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Although the economy has always been changing, ever more innovations now seem to accelerate the transformation process. Are there any laws governing the incessant global change? Does it accord with our intentions and desires and make us happier? Do our institutions and our democracies cope with the challenges? How does economic theory explain what is going on? In this volume, experts in the field discuss the advances that evolutionary economics has made in exploring questions like these. The broad range of topics include a review of the development of the field: its conceptual and methodological characteristics are outlined; problems posed by macroeconomic evolution and the institutional challenges are highlighted; and, last but not least, the implications of the evolution of the economy for wellbeing and sustainability are addressed. Taken together, the contributions demonstrate the potential of an evolutionary paradigm for making sense of economic change and for assessing its consequences.
This book analyses shipping markets and their interdependence. This ground-breaking text develops a new macroeconomic approach to maritime economics and provides the reader with a more comprehensive understanding of the way modern shipping markets function.
Sharpen your skills and prepare for your microeconomics exam with a wealth of essential facts in a quick-and-easy Q&A format
Get the question-and-answer practice you need with
"McGraw-Hill's 500 Microeconomics Questions." Organized for easy
reference and intensive practice, the questions cover all essential
microeconomics topics and include detailed answer
Prepare for exam day with: 500 essential microeconomics questions and answers organized by subject Detailed answers that provide important context for studying Content that follows the current college 101 course curriculum
Sharpen your skills and prepare for your macroeconomics exam with a wealth of essential facts in a quick-and-easy Q&A format
Get the question-and-answer practice you need with
"McGraw-Hill's 500 Macroeconomics Questions." Organized for easy
reference and intensive practice, the questions cover all essential
macroeconomics topics and include detailed answer
Prepare for exam day with: 500 essential macroeconomics questions and answers organized by subject Detailed answers that provide important context for studying Content that follows the current college 101 course curriculum
An accessible description of modern macroeconomics, and a defense of its policy relevance. Macroeconomists have been caricatured either as credulous savants in love with the beauty of their mathematical models or as free-market fundamentalists who admit no doubt as to the market's wisdom. In this book, Kartik Athreya draws a truer picture, offering a nontechnical description of prominent ideas and models in macroeconomics, and arguing for their value as interpretive tools as well as their policy relevance. Athreya deliberately leaves out the technical machinery, providing an essential guide to the sometimes abstract ideas that drive macroeconomists' research and practical policy advice. Athreya describes the main approach to macroeconomic model construction, the foundational Walrasian general-equilibrium framework, and its modern version, the Arrow-Debreu-McKenzie (ADM) model. In the heart of the book, Athreya shows how the Walrasian approach shapes and unifies much of modern macroeconomics. He details models central to ongoing macroeconomic analyses: the neoclassical and stochastic growth models, the standard incomplete-markets model, the overlapping-generations model, and the standard search model. Athreya's accessible primer traces the links between the views and policy advice of modern macroeconomists and their shared theoretical approach.
Major changes which have occurred since this book was first published have been included in this edition. In particular, the chapter on Germany has been substantially revised and now includes a separate section on easter Germany. The other five countries covered in the book have also witnessed changes in their business culture and these have been taken into consideration. This book examines the background to business practice in Europe of six major countries: Germany, France, Italy, the UK, Spain and the Netherlands. Each chapter tracks the commercial development of that country in the late 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s, focusing on the business environment, special features affecting business, and the response to the EC's single market. The business culture section in each is divided further into business and government, business and the economy, business and the law, business and finance, business and the labour market, business and trade unions and business training, education and development. The test is organized in such a manner to enable cross-referencing between countries, and maps have been included in the new edition.
First published in 1993. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
A textbook that approaches modern macroeconomics through its microeconomic foundations, with an emphasis on financial market connections and policy applications. The modern study and analysis of macroeconomics begins by considering how microeconomic units-consumers and firms-make decisions, and then investigates how these choices interact to yield economy-wide outcomes. This innovative textbook takes this "modern" approach, teaching macroeconomics through its microeconomic foundations. It does so by adopting the representative agent paradigm. By modeling the representative consumer and the representative firm, students will learn to describe macroeconomic outcomes and consider the effects of macroeconomic policies. Unique in its coverage of monopolistic competition, financial markets, and the interaction of fiscal and monetary policy, Modern Macroeconomics is suitable for use in intermediate undergraduate, advanced undergraduate, and graduate level courses. The book first introduces the building blocks of macroeconomics, the heart of which is the representative consumer. It goes on to offer a brief history of macroeconomic thought, including supply-side economics, the Phillips curve, and the New Keynesian framework. It then covers two policy applications, monetary policy and the interaction of monetary and fiscal policy; optimal policy analysis for both the flexible price and the rigid price case; long-run steady states, treating the Solow growth framework and the neoclassical growth model; a search-and-matching framework for the analysis of unemployment; and the application of the tools of modern macroeconomics to "open economy," or international macroeconomics. End-of-chapter problem sets enable students to apply the concepts they have learned. A separate Solutions Manual will be available for students to purchase. Teaching materials, including complete solutions and slides, will be available to qualified instructors.
Why are banking systems unstable in so many countries--but not in others? The United States has had twelve systemic banking crises since 1840, while Canada has had none. The banking systems of Mexico and Brazil have not only been crisis prone but have provided miniscule amounts of credit to business enterprises and households. Analyzing the political and banking history of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Brazil through several centuries, Fragile by Design demonstrates that chronic banking crises and scarce credit are not accidents. Calomiris and Haber combine political history and economics to examine how coalitions of politicians, bankers, and other interest groups form, why they endure, and how they generate policies that determine who gets to be a banker, who has access to credit, and who pays for bank bailouts and rescues. Fragile by Design is a revealing exploration of the ways that politics inevitably intrudes into bank regulation.
This book focuses on the importance of ideological and institutional factors in the rapid development of the British economy during the years between the Glorious Revolution and the Crystal Palace Exhibition. Joel Mokyr shows that we cannot understand the Industrial Revolution without recognizing the importance of the intellectual sea changes of Britain's Age of Enlightenment. In a vigorous discussion, Mokyr goes beyond the standard explanations that credit geographical factors, the role of markets, politics, and society to show that the beginnings of modern economic growth in Britain depended a great deal on what key players knew and believed, and how those beliefs affected their economic behavior. He argues that Britain led the rest of Europe into the Industrial Revolution because it was there that the optimal intersection of ideas, culture, institutions, and technology existed to make rapid economic growth achievable. His wide-ranging evidence covers sectors of the British economy often neglected, such as the service industries.
How does globalization in goods and asset markets alter the nature of economic recessions and the choices facing macroeconomic policy makers? This volume presents empirical and theoretical contributions of economist Paul Bergin to this vital question. By a number of metrics, including trade volume and price convergence, national goods markets have become more globally integrated over time. The same is true for asset markets, which today function more as a single global marketplace. Rigorous theoretical models are developed to explore how international integration in these markets provides channels by which shocks driving recession in one country can be transmitted to other countries. These theoretical concepts can shed light on the Great Recession of the last decade, which has been referred to as the first truly global recession. Theory is also brought to bear to explore how these international spillovers and the resulting international co-movement in recessions can create incentives for policy makers to coordinate their monetary and fiscal policies with each other, as they deal with the challenge of managing their national economies.
China has achieved remarkable economic success in the past three decades and has become the second-largest economy in the world after the United States. However, accompanying this rapid economic growth is an increasing income inequality. In recent years, China's income disparity has reached an alarming level, making it one of the countries with the most unequal income distribution in the world.The widening income gap is the root cause of many issues in contemporary China. How should China step up distribution system reform? How should China deepen the reforms to its fiscal and tax systems? Should the government increase wages to achieve the income multiplication plan? What is the fundamental measure to tackle income disparity issues in China? With in-depth analysis and empirical studies on these questions, this book provides comprehensive perspectives on China's income disparity issues that most international scholars are concerned about.
Central bank collateral frameworks are an often overlooked feature of monetary policy that play a key role in the monetary and financial system. Readers will discover how central banks conduct and implement monetary policy beyond merely setting interest rates, and develop their understanding as to how collateral policies may affect financial markets, financial stability, and the real economy. This book studies the collateral framework in the euro area in detail, and levers this analysis to provide an account of the euro crisis from the perspective of collateral policy. Readers gain access to a wealth of institutional and economic data and information with a level of density and accessibility unavailable elsewhere. This book, the first of its kind, is a valuable read for academic monetary and financial economists, those working in banking and policy-making financial institutions, and anyone who wishes to learn more about the role of central banks in society.
This unique volume consists of studies on medium-run macroeconomics that deal with aggregate economic issues that do not easily fit into either short-run business cycles or long-term growth. This research area has emerged over last decade as a new and distinct field, and needs further explorations.The book includes theoretical as well as empirical studies that cover topics related to medium-run phenomena, such as `growth and fluctuations', `wages and unemployment', `financial instabilities', ` firm size distributions and unbalanced growth', `income inequality', etc.. Every chapter includes new approach or new findings and will be invaluable to developments in this emerging area of research.
The world is a better place than it used to be. People are healthier, wealthier, and live longer. Yet the escapes from destitution by so many has left gaping inequalities between people and nations. In The Great Escape, Angus Deaton--one of the foremost experts on economic development and on poverty--tells the remarkable story of how, beginning 250 years ago, some parts of the world experienced sustained progress, opening up gaps and setting the stage for today's disproportionately unequal world. Deaton takes an in-depth look at the historical and ongoing patterns behind the health and wealth of nations, and addresses what needs to be done to help those left behind. Deaton describes vast innovations and wrenching setbacks: the successes of antibiotics, pest control, vaccinations, and clean water on the one hand, and disastrous famines and the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the other. He examines the United States, a nation that has prospered but is today experiencing slower growth and increasing inequality. He also considers how economic growth in India and China has improved the lives of more than a billion people. Deaton argues that international aid has been ineffective and even harmful. He suggests alternative efforts--including reforming incentives to drug companies and lifting trade restrictions--that will allow the developing world to bring about its own Great Escape. Demonstrating how changes in health and living standards have transformed our lives, The Great Escape is a powerful guide to addressing the well-being of all nations.
Lectures in Macroeconomics: A Capitalist Economy Without Unemployment provides a systematic account of the principle of aggregate demand based on the work of Polish economist Michal Kalecki, best known as one of the originators of the Keynesian Revolution in macroeconomics.The lectures demonstrate the importance of aggregate demand in determining total output and employment in the capitalist economy. They show how the investment decisions of firms affect economic growth, arguing that due to the unstable nature of investment it is important that the government has a central role in stabilizing the economy. This English translation of Kazimierz Laski's final work brings up to date fundamental concepts to give a picture of the twenty-first capitalist economy, and the obstacles that must be overcome in bringing it to full employment. It introduces the role of money and finance in the contemporary capitalist economy, as well as the central role of the labour market and wages. The analysis is illustrated with statistics and discussion around the evolution of capitalist economies and the rise of economic inequality since the Second World War, culminating in the 2008 crisis and the economic deflation affecting Europe since that crisis. Lectures in Macroeconomics remarks critically upon the neo-classical approach to economics that has brought about slow economic growth, unemployment, and inequality.
Discover the latest thinking of today's economists on important macroeconomic phenomena while developing a solid global understanding of macroeconomic principles with Melvin/Boyes's PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS, 9E, International Edition. This book clearly illustrates the connections between key macroeconomic principles and today's actual business practices using a reader-friendly approach, memorable examples, and unique global emphasis. The latest macroeconomic statistics and developments as well as new coverage of recent events, such as the financial crisis and its global implications, ensure readers are familiar with contemporary applications of concepts. Proven learning tools and accompanying technology help clarify the macroeconomics concepts and applications that are most important for today's career and business success.
This historically-based textbook on international finance and open-economy macroeconomics provides a complete course on the theory and policies that shaped our international financial system. Utilizing the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference as a unifying theme, the book covers all the standard topics of international finance, such as foreign exchange markets, balance of payments accounting, macroeconomic policy in an open economy, exchange rate crises, multinational enterprises, international banking, and the evolution of our international financial system. The detailed international financial theory is presented in a lively manner that reflects the close relationship between actual world events and the development of economic thought.The book also analyzes the causes of the 2008 international financial crisis and recession, encourages critical thinking about whether the current international financial system promotes human well-being, and concludes with a discussion on whether it is time to summon the world's financial leaders to another Bretton Woods Conference. In additional to providing students with a solid understanding of international finance and open-economy macroeconomics, the book is written in a reader-friendly style that makes it a good reference for anyone interested in the many fascinating issues related to our still-evolving global financial system and, more generally, our global economy.
What jobs will Americans hold in the global economy of the twenty-first century and how will they develop the skills they need to compete for these positions? Over the past two decades the emergence and tremendous growth of the Internet has enabled more than a billion new individuals to participate in the global labor force, led to the automation and integration of numerous jobs, and provided a new platform for distance learning. Accompanying the explosion in connectivity, we have seen a shift in the focus of skill debates from a concern about loss of U.S. firm competitiveness to a loss of workforce competitiveness.
Today the concerns extend to the offshoring of knowledge work in addition to factory labor; even high-end research and development and professional work is moving rapidly to China, India and other high-skill, low-wage nations. Transforming the U.S. Workforce Development System brings together some of the leading scholars and practitioners working in the skills field to examine what research tells us about the current state of the U.S. skills system in comparative perspective and the major changes that are required to help better prepare U.S. workers for the challenges of competing in the decades ahead. Particular emphasis is placed on labor-management efforts at enhancing skill development.
This introductory textbook for business statistics teaches statistical analysis and research methods via business case studies and financial data using Excel, Minitab, and SAS. Every chapter in this textbook engages the reader with data of individual stock, stock indices, options, and futures. One studies and uses statistics to learn how to study, analyze, and understand a data set of particular interest. Some of the more popular statistical programs that have been developed to use statistical and computational methods to analyze data sets are SAS, SPSS, and Minitab. Of those, we look at Minitab and SAS in this textbook. One of the main reasons to use Minitab is that it is the easiest to use among the popular statistical programs. We look at SAS because it is the leading statistical package used in industry. We also utilize the much less costly and ubiquitous Microsoft Excel to do statistical analysis, as the benefits of Excel have become widely recognized in the academic world and its analytical capabilities extend to about 90 percent of statistical analysis done in the business world. We demonstrate much of our statistical analysis using Excel and double check the analysis and outcomes using Minitab and SAS-also helpful in some analytical methods not possible or practical to do in Excel.
This book presents research that applies contemporary monetary theory and state-of-the-art econometric methods to the analysis of the monetary and financial aspects of the Indian economy and the impact of monetary policy on economic performance. Indian monetary policy has attracted significant attention from Indian and international macroeconomists over the last several years. Interest in how monetary policy influences economic performance and how monetary policy is conducted in India is growing. The prospects for further financial sector reform and ongoing inflation in India have sparked new interest in the role of money and monetary policy in India among economists, policy makers and students alike. The book should also interest economists outside India because it studies monetary economics in a major emerging market economy and makes advances in the analysis of how financial market imperfections and structural constraints influence the effects of monetary policy.
This book presents a comprehensive evaluation of the likely economic impact upon the UK economy arising from Brexit. It seeks to assess both the methods adopted, and conclusions reached, by the existing economic studies, and supplements this by providing additional evidence to assist the reader in forming their own assessment of the relative merits of the different approaches. It additionally outlines the options available to policy makers for the formation of an economic strategy capable of adapting the economy to the challenges and opportunities presented by Brexit. Finally, it outlines and comments upon the range of alternative models of future trading relationships that are available to the UK, both in relation to the EU and the rest of the world.
In the era of globalization and liberalization, the world is enjoying high growth as well as suffering from the ill-effects of unequal distribution of its economic outcomes. The activities of anti-government demonstrations in China and across the world via the Occupy Wall Street Movement highlight that inequality has become an international phenomenon. It is apparent in both poor countries under authoritarianism and rich countries governed by a democratic regime. Thus, inequality has become not only a hurdle to development but also a threat to social and political stability. The spread of the Jasmine Revolution across parts of North Africa and the Arab Spring are illustrative of what can happen under certain circumstances.This book confirms the inconsistencies between high growth and increasing inequality via a series of case studies across 11 countries, numerous regions, and OECD members. Many of the case studies draw upon original household surveys. Our findings indicate the seriousness of income inequality, explore factors that have caused the inequality and analyze their economic and social consequences.The book raises, and deals with, three key questions: (1) Can high growth reduce inequality gradually? (2) Can government intervention be effective in equalizing income distribution? (3) Is the income disparity an engine for, or an obstacle of, high growth?
Triggered by the US subprime mortgage crisis in 2007, the Financial Tsunami is the most serious global financial crisis since the Great Depression. This book studies financial stability in terms of its determining factors, causal mechanisms and institutional requirements. It aims at understanding how to construct a mechanism for maintaining long-term financial stability.The book focuses on economic analysis of the understanding what China can and should do to safeguard its economic and financial stability. In its assessment and discussion of financial stability in China, this book takes full account of China's specific conditions and constructs an index system for the country. It also reflects on the country's monetary policy, government functions and behavior, fluctuations in real estate prices, and financial security network design.The book contributes to better understanding of financial stability in transition economies. It proposes a systematic solution to financial instability in China and strategies for building a mechanism to maintain financial stability in the country.
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