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China's recent evolution is not only a story of extraordinary economic growth but also a story of great institutional change. Fan Zhang challenges traditional theory to explain the real origins of China's reform, the political and economic forces driving it, and the reasoning behind its stagnation. The institutional re-arrangement of government and market has been crucial in this marketization process. Using a wealth of documents and cases, Zhang provides a detailed analysis of China's institutional changes over the past 40 years, focusing on the government-market relationship. A theoretical framework is presented to explain the targets and incentives of government and business firms in a bureaucratic-market system, which promoted economic growth, but also fostered corruption and resulted in a re-centralisation of the system. Using an index of marketization in China since 1978, Zhang shows that overall, market expansion has continued but with diminishing marginal gains. The government control of financial resources that had previously been relaxed in the early years of reform has been enhanced to some extent as a result of the changing institutional environment. Policy makers dealing with China-related policies, researchers and postgraduate students in political science, economics and Chinese studies will find this book a compelling exploration of the current and constant cooperation and conflict between government and market.
Why the United States has developed an economy divided between rich and poor and how racism helped bring this about. The United States is becoming a nation of rich and poor, with few families in the middle. In this book, MIT economist Peter Temin offers an illuminating way to look at the vanishing middle class. Temin argues that American history and politics, particularly slavery and its aftermath, play an important part in the widening gap between rich and poor. Temin employs a well-known, simple model of a dual economy to examine the dynamics of the rich/poor divide in America, and outlines ways to work toward greater equality so that America will no longer have one economy for the rich and one for the poor. Many poorer Americans live in conditions resembling those of a developing country-substandard education, dilapidated housing, and few stable employment opportunities. And although almost half of black Americans are poor, most poor people are not black. Conservative white politicians still appeal to the racism of poor white voters to get support for policies that harm low-income people as a whole, casting recipients of social programs as the Other-black, Latino, not like "us." Politicians also use mass incarceration as a tool to keep black and Latino Americans from participating fully in society. Money goes to a vast entrenched prison system rather than to education. In the dual justice system, the rich pay fines and the poor go to jail.
The bankruptcy of the investment bank Lehman Brothers was the pivotal event of the 2008 financial crisis and the Great Recession that followed. Ever since the bankruptcy, there has been heated debate about why the Federal Reserve did not rescue Lehman in the same way it rescued other financial institutions, such as Bear Stearns and AIG. The Fed's leaders from that time, especially former Chairman Ben Bernanke, have strongly asserted that they lacked the legal authority to save Lehman because it did not have adequate collateral for the loan it needed to survive. Based on a meticulous four-year study of the Lehman case, The Fed and Lehman Brothers debunks the official narrative of the crisis. It shows that in reality, the Fed could have rescued Lehman but officials chose not to because of political pressures and because they underestimated the damage that the bankruptcy would do to the economy. The compelling story of the Lehman collapse will interest anyone who cares about what caused the financial crisis, whether the leaders of the Federal Reserve have given accurate accounts of their actions, and how the Fed can prevent future financial disasters.
Recent events, such as capital flow reversals and banking sector crises, have shaken faith in the widely held belief in the benefits of greater financial integration and financial deepening, which are typical in advanced economies. This book shows that emerging economies have occasionally weathered the storm best, despite the supposed burden of `weak institutions'. Written by leading scholars and practitioners, the authors demonstrate that a better policy framework requires reliable indicators of vulnerability to financial instability. Using empirical evidence and case studies, the twelve chapters stress the necessity of improved policy tools and automatic stabilizers that anticipate and limit the vulnerabilities to financial crises. Cross-border capital flows, international reserves and foreign exchange markets are covered in depth. This timely book offers an insightful overview and policy solutions to the issues surrounding macroprudential regulation of economies in a globalized world. It is required reading for students and scholars of international finance and regulation.
Over the last century, global poverty has largely been viewed as a technical problem that merely requires the right expert" solutions. Yet all too often, experts recommend solutions that fix immediate problems without addressing the systemic political factors that created them in the first place. Further, they produce an accidental collusion with benevolent autocrats," leaving dictators with yet more power to violate the rights of the poor.In The Tyranny of Experts , economist William Easterly, bestselling author of The White Man's Burden , traces the history of the fight against global poverty, showing not only how these tactics have trampled the individual freedom of the world's poor, but how in doing so have suppressed a vital debate about an alternative approach to solving poverty: freedom. Presenting a wealth of cutting-edge economic research, Easterly argues that only a new model of development,one predicated on respect for the individual rights of people in developing countries, that understands that unchecked state power is the problem and not the solution ,will be capable of ending global poverty once and for all.
This book elaborates upon the dynamic changes to Korean firms and the economy from the perspective of catch-up theory. The central premise of the book is that a latecomer's sustained catch-up is not possible by simply following the path of the forerunners but by creating a new path or `leapfrogging'. In this sense, the idea of catch-up distinguishes itself from traditional views that focus on the role of the market or the state in development. The author provides a comprehensive account of the micro and macro level changes, deals with both firm- and country-level capabilities, and explores the issue of macroeconomic stability to overcome financial crisis. The book demonstrates that at the firm level the focus is on innovation capabilities, diversification, internationalization and job creation. It goes on to examine the rise and upgrading of big businesses, such as Samsung, as well as the global success of SMEs. Comprehensive and illuminating, this is an ideal book for students, academics and researchers interested in the economics of development and technological innovation. It will also be a valuable source book for policy makers in international development agencies, governments and the public sector.
Olivier Blanchard, former chief economist of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), is author of one of the most important standard macroeconomics textbooks which is used throughout the world. Endorsed by Blanchard himself, Anti-Blanchard Macroeconomics critically analyses prevailing economic theory and policy in comparison with alternative approaches. This textbook is designed to stand alongside Blanchard's text, or indeed any other standard book on macroeconomics, but it can also be read independently. It provides undergraduate and advanced students with a critical view of the subject, and is also appropriate for scholars interested in a new way of analysing the debate between alternative schools of economic thought. Emiliano Brancaccio and Andrea Califano succinctly explore the relationship between theoretical models and economic policies, providing readers with examples and empirical exercises. The book highlights ways in which simple changes to the initial hypotheses of the dominant models can lead to alternative schemes that overturn the logical relationships and the policy prescriptions of standard macroeconomics. Key features: * It critically assesses the mainstream macroeconomic models * It overcomes the typical contradiction between the opportunity to offer students a preliminary mainstream education and the need to nurture their critical spirit * It helps students to understand that economics is not a discipline that changes in a smooth, linear manner but, on the contrary, represents a field of research that develops through intense theoretical debates, continual empirical testing and resultant disputes about economic policy * It critically analyses Blanchard's new approach to macroeconomics inspired by the 2008 global financial crisis.
This important new book introduces students to the fundamental ideas of heterodox economics, presented in a clear and accessible way by top heterodox scholars. It offers not only a critique of the dominant approach to economics, but also a positive and constructive alternative. Students interested in an explanation of the real world will find the heterodox approach not only satisfying, but ultimately better able to explain a money-using economy prone to periods of instability and crises. Key features of this textbook include: * A non-conventional understanding of economic analysis on a number of relevant topics * Deep and convincing criticism of orthodox thinking * Discussion of the crucial importance of money, banking and finance today * Analysis of the roots of the 2008 global financial crisis * A presentation of the features of sustainable development. Students of economics at all levels can use this textbook to deepen their understanding of the heterodox approach, the fundamental roots of the 2008 global financial crisis and the need to rethink economics afresh.
Modern economies never come to rest. From institutions to activities of production, trade, and consumption, everything is locked in processes of perpetual transformation - and so are our daily lives. Why and how do such transformations occur? What can economic theory tell us about these changes and where they might lead? Ulrich Witt's book discusses why evolutionary concepts are necessary to answer such questions. While economic evolution is in many respects unique, it nonetheless needs to be seen within the broader context of natural evolution. By exploring this complex relationship, Rethinking Economic Evolution demonstrates the significance of an evolutionary economic theory.
This groundbreaking new core textbook encourages students to take a more critical approach to the prevalent assumptions around the subject of macroeconomics, by comparing and contrasting heterodox and orthodox approaches to theory and policy. The first such textbook to develop a heterodox model from the ground up, it is based on the principles of Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) as derived from the theories of Keynes, Kalecki, Veblen, Marx, and Minsky, amongst others. The internationally-respected author team offer appropriate fiscal and monetary policy recommendations, explaining how the poor economic performance of most of the wealthy capitalist countries over recent decades could have been avoided, and delivering a well-reasoned practical and philosophical argument for the heterodox MMT approach being advocated. The book is suitable for both introductory and intermediate courses, offering a thorough overview of the basics, while covering everything needed for more advanced courses. Issues are explained conceptually, with the more technical, mathematical material in chapter appendices, offering greater flexibility of lecturer use.
This collection of classic articles and book chapters departs from Solow's 1957 seminal paper on the measurement of technical change. It studies the idea behind the comprehensive development of total factor productivity and the index number innovations. The volume also analyses the measurement of productivity growth and the usefulness of GDP measurement as well as perennial problems in measurement of output of certain sectors and of certain processes in an economy. With an original introduction by the editor, this is a valuable source of reference for students, researchers and practitioners.
"The ABCs of RBCs" is the first book to provide a basic introduction to Real Business Cycle (RBC) and New-Keynesian models. These models argue that random shocks--new inventions, droughts, and wars, in the case of pure RBC models, and monetary and fiscal policy and international investor risk aversion, in more open interpretations--can trigger booms and recessions and can account for much of observed output volatility.
George McCandless works through a sequence of these Real Business Cycle and New-Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models in fine detail, showing how to solve them, and how to add important extensions to the basic model, such as money, price and wage rigidities, financial markets, and an open economy. The impulse response functions of each new model show how the added feature changes the dynamics.
"The ABCs of RBCs" is designed to teach the economic practitioner or student how to build simple RBC models. Matlab code for solving many of the models is provided, and careful readers should be able to construct, solve, and use their own models.
In the tradition of the "freshwater" economic schools of Chicago and Minnesota, McCandless enhances the methods and sophistication of current macroeconomic modeling.
A textbook with innovative real-world macroeconomic analyses of timely policy issues, with case studies and examples from more than fifty countries. This timely and refreshingly real-world focused textbook examines some of the world's most critical policy issues through a macroeconomics lens. After presenting analytical foundations, modeling tools, and theoretical perspectives, Economics of Global Business goes a step further than most other texts, with a practical look at the local and multinational tradeoffs facing economic policymakers in more than fifty countries. Topics range from income equality and the financial crisis to GDP, inflation and unemployment, and, notably, one of the first macroeconomic examinations of climate change. Written by a globetrotting economist who teaches and consults on three continents, Economics of Global Business aims not for definitive answers but rather to provide a better understanding of the context-dependent rationales, constraints, and consequences of economic policy decisions. The book covers long-run and short-run growth (with examples from the United States, China, the European Union, South Korea, Japan, Latin America, Africa, Australia, and Vietnam); financial crises and central banks; monetary and fiscal policies; government budgets; currency regimes; climate change and macroeconomics; income inequality; and globalization. All chapters rely on recent and historical examples of economic policy in action. The book is particularly suitable for use as an introduction to macroeconomics for business students.
THE EXPLORATION OF MACROECONOMICS, 6E, International Edition was designed specifically to promote economic literacy and help you appreciate how economics affects your everyday life. This engaging text combines innovative learning tools, a visually appealing design, and captivating content to help you easily absorb information and master key concepts. Packed with examples from current events and pop culture, THE EXPLORATION OF MACROECONOMICS, 6E, International Edition succeeds like no other book in conveying the excitement and real-world relevance of economics.
The Selected Letters of John Kenneth Galbraith invites readers to join in conversations with presidents and first ladies, diplomats and schoolchildren, the McCarthy 'loyalty board', foreign heads of state and fellow economists, and a host of other correspondents. In his long and cosmopolitan life, Galbraith wrote thousands of letters, and Richard P. F. Holt has selected the most important of these from his archival research, now available in print for the first time. The letters provide an intimate account of the three main political goals to which Galbraith devoted his professional life: ending war, fighting poverty, and improving quality of life by achieving a balance between private and public goods in an affluent capitalist society. Showing his thoughtful insights and charming wit, this collection confirms Galbraith as a man of broad learning, superb literary skills, and deeply held progressive ideals.
The basic tools for analyzing macroeconomic fluctuations and policies, applied to concrete issues and presented within an integrated New Keynesian framework. This textbook presents the basic tools for analyzing macroeconomic fluctuations and policies and applies them to contemporary issues. It employs a unified New Keynesian framework for understanding business cycles, major crises, and macroeconomic policies, introducing students to the approach most often used in academic macroeconomic analysis and by central banks and international institutions. The book addresses such topics as how recessions and crises spread; what instruments central banks and governments have to stimulate activity when private demand is weak; and what "unconventional" macroeconomic policies might work when conventional monetary policy loses its effectiveness (as has happened in many countries in the aftermath of the Great Recession.). The text introduces the foundations of modern business cycle theory through the notions of aggregate demand and aggregate supply, and then applies the theory to the study of regular business-cycle fluctuations in output, inflation, and employment. It considers conventional monetary and fiscal policies aimed at stabilizing the business cycle, and examines unconventional macroeconomic policies, including forward guidance and quantitative easing, in situations of "liquidity trap"-deep crises in which conventional policies are either ineffective or have very different effects than in normal time. This book is the first to use the New Keynesian framework at the advanced undergraduate level, connecting undergraduate learning not only with the more advanced tools taught at the graduate level but also with the large body of policy-oriented research in academic journals. End-of-chapter problems help students master the materials presented.
Eurozone Dystopia traces the origin of the Eurozone and shows how the historical Franco-German rivalry combined with the growing dominance of neo-liberal economic thinking to create a monetary system that was deeply flawed and destined to fail. William Mitchell argues that the political class in Europe is trapped in a destructive groupthink. Based on a flawed understanding of macroeconomic fundamentals, groupthink extols the virtues of the erroneous concept of the self-regulating free market and prevents Europe from seeing its own policy failures. As a result, millions are unemployed, with imperilled member states caught in a cycle of persistent stagnation and rising social instability. Providing a detailed historical analysis of the evolution of the Eurozone and its failings from the 1940s to the present day, the book argues that the Eurozone lacks the necessary monetary architecture, particularly the existence of a federal fiscal function which could have resolved the economic crisis quickly. The author examines the options available to Europe and concludes that an orderly abandonment of the euro and a return to national currencies is the superior option available. The justification for this conclusion is exhaustively argued within a Modern Monetary Theory framework. This thoughtful and accessible account of Europe's economic woes will appeal to all those who are seeking an explanation for the crisis and are receptive to sensible and credible alternatives to the current scenario.
"Macroeconomics "presents a new approach to macroeconomics, based
on microeconomic foundations combined with Keynesian-style
short-run policy analysis.
This authoritative and stimulating book represents a fundamental critique of the aggregate production function, a concept widely used in macroeconomics. The authors explain why, despite the serious aggregation problems that surround it, aggregate production functions often give plausible statistical results. This is due to the use of constant-price value data, rather than the theoretically correct physical data, together with an underlying accounting identity that relates the data definitionally. It is in this sense that the aggregate production function is `not even wrong': it is not a behavioural relationship capable of being statistically refuted. The book examines the history of the production function and shows how certain seminal works on neoclassical growth theory, labour demand functions and estimates of the mark-up, among others, suffer from this fundamental problem. The book represents a fundamental critique of the aggregate production function and will be of interest to all macroeconomists.
Since the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics, the subject has evolved in a major way, adopting the principles behind the revolution and building on them in spectacular fashion. In this thoroughly revised and updated second edition, the authors provide a complete and up-to-date textbook designed to guide students through the mathematical and conceptual maze of modern macroeconomics. The updated second edition includes: * Explanation of the historical development of the subject * Introduction to traditional macro-classical/adaptive expectations * Demonstration of how rational expectations are handled in macro models and in finance * An explanation of the importance of structural, micro-founded models * Key examples of structural models examined in detail, and with extension to the open economy * Discussion of policy implications throughout * Methodology for testing models against macro data behaviour, complete with the latest evidence on these models' success * Coverage of key topics, including the supply-side, unemployment, growth and the open economy. By explaining the basics of each topic, and providing the solid grounding for students to tackle more complex and detailed material, this textbook will be an invaluable resource for both postgraduate and upper level undergraduate students of macroeconomics alike.
Government interventions in market failures can encounter objections from those who doubt their efficacy. Acocella, a leading expert on economic policy, counters these unfounded criticisms, making the convincing case for the foundation, coordination and reach of government action through economic policy. Arguing for the governmental potential to devise democratic, fair and effective institutions and policies, this book also demonstrates the validity of the principles outlined by Frisch and Tinbergen, amongst others, for controlling the economy, in a strategic context, equivalent to the rational expectations assumption. Demonstrating how unconventional monetary policies (such as macro-prudential regulation, new fiscal rules, and new forms of international policy coordination) can offer an effective response to the multiplicity of current economic issues, the recent financial crisis arguably indicates that economic policy must once again take centre stage as the applied complement to mainstream economic theory.
This concise yet insightful sequel to the highly acclaimed The Nature of Economic Growth provides a comprehensive critique of both old and new growth theory, highlighting the importance of economic growth for reducing poverty. A.P. Thirlwall illustrates that orthodox growth theory continues to work with `one-good' models and to treat factor supplies as exogenously given, independent of demand. Orthodox trade theory still ignores the balance of payments consequences of different patterns of trade specialisation when assessing the welfare effects of trade. The author goes on to present theory underpinned by up-to-date empirical evidence that factors of production and productivity growth are endogenous to demand, and that the structure of production and trade matter for the long-run growth performance of countries because of their impact on the balance of payments. He concludes that trade liberalisation has proved disappointing in improving the trade-off between growth and the balance of payments. This book will provide a challenging read for students and academics in the fields of economics, heterodox economics, and development. Policymakers focussing on the relationship between growth, trade and the balance of payments will also find the book to be of great interest.
The U.S. dollar's dominance seems under threat. The near collapse of the U.S. financial system in 2008-2009, political paralysis that has blocked effective policymaking, and emerging competitors such as the Chinese renminbi have heightened speculation about the dollar's looming displacement as the main reserve currency. Yet, as "The Dollar Trap" powerfully argues, the financial crisis, a dysfunctional international monetary system, and U.S. policies have paradoxically strengthened the dollar's importance.
Eswar Prasad examines how the dollar came to have a central role in the world economy and demonstrates that it will remain the cornerstone of global finance for the foreseeable future. Marshaling a range of arguments and data, and drawing on the latest research, Prasad shows why it will be difficult to dislodge the dollar-centric system. With vast amounts of foreign financial capital locked up in dollar assets, including U.S. government securities, other countries now have a strong incentive to prevent a dollar crash.
Prasad takes the reader through key contemporary issues in international finance--including the growing economic influence of emerging markets, the currency wars, the complexities of the China-U.S. relationship, and the role of institutions like the International Monetary Fund--and offers new ideas for fixing the flawed monetary system. Readers are also given a rare look into some of the intrigue and backdoor scheming in the corridors of international finance.
"The Dollar Trap" offers a panoramic analysis of the fragile state of global finance and makes a compelling case that, despite all its flaws, the dollar will remain the ultimate safe-haven currency.
In this challenging book, John King makes a sustained and comprehensive attack on the dogma that macroeconomic theory must have `rigorous microfoundations'. He draws on both the philosophy of science and the history of economic thought to demonstrate the dangers of foundational metaphors and the defects of micro-reduction as a methodological principle. Strong criticism of the microfoundations dogma is documented in great detail, from some mainstream and many heterodox economists and also from economic methodologists, social theorists and evolutionary biologists. The author argues for the relative autonomy of macroeconomics as a distinct `special science', cooperating with but most definitely not reducible to microeconomics. The Microfoundations Delusion will prove a stimulating and thought-provoking read for scholars, students and researchers in the fields of economics, heterodox economics and history of economic thought.
This important textbook offers a comprehensive look into the two main traditions in contemporary macroeconomics - New Classical and Keynesian - and examines the work of economists who have drawn on principles from both traditions to form a new, integrated approach known as New Neoclassical Synthesis. Importantly, this provides the theoretical foundation for much of current mainstream economics and the work done by central banks around the world. With a dual focus on research methods and policy applications, this book bridges the gap between intermediate macroeconomic and advanced graduate-level texts, making it an ideal resource for senior undergraduate and Masters students in applied economics programs. Key topics include: * a concise summary of intermediate macroeconomics, including the foundational ideas of both the New Classical and Keynesian traditions * the Lucas critique of standard methods for evaluating policy design * debt sustainability and austerity vs. stimulation debate * optimal inflation rates * tax reform and growth analysis * alternative monetary policies for pursuing price stability * theories of unemployment. Students and instructors will find additional useful resources on the book's companion website, including practice questions for each chapter.
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