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Persistent Disparity provides a comprehensive examination of the magnitude and scope of racial economic disparity in the United States. The authors directly assess the extent of black economic progress in the US since World War II and address the controversy of whether the racial income gap is closing or widening as America approaches the 21st century. Darity and Myers explicitly make the connection between what the theory of racial inequality espouses and corresponding policy recommendations for remedying such disparity such as affirmative action and reparations. The authors challenge the cultural-genetic explanation and advance a new theoretical explanation that incorporates a more expansive characterization of the nature and role of discrimination. They also conclude that conventional anti-discrimination efforts are unlikely to be sufficient to close the gap. This book will be essential reading for anyone interested in US social and economic history, political economy, African-American studies, and public policy.
The rise and relative decline of the Japanese economy has been an important feature of the world economy over the last decade. In this innovative book, distinguished experts re-evaluate commonly held perceptions in the West and in Japan about the strength of the economy. They shed new light on Japan's current economic situation and prescribe policies to restructure the domestic economy in order to achieve growth objectives. Japanese Economic Policy Reconsidered provides a critical evaluation of the key issues facing the Japanese economy, and the political and economic environments that continue to hold back Japan's future growth. The contributors advocate far-reaching structural reform in order to allow market forces to dictate industry policy. They then turn to the changing role of foreign trade and evaluate the Clinton Administration's attempt to define a new approach to US-Japan trade relations. Special attention is given to an empirical analysis of the problem of overseas production. They also examine the peculiar characteristics of Japanese foreign direct investment inflows, and advocate the removal of disincentives to foreign investment, in order to encourage trade and economic growth. The authors then discuss the role of the financial sector, particularly in relation to Germany and the United States, and discover parallels in monetary policy in all three countries. They recommend regulatory reform of the financial sector in Japan to adapt to the future financial environment. This volume will be accessible to both scholars and practitioners looking for a deeper insight into modern Japan. It will also be of great use to students of macroeconomics, Asian studies, business economics and international economics.
Rapid technological developments in communications and transportation, economic liberalization and the emergence of new economies with vast market potential have changed the shape of international production. This scholarly selection of articles represents some of the most important contributions to an understanding of this ongoing, global economic restructuring and its impact on the geographic configuration of production and the economic competitiveness of nations in the world economy.
A critical examination of economics's past and future, and how it needs to change, by one of the most eminent political economists of our time The dominant view in economics is that money and government should play only a minor role in economic life. Economic outcomes, it is claimed, are best left to the "invisible hand" of the market. Yet these claims remain staunchly unsettled. The view taken in this important new book is that the omnipresence of uncertainty makes money and government essential features of any market economy. Since Adam Smith, classical economics has espoused nonintervention in markets. The Great Depression brought Keynesian economics to the fore, but stagflation in the 1970s brought a return to small-state orthodoxy. The 2008 global financial crash should have brought a reevaluation of that stance; instead the response has been punishing austerity and anemic recovery. This book aims to reintroduce Keynes's central insights to a new generation of economists, and embolden them to return money and government to the starring roles in the economic drama that they deserve.
Over the years the theoretical structure of input-output analysis has been refined and its applications have been widened. This three volume set presents an overview of this development and an assessment of the current state of the subject. It offers a comprehensive collection of previously published articles which present some of the most significant theoretical and empirical contributions of leading scholars to multisectoral economic analysis. The first volume is devoted to the foundations of input-output analysis, to dynamic models and to multisectoral extensions of the multiplier principle. Volume II explores approaches to the modelling of economics and the environment, to the analysis of foreign trade and to regional and interregional economic activities. The third volume discusses the methodologies developed for the investigation of economic structures, offers an analysis of various versions of price models and investigates the problems related to the estimation of input-output data.
This book makes an important contribution at the forefront of business cycle theory. The contributors evaluate historical evidence, present new empirical results and suggest that the explanation of business cycle phenomena may, in part, depend on the way in which historical data is interpreted. This innovative book places great emphasis on the complementarity between empirical and theoretical business cycle research. The authors present studies of business cycles concentrating on the Great Depression of the 1930s, early and late nineteenth century American economic history, the United Kingdom before 1914, interwar Germany and Japan, and Canada and the United States during the Gold Standard era. A number of contributions address the Phillips curve and labour markets, and provide illustrations of the use of both macro and micro data. An important finding is the contribution to business cycle research made by hitherto untouched sources of historical labour market microdata. The book demonstrates the importance of the reconstruction of well researched data to our conception and understanding of business cycle phenomena. This book will be useful reading for academics and students of macroeconomics and economic history, with an interest in understanding business cycles.
This important book investigates the causes of the decline in public capital spending which has occurred in most OECD countries over the past 25 years, and estimates the macroeconomic consequences of this decline. Governments can improve the future living conditions of their citizens in various ways including stimulating private investment, increasing spending on education and health programmes, preserving the environment and adding to the stock of public capital. In Public Capital Spending in OECD Countries the author focuses on government investment in physical capital within a macroeconomic context. He examines the consequences of the decline in public investment on physical assets such as infrastructure and the environment. The past few years have witnessed a growing awareness that especially the stock of public capital has been neglected by many OECD governments. Such a reduction in public investment may lead to a decline in economic growth, and therefore it is vital that the fall in government spending is rigorously examined. Key features include:- * a detailed and comprehensive review of existing literature. * original empirical investigations using alternative techniques and different datasets. * possible explanations for the trends in public capital spending. * estimates of the effect of public capital spending on economic growth.
Edited by three very well known academics in the field and contributed to by John Smithin, Laurence Moss and G. C. Harcourt, this volume reflects the breath of the honoureea (TM)s interests and as such it covers a wide range of topics including political economy, labour economics, history of economic thought and macroeconomics.
Ingrid Rima, one of the first women to teach economics in America, has been a major figure in the development of Post-Keynesian economics over the past forty years. Rima has made numerous contributions to the fields of labour economics, history of economic thought, and Post Keynesian economic theory and in this volume the editors and contributors recognize them.
This important, original book focuses on the transformation of economic systems in Central Europe. It provides a comprehensive overview of different theoretical approaches to transformation - neoclassical, post Keynesian and Austrian. In the light of this theoretical discussion, it reconsiders the transformation policies applied in the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary and Poland. Dr Hoen challenges the dichotomous `shock-versus-gradualism' dispute, which he believes blurs the key elements of the transformation from a centrally planned to a market economy. He also maintains that the labels generally attached to the transformation strategies in Central Europe are inappropriate and misleading. Hungary's transformation to a market economy, for example, is to be qualified as a `hidden shock' rather than as an example of `gradualism'. This up-to-date new book, which theoretically explains the diverging paths of transformation in Central Europe will be of interest to researchers, students, policymakers and all those concerned with European integration and international relations.
This highly original contribution examines one of the most controversial concepts in the history of economics - the true meaning of the Law of Markets. This has been a contentious issue since the publication of Keynes's General Theory, but has also divided economists since it first emerged almost two centuries ago in the writings of James Mill. This book discusses the change in the understanding of the nature of the business cycle wrought by the General Theory whose major innovation in overturning Say's Law was to introduce demand deficiency into mainstream economic thought. The volume provides a robust and innovative exposition of the crucial point of division between classical and Keynesian economics, demonstrating that the role of demand deficiency was the fundamental issue at stake. Steven Kates first discusses Keynes's interpretation of Say's Law before documenting its development within classical theory. He then charts the development of post-General Theory interpretations of Say's Law, challenging Keynes's definition which was captured in the phrase `supply creates its own demand'. The author also attempts to unravel the vast literature on the progress made by Keynes between his Treatise on Money published in 1930 and the General Theory, published six years later. He suggests that the crucial point in the origins of the General Theory was Keynes's discovery of Malthus's writings on Say's Law at the very depths of the Great Depression in 1932. This provocative book will be required reading for scholars and students interested in the history of economic thought, the history of macroeconomics and the Keynesian revolution.
The major industrialized countries are undergoing a significant demographic transition associated with low fertility rates combined with reduced mortality rates. A major consequence of the current transition is that populations are expected to age substantially over the next forty years. This innovative book studies the effects of population ageing with the associated factor of immigration, on social expenditure and public finance. The authors begin by providing an introduction to some of the main issues concerning population ageing and migration. This is followed by a discussion of the demographic and economic aspects of the transition towards an older population which is taking place in the major industrialized countries. Within this framework the impacts of ageing on government budgets and the labour market are analysed. The book then turns to a discussion of some of the economic, social and demographic issues related to immigration. Particular emphasis is placed on the Australian economy, which provides an interesting case study in view of its high immigration levels, particularly over the last fifty years. The authors project population structure and social expenditure patterns under a variety of assumptions concerning the number and composition of immigrants. The quantitative techniques developed to produce these projections can be applied without modification to any other country. Population Ageing, Migration and Social Expenditure will be of use to academics and students with an interest in public finance, public policy and population studies.
This book is the third and final volume of essays celebrating the work and lifetime contribution of Paul Davidson to economics, specifically the development of post Keynesian Economics. The outstanding group of international economists examine areas in which Paul Davidson has an interest, or has made significant contributions. They explore international macroeconomic issues such as consumption and investment, wage and price flexibility, sticky prices and aggregate production, and financial liberalization. Other contributions discuss economic rhetoric and post Keynesian methodological issues while the final part of the book turns to real problems such as the politics and economics of the European Union, the stabilization of the international oil market and realities of financial liberalization.
This important book is concerned with the evaluation of changes in income distribution and the analysis of tax and transfer systems. The book begins with an introduction to the measurement of inequality and poverty, stressing the role of value judgements. The following six chapters deal with cross- sectional comparisons, including the analysis of a labour market model of income distribution, the choice of transfer system, marginal indirect tax reform, and the distributional effects of inflation. The next seven chapters are concerned with dynamic aspects of income distribution. These examine the complex relationship between cross-sectional and lifetime distributions, relative income mobility, and the effects of income mobility on temporary and permanent poverty. The Dynamics of Inequality and Poverty will be essential reading for students and scholars of public sector economics, welfare economics and social economics, along with those directly concerned with policy formulation.
Economic Policy presents an authoritative selection of articles which have played a key role in influencing the direction of economic theory and methodology and thus the policy presecriptions which macroeconomists give to decision-makers. Volume I contains the most influential articles which have shaped the main debates in macroeconomic theory since its foundation. It covers such topics as the debate between Keynes and the Keynesians, the dispute between Keynes and the monetarists, the rational expectation revolution and critiques of that approach, and the debate between New Classical theorists and 'new' Keynesian theorists. Also included are papers which have defined alternative methodological approaches to modelling the macroeconomy. Volume II investigates some important applications of economic policy analysis. It examines some of the key economic problems on the political agenda such as the record of monetarism, the problems of trade and structural unemployment, European monetary integration and the reform of post-Communist societies and assesses the extent to which economic research throws light on these problems.
Full employment and growth in the international economy remain the greatest economic challenges as we approach the twenty-first century. This important book, edited by two leaders in the field, rigorously examines these real world problems from a post Keynesian perspective and provides practical policy solutions for achieving growth and reducing unemployment. The increasing interdependence of world trade and the integration of capital markets has led to the globalization of the international economy. This globalization demands new policy prescriptions for international growth and employment without inflation. In order to combat stagflation, a distinguished group of authors suggests policies for achieving growth and employment within the framework of an entrepreneurial market system. They identify and evaluate the factors determining the expansion of the global economy and assess the impact of financial markets, derivatives and international regulations on domestic and global economic performance. Improving the Global Economy will be of special interest to policymakers, macroeconomists and all those concerned with global growth and employment issues.
Full Employment and Growth presents James Tobin's unique modern Keynesian slant on the major monetary, fiscal and international policy issues of the 1990s. More than twenty recent essays collected together in this volume address the major contemporary issues of macroeconomic policy, especially in America. Usually dissenting from the orthodoxies of the day, both liberal and conservative, Professor Tobin offers a common sense, unhysterical view of public deficits and debt, speaks for pragmatic monetary policies, argues against protectionism and favours slowing down the speculative movement of funds between currencies. The author also presents his own suggestions for reform of social security and health care. Again and again, Professor Tobin warns against blind faith that the markets will always produce optimal results. All those interested in the application of economic analysis and argument to the salient policy issues of our time will find these essays eminently readable and will appreciate the clear ways in which the power of economic analysis is explained and used.
Baumol's Cost Disease is the inevitable escalation of the real costs that occur in labour-intensive industries like the arts, health care and education. The labour costs in these industries tend to increase at the same rate as other industries, but their scope for utilizing labour-saving technical progress is either small or non-existent. The book opens with an introduction by Ruth Towse in which there is an overview of William Baumol's work. In this discussion Ruth Towse examines Baumol's work in the context of the development of the economics of the arts. The volume is then divided into parts and begins by introducing William Baumol's work through several autobiographical essays. This is followed by some of his early contributions to cultural economics and the cost disease. William Baumol's leading macroeconomic work on the `unbalanced growth model' is also included and the debate about it at its inception. In parts three and four some of the more empirical papers on the arts are presented as well as essays on policy implications for the arts. Following this are chapters on the theatre and publishing as well as historical studies of the arts and the implications of the cost disease for libraries, health care and education. This book contains William Baumol's contribution to cultural economics and spans over 30 years of writing on the subject, much of which is not widely available. It provides a real insight into the development of Baumol's analysis and his perception of the problems of the arts and other labour-intensive sectors.
The Evolution of the Single European Market provides a detailed empirical and theoretical analysis of the impact of the Single European Market - one of the most significant developments in the world economy in the late twentieth century. A distinguished group of contributors examines how the Single Market has developed in practice and the impact it has had on industry regions and groups in society. They chart the likely future course of further integration in the light of public choice theory, subsidiarity and the current experience within the Single Market. The differences between the member states are analysed in detail as are the reasons why it has been so difficult to obtain agreement. They examine, from an evolutionary approach, issues such as competition law, the Single European Act, the unofficial means of implementation and enforcement, `competition among rules', and the social dimension and external impact of the Single Market. The contributors include lawyers, economists, political scientists, sociologists and regional scientists, whose contribution stems from the work of over one hundred researchers across Europe in a linked programme of projects. This forward looking book will be required reading for researchers and students with an interest in economic and political integration as well as politicians and businesses involved in cross-border trade and investment. It will also be of interest to academics in the areas of economics, politics, law, social policy and geography.
With a population of 1.2 billion and nearly two decades of spectacular growth, China promises to become one of the world's largest economic powers and consumer markets in the next century. A salient feature of the contemporary Chinese economy is the significance of state intervention toward business in the form of `preferential policies'. Thanks to these policies, a firm's location, ownership type and area of business largely determine whether it should receive privileges of disadvantages in the regulated business environment. The fast changing preferential policies have had great influence on a wide range of economic activities, including foreign direct investment. The extent, complexity and variety of these policies are bewildering to both investors and academics who study the Chinese economy. State Intervention and Business in China is a systematic study of China's preferential economic policies. Dr Lu and Dr Tang present these policies in three categories, namely, the investor-oriented, the region-oriented, and the industry-oriented policies. The authors give a clear account of policies including: preferential tax rates, state bank loans, trade protection and subsidies, and licensing schemes. The book provides the in-depth political economy analyses that reveal the sources and functions of these policies. By offering empirical observations on the impact of state intervention on regional development and economic structures, this book sheds new light on the prospects for China's economic policy making. State Intervention and Business in China will be indispensably for scholars and specialists who are interested in contemporary Chinese economy and society. It is also a valuable guide for doing business in China.
Social Policy in Hong Kong provides for the first time a comprehensive and critical analysis of social policy in Hong Kong. It shows that Hong Kong is far from being a simple free market economy. In many areas, Hong Kong has highly developed social policies which make a major contribution to the quality of life of its citizens. An introductory chapter provides background information on the economic, social and political structure of the region. Subsequent chapters cover issues such as health, housing, education, poverty and social security, social care, transport and labour protection. A concluding chapter draws out the essential nature of the Hong Kong approach and constructs a balance sheet of success and failure. With Hong Kong becoming a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997, this timely book describes social policy in the territory at the end of an era.
Advances in General Equilibrium Theory presents a new approach to the construction of general equilibrium models. It considers the methods that should be adapted and some of the principal subjects with which general equilibrium modelling should be concerned in order to convert it into a useful body of knowledge. The book examines from new perspectives the major questions that have concerned general equilibrium theorists during this century, including the characteristics of perfect competition and the existence, uniqueness and stability of economic equilibrium. The author develops the concept of models as functioning systems, identifies the differences between models and equation systems and discusses the implications of the differences between mathematical methods and economic determinacy. He demonstrates that the treatment of perfect competition has been deeply flawed, that modern general equilibrium models are not functioning systems, that many equation systems in the literature are not supported by underlying models, and that models which would justify these equations are either improbable or inconceivable. In conclusion, Professor Walker indicates how these perspectives can be used to develop a new general equilibrium model, and presents an outline of its content. Advances in General Equilibrium Theory will be of special interest to microeconomists and those interested in economic methodology and general equilibrium modelling.
Macroeconomic analysis has undergone profound and controversial changes during the past twenty-five years and, as such, economists have developed and evolved their approaches to the discipline. Reflections on the Development of Modern Macroeconomics presents a collection of eight original essays, from leading scholars, each of which focuses on an important issue relating to these developments. These accessible, reflective surveys include: * to stabilize or not to stabilize: is that the question? Brian Snowdon and Howard Vane * the rhetoric and methodology of modern macroeconomics Roger Backhouse * how relevant is Keynesian economics today? Keith Shaw * what remains of the monetarist counter-revolution? Thomas Mayer * macroeconomics: before and after rational expectations Patrick Minford * the ups and downs of modern business cycle theory Cillian Ryan and Andrew Mullineux * the role of imperfect competition in new Keynesian economics Huw Dixon * politics and the macroeconomy: endogenous politicians and aggregate instability Brian Snowdon and Howard Vane This book will attract a wide readership among intermediate undergraduates, as well as postgraduates and lecturers in the fields of macroeconomics and the history of economic thought.
This important volume brings together 22 major essays written by A.P. Thirlwall over the last 30 years in the field of macroeconomics, and in particular on multiplier analysis, unemployment, inflation, growth and the balance of payments. These outstanding essays make pioneering contributions, such as the input-output formulation of the foreign trade multiplier; the derivation and use of the dynamic Harrod foreign trade multiplier; the measurements of types of unemployment; the estimation of regional Phillips curves, and the formalization of Kaldor's model of regional growth rate differences. Many of the essays are written from a Keynesian perspective, and the recent revival of interest in Keynesian economics means that the essays are as relevant today as when they were written, especially those on the nature of unemployment, the causes of inflation, and the link between the balance of payments and economic growth. Macroeconomic Issues from a Keynesian Perspective will be of interest not only to professional economists but also to policymakers in developed and developing countries for the insights it provides into the functioning of the macroeconomy.
In Government Versus the Market, Roger Middleton provides a comprehensive, interdisciplinary and controversial analysis of how Britain's relative economic decline from the late nineteenth century onwards generated an intense debate about the legitimate roles of government and the market. After a thorough analysis of Britain's long-run economic performance in a comparative context, which emphasizes how the problem of decline is frequently misunderstood, and an account of the long-run forces promoting and constraining government growth, he then charts how the economic role of government evolved in response to decline but produced a mix of macroeconomic and microeconomic policies which proved inadequate for the task. This major study emphasizes the institutional and political constraints to economic modernization and uses the specific characteristics of Britain's predicament, a combination of market failure and impotent state, to explain why by 1979 the burgeoning New Right were able to launch an attack upon big government. Dr Middleton then demonstrates how Britain's subsequent economic performance, while brilliantly propagandized as an economic renaissance, has in fact been lacklustre and why the Conservatives' economic strategy failed to address the underlying problems of decline and to reduce the size of the public sector. Government versus the Market brings an unrivalled historical, empirical and theoretical breadth to our understanding of the last century of British economic history as well as a wealth of material on economic performance and public sector growth, and the fullest bibliography yet published on Britain's economic decline. Comprehensive, authoritative and wide-ranging, this extensive study uses a long-term and comparative framework which draws upon the latest research of economists, historians and political scientists to show why successive governments have been unable to halt Britain's relative economic decline.
This important new book deals with some of the most fundamental issues of transaction cost economics. It focuses on the analysis of the internal nature and characteristics of organizations and on the subtle interactions between institutional environment and governance structures over time. Transaction Cost Economics investigates the nature of contractual arrangements involved in large organizations, the `configurations' of corporations, the modes of governance implemented, and the respective role of different constituencies. The second series of problems addressed in the book concerns the interaction between the institutional environment and governance structures over time, with special emphasis on the Russian privatization programme and the narcotics market. These twin analyses substantiate the distinction between private and public ordering. The book is strongly oriented towards increasing the operationalization of the concepts of transaction cost economics. The book will be essential reading for everyone interested in the new institutional economics and by recent developments in the theory of contracts, in transaction costs economics and in organisation theory. Because of its emphasis on potential applications, it will also be of interest to readers from management science and those involved in the analysis of economies in transition.
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