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Dino Falaschetti and Michael Orlando unify the treatment of the many deeply related topics in money and banking in this wide-ranging book. By continually building on the assumption that economic actors are maximizers, they explain how monetary and financial services, as well as related governance mechanisms, influence economic performance. In this manner, Money, Financial Intermediation and Governance not only lets readers make sense of today's monetary authorities and financial markets, it lets them see through superficial complexities to the fundamental influences that will shape those organizations for years to come. Mastering this analytical process is important for scholars and professionals, as well as individuals who are interested in their own financial security. Successful readers will enjoy an enduring ability to productively anticipate, respond to, and even shape macroeconomic and related political developments. This book's greatest contribution may thus be to help readers enjoy the lasting advantages of becoming careful thinkers. This book is an ideal text for undergraduate, graduate and MBA students in courses on banking and financial markets as well as in macroeconomics. It is also a useful resource for researchers and professionals in the financial, legal and policy sectors.
Too many of the world's citizens face impoverished living standards. The economic and financial crises have made matters worse. The viewpoint of Living Standards and Social Well-Being is that the fundamental objective for an economy is provisioning, not simply efficiency. The chapters in this volume examine how economies across the globe come to understand what constitutes a living and how they can improve living standards, including balancing paid work with family life and civic responsibility. The authors provide historical, theoretical, and empirical studies of moving economies at the macro level and households at the micro level toward improved living standards. It is argued that achieving well-being and decent living standards, through work and welfare state policies, is a social responsibility. Such improvements could be delivered through basic income policies, family support, job guarantees, decent work, shorter work weeks, and support from social welfare. These issues are important for economics and the other social sciences and in particular for social economics. This book was published as a special issue of the Review of Social Economy.
Eduardo Wiesner's book makes an important contribution to the understanding of development by blending together the interdependent issues of (i) macroeconomic performance and volatility, (ii) equity and distributive justice, (iii) fiscal deficits and the redistributive effectiveness of social public expenditures, and (iv) the demand for the `right' institutions and for policy reform in Latin America. It does this by examining recent macroeconomic crises from a political economy perspective, and finds that information is the critical algorithm that links together the demand for macroeconomic stability, macroeconomic performance and, ultimately, distributive justice. This volume is geared toward those interested in the political economy of development and policy reform in general and in Latin America, including academics, policy makers, and the general reader.
"The Transition Report 2008" offers an in-depth analysis of economic progress in 28 countries from central Europe to central Asia. It draws on the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development's experience as one of the largest investors in the transition region. The report provides a comprehensive analysis of the transition from centrally planned to market economies. This year's report looks closely at the emergence of global pressures on prices, the tensions created by this and how policy-makers can respond to them. "Transition Report 2008" offers a comprehensive study of economic progress, with a focus on growth and how this can be sustained. Issues covered include a review of the emergence of global pressure on prices and liquidity in recent years and as a consequence the creation of short-term uncertainties. This title reports on the tensions arising from the global strain on prices and how policy-makers should respond. It examines the longer-term challenges to sustaining economic growth. It presents an analysis that reveals how growth prospects are driven by fundamental factors such as human capital, market competition and physical infrastructure. It outlines the need for countries to diversify production and trade to sustain growth. It presents country-by-country assessments of the latest progress in structural reform and macroeconomic developments. Analysis is complemented by detailed economic data covering GDP, inflation, government expenditure and foreign direct investment.
In the 1990s, labour productivity growth accelerated in the United States, yet slowed down in other industrialised countries, reversing a three decade long tendency of convergence. The book explores this phenomenon. It first identifies the methodological and statistical problems involved in measuring productivity and making cross-country comparisons in this area. Then the role of factor accumulation for the diverging trends across the OECD world, with a particular focus on the dispersion of information and communication technology (ICT), is reviewed. In-depth studies of single countries provide further insights regarding growth trends in the United States, Japan, Germany, and France. Finally, empirical investigations regarding the determinants of productivity growth at an international level complement the analyses. The results stress that public infrastructure and education, employment rates and working hours, and ICT spending play an important role in explaining the existing differences in levels and changes of productivity. This comprehensive book, on recent research regarding international gaps in productivity growth, will be of great interest to policy advisors and academics, political decision-makers and students of economics, business administration, international business and international policy.
Population aging is a global phenomenon that influences not only the industrialized countries of Asia and the West, but also many middle- and low- income countries that have experienced rapid fertility decline and achieved long life expectancies. This book explores how workers and consumers are responding to population aging and examines how economic growth, generational equity, trade and international capital flows are influenced by population aging. The contributors draw on the experience of the developing and industrialized worlds and on countries in Asia, North America, and Europe. They offer new evidence about micro-level responses of labor force participation, earnings, and savings to actual and/or perceived demographic change. Their broad perspective on population aging spans the entire demographic transition and demonstrates the importance of effective policy response in the early stages of population aging. Also included are policy analyses that explore the use of tax policy, financial reform, and policies targeting immigration and procreation. This insightful study will prove invaluable to students and scholars of population economics, public sector economics, welfare economics, social economics, and public finance. Pension analysts and government policymakers will find the material of great practical use.
This unique book provides a comprehensive survey of the major economic issues that have helped shape the modern world. It includes discussions of the latest research findings in the international economic development literature and scrutinises some of the most important debates in contemporary economics. Brian Snowdon examines the many controversies relating to long-run growth and development, problems of transitions from socialism to capitalism, international competitiveness and the impacts of globalisation. To shed light on these critical issues Brian Snowdon interviewed eleven leading economists who are featured in this book: Daron Acemoglu, Alberto Alesina, Padma Desai, William Easterly, Stanley Fischer, Janos Kornai, Michael Porter, Dani Rodrik, Jeffrey Sachs, Xavier Sala-i-Martin and Jeffrey Williamson. Globalisation, Development and Transition provides an all-encompassing guide to the contemporary literature on economic development and related fields, as well as an extensive and up-to-date list of references. It will be an essential resource for all scholars and students of economics, especially those with an interest in economic growth and development, economic history, trade and globalisation, and the economics of transition.
This innovative and multidisciplinary book explores Japan's economic crisis and recovery. Specifically, it analyses the role of corporations, the state, macroeconomic and industrial policy, and the changing status of Japan as an economic role model. The contributors list comprises an international panel of economists, political scientists and international relations specialists. From vantage points across Japan, North America and Europe, they bring together a collection of original studies considering Japan's economic malaise and the potential for sustained recovery. Topics covered include: * the relevance of Western economic models to the Japanese case * the Japanese macro-economy and financial system * the deep-seated controversy over the process and problems of kudoka - the hollowing out of Japan's industrial base * the future of Japan's small firm sector in a globalizing world. This provocative and timely book offers new reflections and original research findings on a topic of global interest and significance. As such it will strongly appeal to a wide-ranging audience including: academics in the fields of economics, political science and international relations, policymakers, advisors and practitioners in international institutions, think-tanks and labour organizations.
This comprehensive two-volume collection presents key papers on the relationship between international trade and trade policy on the one hand, and poverty and inequality on the other. These relationships highlight the connections between the WTO and income distribution. The analytical and policy context of the volumes is laid out by the editor's introduction and by the first two articles of the collection. The selected papers in the first volume cover macroeconomic links, price links, general equilibrium modeling and, in the second volume, factor markets. Prominent in the second volume are readings on the effects of trade on labour markets in developed and developing countries. Some articles develop the theory of trade and income distribution, but most are empirical and quantitative, stressing the need to test theory and measure key effects before one can make useful policy statements. This book will be invaluable for graduate students, policy makers and professional applied economists.
What macroeconomic requirements must Turkey meet in its quest to accede to the European Union? This book, with its distinguished contributors - well-known economists and policymakers - examines and analyses these macroeconomic challenges confronting Turkey. Although the focus is on the specific situation of Turkey, the lessons are informative for other candidate countries and the findings directly relevant to the process of European integration. The book is divided into four parts: * fiscal policies and sustainability of public finances * monetary policy challenges * preconditions for euro adoption * sustainable regimes of capital movements. Each topic is studied in two consecutive papers, concentrating first on the challenges faced by the countries of the EU, and then by Turkey. Several papers review the experiences from the previous round of EU accession and the implications of these for Turkey. Macroeconomic Policies for EU Accession will appeal to policymakers, bureaucrats and academics interested in the macroeconomic problems of EU accession and European integration.
This Handbook aims to provide an overview of regular survey activities, as well as to show how survey results can be used scientifically in the context of business-cycle analysis and forecasting. Examples of various business surveys are described in detail, starting with their objectives, the questions they pose, how they are weighted and extrapolated and the representativeness of their results. A detailed scientific examination of the explanatory value of the data is also made in order to demonstrate their potential usefulness. The Handbook has three parts: firstly, it presents the importance of business surveys for empirical research. Secondly, selected surveys are introduced in detail such as the Ifo Business Survey and the Ifo Investment Survey, and thirdly, a broad spectrum of studies - on the consequence of the survey results - is presented. The significance of the surveys applies equally to business cycle analysis and to forecasting. An array of modern methods of time series analysis and econometric model construction is used in these investigations. This book will be of interest to an audience comprising members of institutions conducting business surveys, scientists using survey results to analyse and forecast business cycles, and students of empirical economic research.
In his `New Guide' to The General Theory, Mark G. Hayes presents Keynes's illustrious work as a sophisticated Marshallian theory of the competitive equilibrium of the economy as a whole. This unique book takes full account of the nature of time and money and illustrates that The General Theory remains highly relevant to the teacher and advanced student of modern macroeconomics. The Economics of Keynes introduces several interpretative innovations to resolve many puzzles presented in the literature of the last 70 years. It is designed to be read in parallel with The General Theory and will allow modern readers to find their bearings before plunging into an in-depth analysis of major themes contained in The General Theory. The key areas in which this `New Guide' differs from the familiar exposition of current macroeconomics textbooks are also explicitly identified. The author reaches positive and hopeful conclusions for the development of economic theory and policy. Promoting a thorough understanding of the legitimate domain of equilibrium analysis and a renewed commitment to the possibility of genuinely full employment, this book will provide an illuminating and fascinating read for anyone wishing to appreciate fully the value of The General Theory. More specifically, academics and advanced students of macroeconomics across the board - classical, orthodox, Post Keynesian and heterodox - interested in a fresh attempt to connect The General Theory with modern macroeconomics will find this book to be the ideal tool.
Mario Amendola and Jean-Luc Gaffard argue that all too often, markets and technology are treated as two magic words that will open the door to a wealth of riches. An increasing number of governments appear to be aiming for a pure market economy in order to reap the benefits of a benevolent technology that promises the most spectacular advances. Both markets and technology can certainly be considered essential economic factors, but which market and what technology? Is the current prevailing view of competition without restraints and privatisation at all costs actually the essence of the market? This book maintains that the dominant view mistakes the relationship between growth and technical change and, as a consequence, the role of the market in this context. The authors argue that once the issue is analysed in the proper light, the usual ingredients of the dominant policy recipe - zero inflation, balanced budgets, privatisations, deregulation of all markets, extreme flexibility - may not actually be the appropriate ones. The Market Way to Riches will appeal to academics from many branches of economics including heterodox, evolutionary and macroeconomics and those with an interest in economic growth generally. Policy makers influencing economic growth will also find much to engage them.
During a distinguished career, Basil Moore has made numerous important contributions to macroeconomics and monetary economics, and is renowned as the progenitor of the `horizontalist' analysis of endogenous money. More recently, he has embraced complexity theory as part of an ongoing effort to understand macroeconomics as an evolving, path-dependent process. This book celebrates and explores Basil Moore's interests in and contributions to monetary and macroeconomic theory. Complexity, Endogenous Money and Macroeconomic Theory features original essays by internationally acclaimed and expert authors. It comprises a selection of papers on five distinct but interrelated themes: economic concepts, tools and methodology; complexity, uncertainty and path dependence; the macroeconomics of endogenous money; the macroeconomics of exogenous interest rates; and unemployment, inflation and the determination of aggregate income. These papers combine to provide a comprehensive methodological and theoretical discussion of the macroeconomics of a monetary-production economy. The book will be of interest to professionals and research students in the fields of macroeconomics and monetary economics - especially those with an interest in the Post Keynesian approach to analyzing these fields, including the wide audience that has been reached by the contributions of Basil Moore himself.
First published in 1961, Kenneth K. Kurihara 's National Income and Economic Growth makes a pioneering effort to integrate national income accounting, income-employment theory and growth analysis as a unified whole. In his belief that growth economics is taught most effectively as a dynamic implication of basic national income theory, Professor Kurihara offers a much fuller treatment of economic growth than most other texts of this genre. The author addresses the complex and pivotal problem of achieving the highest possible rate of growth of real national income while maintaining full employment without inflation, yet the book is confined to the clarification of the technical aspects of the problem. Professor Kurihara endeavours to make allusion to practical application and broad determinants of determinants throughout in the varying context of a modern mixed open economy with its dynamic interaction of the private, the public and the foreign trade sectors. The book is intended for intermediate students of macro-economic theory.
Macroeconomic policies have come under justifiable scrutiny because of their powerful and pervasive impacts throughout the economy. This book examines the sustainability of growth-oriented macroeconomic strategies, starting from early ideas linking macroeconomic policies, growth and sustainability. A comprehensive and up-to-date literature review and theoretical framework are presented, including both macroeconomic and microeconomic analyses of the linkages between the economy and the environment. Brazil and Chile are used as case studies to illuminate and analyse the impacts and effects of differing macroeconomic policies. A variety of analytical models are used to assess these two very different countries. One important conclusion reached is that the combination of growth and economic imperfections that lead to unsustainable outcomes is characterized by not only economic, but also environmental and >social problems. A variety of policy remedies are discussed to make development more sustainable by reshaping the structure of growth. Macroeconomists, environmental and development economists as well as policy analysts and project managers in the international development community will find much to engage them within this book. Development agencies, NGOs and graduate students interested in both the theory and applications of economic growth and sustainable development issues will also find the book of great interest.
This book is a critical review of current fiscal and monetary policy in Europe and presents results of both empirical research and a discussion of the theoretical framework behind the policy of the European Central Bank and the Stability and Growth Pact. Macroeconomic policy is often hotly debated within the EU. However, the majority of policy discussions have started from a shared view of how the economy works. This shared neo-classical view is also known as the `Brussels-Frankfurt consensus'. According to that consensus, European labour markets are too rigid in comparison to the US labour market. Hence, the prevalent view is that the European unemployment problem can be solved by increasing incentives; improving the returns on schooling and redefining the role and the necessity of labour market institutions. In this volume the authors argue that it is not at all clear which institutions cause labour market rigidities and to what extent. They note that the problem of unemployment requires a much broader set of solutions, including active labour market policies, policies concerning schooling and the development of skills. Growth and Cohesion in the European Union also highlights that these microeconomic policies will not in themselves provide the solution to what is essentially a macroeconomic problem. First and foremost the role of aggregate demand in the determination of unemployment has to be placed at the forefront of the debate. The extensive discussion of a broad variety of topics in the field of macroeconomic policy will ensure this book finds a welcome readership amongst researchers and academics of European studies and macroeconomics. Policy advisors will also find much to engage them as the book provides a critical view on the Brussels-Frankfurt consensus, currently so dominant amongst European policymakers.
Economics Confronts the Economy is a challenging and unorthodox look at contemporary economic analysis. Philip Klein presents a highly reasoned and yet personal view of the state of economics today. While his views may be contentious to some, it is an accessible book that will provoke discussion and debate to a wide readership. Professor Klein begins with the assumption that the basic function of economic theory is to provide a sound guide for public policy in assisting society in defining what it means by `economic progress'. In the words of Thorstein Veblen it involves economic activity as explicit steps to be taken at any given time to enable the economy to play its most effective role in `enhancing human life'. The book argues that modern mainstream economics is failing in this task in terms of what it teaches young economists, what it contributes to public policy debates and what it has done to the field of economics. This book will have a wide audience throughout the many and varied fields of economics including heterodox economics, micro- and macroeconomics, history of economic thought and economic policy.
Honoring Keith Griffin's more than 40 years of fundamental contributions to the discipline of economics, the papers in this volume reflect his deep commitment to advancing the well-being of the world's poor majority and his unflinching willingness to question conventional wisdom as to how this should be done. Four overarching themes recur in Keith Griffin's work and this book: the need to both eradicate poverty and redress inequalities in the distribution of wealth within and among nations; the impact of growth on inequality, and conversely inequality's impact on growth; the political economy of policy-making; and the need for openness to heterogeneity in both analytic tools and in policy recommendations. The volume begins with an introduction by the editors followed by a paper by Keith Griffin. In succeeding chapters the contributors explore strategies for reducing poverty and inequality, and provide perspectives on issues such as human development, the rural/urban divide in China, and biodiversity and sustainability. Students, researchers, policymakers and NGO analysts exploring issues in development economics, development studies, alternative economic systems, globalization, environmental sustainability, inequality and well-being will find this book of great interest.
First published in 1987, Evolutionary Macroeconomics offers an evolutionary approach to macroeconomics as an alternative to contemporary new classical and Keynesian macroeconomics. In order to develop such an approach, an alternative view of the micro-foundations of macroeconomics is presented.
The book begins with a commentary on the state of macroeconomics and an evaluation of attempts to redevelop its underlying vision of economic behaviour. Particular attention is paid to the treatment of expectations and anticipations. The second part of the book presents a behavioural framework which is compatible with an evolutionary perspective on economic behaviour. The third part of the book discusses the implications of adopting an evolutionary approach to macroeconomic theory, empirical methods and policy design, culminating in a specific policy proposal to cure stagflation.
In recent years the field of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models has emerged as the central field of macroeconomics. These models give a unified treatment of growth and fluctuations in a general equilibrium framework where all agents behave rationally. A particularly successful part of this field introduces imperfect competition and nonclearing markets into this framework, which also leads to the study of problems like unemployment. This timely volume gives a full account of the field, starting with the various general equilibrium traditions that ultimately led to this research area, and then describing the evolution of the models, with special emphasis on how they succeeded in representing features of dynamics that other models failed to reproduce. This collection will be an invaluable source of reference for professors and graduate students specializing in macroeconomics. It should also be of interest to students of the history of economic thought, as it shows how apparently antagonistic subfields ended up merging to produce a better synthetic theory.
There is much confusion in the economics literature on wage determination and the employment-inflation trade-off. Few model builders pay as much careful attention to the definition and meaning of long-run concepts as did Albert Ando. Expanding on years of painstaking work by Ando, the contributors elaborate on the main issues of economic analysis and policies that concerned him. Some of the issues discussed include long-run properties of dynamic econometric models, demographic issues of modern times, stabilization policies - especially for Japan - and interaction between monetary and real economy issues, as well as life-cycle behavior patterns, and the appropriate role of the Phillips Curve and the determination of prices. Paying close attention to the concepts and properties of models, Long-run Growth and Short Run Stabilization is for those interested in the macroeconomics of the US, Italy, and Japan. Scholars of aggregative dynamic models based on realistic reasoning will benefit from the information imparted, as will policymakers who want to understand the functioning of the modern economy.
Non-Tariff Barriers, Regionalism and Poverty is a collection of key articles in three important areas of applied international trade research: measuring non-tariff barriers and their effects, the consequences of regional trading arrangements, especially on the countries excluded from them, and the connection between international trade and poverty. Drawing from 30 years of research and experience, L Alan Winters illustrates the development of techniques of this field and his continued commitment to answering real policy questions at the times at which they are debated. The collection shows the ways in which economic and econometric analysis can be used to answer real-world problems rigorously in the area of international trade and trade policy. Readers will find that some of the research included is of current methodological relevance and some of more historical significance. This volume is invaluable to anyone who is keen on developing their knowledge on trade policy, regionalism or poverty - three pressing issues in today's globalized world.
Innovation, Unemployment and Policy in the Theories of Growth and Distribution increases our understanding about the more relevant economic determinants and policy aspects of the interdependence between economic growth and income distribution. This book integrates the analytical methods and the research themes of the New Growth Theory into the cultural tradition of the Classical and post-Keynesian economists. The contributors examine technological innovations, the diffusion of knowledge, the imperfections and institutional characteristics of the labour market, the evolution of consumption patterns and of educational models and social conflicts as they relate to public spending and taxation policies. It provides a new insight into the processes of the growth of modern economies which highlights the interdependence between distribution and growth. The book shows that political and social stability, security of property rights, efficiency of the capital market, research, education, investment in physical and human capital, public spending and taxation policies are all necessary for the success and stability of a country's development process. This book will appeal to upper level students, scholars and researchers of economics and economic growth as well as those more specifically involved in labour, microeconomics and the history of economic thought.
For this two-volume set the editor has selected the key contributions to the field of open economy macroeconomics which have been made over the past half century and more. The articles selected cover traditional open economy models, first generation intertemporal open economy models, the structure of open economy macro-models, some controversies and puzzles, and second generation intertemporal models. Norman Miller has written an authoritative introduction to each volume, which both summarizes and offers a critical appraisal of the major ideas which have shaped macroeconomics during the last fifty years. This collection will be of particular interest to specialists and graduate students in the fields of international finance and open economy macroeconomics.
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