lessons profound."--Peter L. Bernstein, author of "Capital Ideas" and "Against the Gods"
"This is an important addition to the investment literature and will be widely used by both the academic and business community. To have the scope of data and analysis contained inthis book available in one place represents a major contribution and improvement over what is now available."--Martin J. Gruber, New York University
Governments often use direct subsidies or tax credits to encourage investment and promote economic growth and other development objectives. Properly designed and implemented, these incentives can advance a wide range of policy objectives (increasing employment, promoting sustainability, and reducing inequality). Yet since design and implementation are complicated, incentives have been associated with rent-seeking and wasteful public spending. This collection illustrates the different types and uses of these initiatives worldwide and examines the institutional steps that extend their value. By combining economic analysis with development impacts, regulatory issues, and policy options, these essays show not only how to increase the mobility of capital so that cities, states, nations, and regions can better attract, direct, and retain investments but also how to craft policy and compromise to ensure incentives endure.
By combining recent research (especially that of Piketty and his associates) with established ideas (particularly from Sir Arthur Lewis), Roger McCain proposes policies that, together, would aim to reverse the observed tendency towards the concentration of wealth in market economies, thus `approaching equality.' The shortcomings and dangers of rising wealth inequality are discussed, both from the point of view of increasing instability and of equalitarian values. Drawing on Marxist concepts of class, the book clarifies both the relation of wealth to income inequality and the causal link between wealth inequality and economic instability, exploring practical issues related to the proposed policies. The role of the `middle class' and the causes of the failure of much of the population to save even for retirement are analyzed. The author goes on to examine the implications for programs of distribution according to need and the role of the corporation, and the possibility of a scheme of economic planning that would retain the known advantages of the market allocation of resources. With inequality still a rising issue for public policy, professionals and students studying policy economics will benefit from the analysis in this book and its tight focus on inequality of wealth, as will interested lay readers with a background in economics and an interest in inequality.
From the field's leading authority, the most authoritative and comprehensive advanced-level textbook on asset pricing Financial Decisions and Markets is a graduate-level textbook that provides a broad overview of the field of asset pricing. John Campbell, one of the field's most respected authorities, introduces students to leading theories of portfolio choice, their implications for asset prices, and empirical patterns of risk and return in financial markets. Campbell emphasizes the interplay of theory and evidence, as theorists respond to empirical puzzles by developing models with new testable implications. Increasingly these models make predictions not only about asset prices but also about investors' financial positions, and they often draw on insights from behavioral economics. After a careful introduction to single-period models, Campbell develops multiperiod models with time-varying discount rates, reviews the leading approaches to consumption-based asset pricing, and integrates the study of equities and fixed-income securities. He discusses models with heterogeneous agents who use financial markets to share their risks, but also may speculate against one another on the basis of different beliefs or private information. Campbell takes a broad view of the field, linking asset pricing to related areas, including financial econometrics, household finance, and macroeconomics. The textbook works in discrete time throughout, and does not require stochastic calculus. Problems are provided at the end of each chapter to challenge students to develop their understanding of the main issues in financial economics. The most comprehensive and balanced textbook on asset pricing available, Financial Decisions and Marketswill be an essential resource for all graduate students in finance and related fields. * Integrated treatment of asset pricing theory and empirical evidence* Emphasis on investors' decisions* Broad view linking the field to areas including financial econometrics, household finance, and macroeconomics* Topics treated in discrete time, with no requirement for stochastic calculus* Solutions manual for problems available to professors
Arguably one of the most important economists who has lived, Ricardo's impact on the economics profession is immense. This unique and comprehensive Companion elucidates his significance and continuing legacy. Ricardo made major contributions to all fields of the subject, from monetary issues to value and income distribution, from capital accumulation, technical progress and economic growth to foreign trade and international specialisation, and from taxes to public debt. What he called the main problem of political economy, the distribution of income and wealth, is again back on the political and economic agenda with a vengeance. Leading experts in the field explore his influence and offer novel interpretations of received doctrines. The concise yet comprehensive entries are arranged alphabetically for ease of use with cross references and suggestions for further reading. The Companion will serve as the standard reference work for all those engaged in the field of classical economics. It will also be essential reading for scholars and researchers interested in the history of economic thought, macroeconomics and political economy.
This wide-ranging set of papers deals with crucial questions in economic theory, economic policy and economic history. The papers help explain why economic performance deteriorated dramatically in the West over the past three decades as the "Golden Age" of capitalism after World War II was replaced by global neoliberal capitalism. They show that theoretical frameworks rooted in the radical and heterodox traditions can explain this evolution and the current global economic and financial crisis, something mainstream theories cannot do. Topics include but are not limited to: * methodology: a critique of "positivism" is used to explain why mainstream reliance on fairy-tale assumptions should be replaced by realistic assumption sets as argued by Marx and Keynes * Marx, Keynes and Minsky on financial market instability versus mainstream theories of "efficient" financial markets * how Keynes's assumption that the future is unknowable revolutionized not only macro theory but the micro theory of agent choice as well * structural causes of the current global financial crisis * how innovative theories of competition, globalization, capital investment and financialization inspired by Marx, Keynes and Schumpeter can be used to explain the crisis tendencies of neoliberal capitalism * the influence of class conflict on economic policy, including in the current "austerity" regimes. The papers in this book should be of interest to most economists and can be used in both graduate and upper level undergraduate courses. Many of these papers are accessible to anyone who reads the business press.
The global financial crisis has sent shockwaves through the world's economies, and its effects have been deep and wide-reaching. This book brings together a range of applied studies, covering a range of international and regional experience in the area of finance in the context of the global downturn. The volume includes an exploration of the impact of the crisis on capital markets, and how corporate stakeholders need to be more aware of the decision-making processes followed by corporate executives, as well as an analysis of the policy changes instituted by the Fed and their effects. Other issues covered include research into the approach of solvent banks to toxic assets, the determinants of US interest rate swap spreads during the crisis, a new approach for estimating Value-at-Risk, how distress and lack of active trading can result in systemic panic attacks, and the dynamic interactions between real house prices, consumption expenditure and output. Highlighting the global reach of the crisis, there is also coverage of recent changes in the cross-currency correlation structure, the costs attached to global banking financial integration, the interrelationships among global stock markets, inter-temporal interactions between stock return differential relative to the US and real exchange rate in the two most recent financial crises, and research into the recent slowdown in workers' remittances. This book was published as a special issue of Applied Financial Economics.
This book provides an assessment of the megatrends that are reshaping the emerging markets landscape. With developing countries already accounting for 40% of world GDP, emerging markets consumption growth will be an increasingly important growth engine for the world economy over the next two decades. However, emerging markets in many parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America are still facing tremendous economic challenges such as poverty, inequality, weak governance and inadequate infrastructure. The developed nations are no longer insulated from the economic shockwaves impacting developing countries, as globalisation and economic integration have also amplified the transmission effects to the West through immigration flows, cross-border crime and the proliferation of international terrorism. Emerging Markets Megatrends is an essential read for government policymakers, corporate executives, international investors and analysts wishing to understand more about the economic drivers and long-term outlook for emerging markets.
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