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REDD+ (Reducing Emissions of greenhouse gases from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) is an important tool under the UNFCCC for incentivizing developing countries to adopt and scale up climate mitigation actions in the forest sector and for capturing and channeling the financial resources to do so. This Handbook eloquently examines the methodological guidance and emerging governance arrangements for REDD+, analysing how and to what extent it is embedded in the international legal framework. Organized coherently into five parts, contributions from legal experts, international relations scholars, climate change negotiators and activists explore the history and design of REDD+ in the UN climate regime, as well as linkages between REDD+ and other international agreements. The book also considers global governance for REDD+, its financial dimensions including markets and investment and future developments and legal challenges. Detailed analysis from a range of angles illustrates the interplay of international norms and institutions and maps out a legal research agenda for identifying best practice solutions. Shedding light on one of the most vibrant and fast-moving fields in international law, this comprehensive Handbook is essential reading for scholars of international law and international relations, policy makers in the area of climate change, REDD+ and land sector experts and NGOs.
The crucial importance of biodiversity law to future human welfare is only now being fully appreciated. This wide-ranging Handbook presents a range of perspectives from leading international experts reflecting up-to-date research thinking on the vital subject of biodiversity and its interaction with law. Through a rigorous examination of the principles, procedures and practices that characterise this area of law, this timely volume effectively highlights its objectives, implementation, achievements, and prospects. More specifically, the work addresses the regulatory challenges posed by the principal contemporary threats to biological diversity, the applicable general principles of international environmental law and the visions, values and voices that are shaping the development of the law. Presenting thematic rather than regime-based coverage, the editors demonstrate the state-of-the-art of current research and identify future research needs and directions. This comprehensive and authoritative Handbook will be an indispensable resource for legal scholars, students and practitioners alike.
Constitutional review has become an essential feature of modern liberal democratic constitutionalism. In particular, constitutional review in the context of rights litigation has proved to be most challenging for the courts. By offering in-depth analyses on changes affecting constitutional design and constitutional adjudication, while also engaging with general theories of comparative constitutionalism, this book seeks to provide a heightened understanding of the constitutional and political responses to the issue of adaptability and endurance of rights-based constitutional review. These original contributions, written by an array of distinguished experts and illustrated by the most up-to-date case law, cover Australia, Belgium, Finland, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States, and include constitutional systems that are not commonly studied in comparative constitutional studies. Providing structured analyses, the editors combine studies of common law and civil law jurisdictions, centralized and decentralized systems of constitutional review, and large and small jurisdictions. This multi-jurisdictional study will appeal to members of the judiciary, policymakers and practitioners looking for valuable insights into the case law of a range of constitutional and supreme courts in this rapidly expanding field of constitutional adjudication. It also serves as an excellent resource for academics, scholars and advanced students in the fields of law, human rights and political science.
The intended readers of this book are biotechnologists working in the laboratory making discoveries that may form the basis of new technology. The aim of the book is to present the bare essentials of what the biotechnologist in R&D needs to know to navigate intelligently in the landscape of intellectual property rights (IPR) and nothing more. Focus is on practical skills: how to search for patents and applications, follow application through the patenting system in Europe and the USA; and how to read and analyze patents, which hopefully will lead to writing better patent applications.
Child Offenders in South African Criminal Justice: Concepts and Process explains the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 for the various sectors involved in the administration of child justice in South Africa. The book presents the aims and objectives of the Act and then explains the difference between adversarial and inquisitorial criminal procedure, which is relevant to preliminary inquiries. The authors examine the role played in the child justice process by members of the South Africa Police Service, the National Prosecuting Authority, probation officers, the court of preliminary inquiry, the child justice court and correctional services. Child offenders in South African Criminal Justice: Concepts and Process contains a CD with useful diagrams detailing various child justice processes and flow charts of the various stages of the proceedings. The Forms from the Regulations to the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 and National Instruction 2 of 2010 are provided for the reader as appendixes to the book.
Significant growth in economic activity in the Arctic has added weight to the argument that projects must be developed responsibly and sustainably. Addressing growing concerns regarding the exploitation of the Arctic's natural resources, this timely book presents and evaluates examples of best practice in Arctic environmental impact assessment. Timo Koivurova and Pamela Lesser succinctly synthesise primary data gathered from interviews with local communities, indigenous peoples, NGOs, government officials and businesses in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Greenland, Iceland, Canada, Russia and the USA. Considering all stakeholder perspectives, they present the regulatory processes of all eight Arctic countries, and also provide helpful flowcharts that depict the process graphically for each country. Measuring these practices against the 1997 Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic, the only Arctic environmental impact assessment guidance document that has been officially approved by the ministers of all eight Arctic countries, this book identifies key areas where adherence to best practice is high, such as stakeholder outreach and development, as well as those areas that fall short. Thorough and accessible, Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic will provide an excellent reference for academics in the fields of law and environmental studies as well as for government officials and stakeholders who stand to benefit from best practice.
The responsiveness to societal demands is both the key virtue and the key problem of modern democracies. On the one hand, responsiveness is a central cornerstone of democratic legitimacy. On the other hand, responsiveness inevitably entails policy accumulation. While policy accumulation often positively reflects modernisation and human progress, it also undermines democratic government in three main ways. First, policy accumulation renders policy content increasingly complex, which crowds out policy substance from public debates and leads to an increasingly unhealthy discursive prioritisation of politics over policy. Secondly, policy accumulation comes with aggravating implementation deficits, as it produces administrative backlogs and incentivises selective implementation. Finally, policy accumulation undermines the pursuit of evidence-based public policy, because it threatens our ability to evaluate the increasingly complex interactions within growing policy mixes. The authors argue that the stability of democratic systems will crucially depend on their ability to make policy accumulation more sustainable.
The first in a series of Companions that offer broad coverage of a range of international courts and tribunals, The Elgar Companion to the International Court of Justice is a one-stop reference for those wishing to understand this highly significant and successful Court. The Companion offers an objective account of how the ICJ came into being, the general principles on which it was founded, and how it functions today. It addresses certain fundamental aspects of the Court, such as its jurisdiction, structure and jurisprudence, as well as its role in the wider world. The Companion gives a human flavour to the institution through the portraits of some of the great figures that have served as its judges. Written in a lucid and clear manner, the Companion will appeal to all those interested in learning more about the work of the principal judicial body of the United Nations.
EU criminal law is one of the fastest evolving, but also challenging, policy areas and fields of law. This Handbook provides a comprehensive and advanced analysis of EU criminal law as a structurally and constitutionally unique policy area and field of research. With contributions from leading experts, focusing on their respective fields of research, the book is preoccupied with defining cross-border or `Euro-crimes', while allowing Member States to sanction criminal behaviour through mutual cooperation. It contains a web of institutions, agencies and external liaisons, which ensure the protection of EU citizens from serious crime, while protecting the fundamental rights of suspects and criminals. Students and scholars of EU criminal law will benefit from the comprehensive research present in this Handbook. National and EU policy-makers, as well as judges, defence lawyers and human rights lawyers will find the analysis of current legal action, combined with proposed solutions, useful to their work
It has often been said that information is power. This is more true in the information age than ever. The book profiles the tools used by criminal law to protect confidential information. It deals with the essence of information, the varieties of confidential information, and the basic models for its protection within the context of the Internet and social networks. Eli Lederman examines the key prohibitions against collecting protected information, and against using, disclosing, and disseminating it without authorization. The investigation cuts across a broad subject matter to discuss and analyze key topics such as trespassing and peeping, the human body as a source of information, computer trespassing, tracking and collecting personal information in the public space, surveillance, privileged communications, espionage and state secrets, trade secrets, personal information held by others, and profiling and sexting. Infocrime will appeal to graduate and undergraduate scholars and academics in the legal arena, in law schools and schools of communication, and to practicing lawyers with an interest in legal theory and a concern for the protection of the personal realm in a world of increasingly invasive technologies.
The shifting nature of employment practice towards the use of more precarious work forms has caused a crisis in classical labour law and engendered a new wave of regulation. This timely book deftly uses this crisis as an opportunity to explore the notion of precariousness or vulnerability in employment relationships. Arguing that the idea of vulnerability has been under-theorised in the labour law literature, Lisa Rodgers illustrates how this extends to the design of regulation for precarious work. The book's logical structure situates vulnerability in its developmental context before moving on to examine the goals of the regulation of labour law for vulnerability, its current status in the law and case studies of vulnerability such as temporary agency work and domestic work. These threads are astutely drawn together to show the need for a shift in focus towards workers as `vulnerable subjects' in all their complexity in order to better inform labour law policy and practice more generally. Constructively critical, Labour Law, Vulnerability and the Regulation of Precarious Work will prove invaluable to students and scholars of labour and employment law at local, EU and international levels. With its challenge to orthodox thinking and proposals for the improvement of the regulation of labour law, labour law institutions will also find this book of great interest and value.
Thoroughly revised and updated, this third edition of EU Private International Law incorporates many developments in legislation and case-law since the publication of the second edition in 2010. Building on the book's reputation for comprehensive coverage and attention to detail, Peter Stone provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to the subject. The book provides full analysis of the revised version of the Brussels I Regulation (in the form of Regulation 1215/2012), and gives attention to the proposed regulation on matrimonial property and the proposed revision of the regulation on insolvency proceedings. It considers issues relating to the harmonization of conflict of laws at the European Union level, and offers a critical assessment of developments across the main areas of concern. With the considerable advancement in this area of law since the first and second editions, academics, students and practitioners interested in international litigation in matters governed by private law will find the up-to-date coverage offered by this new edition of EU legislative measures in the sphere of private international law to be essential reading.
As a `Specialized Agency' of the UN, the World Intellectual Property Organization aims to be the premier global forum for intellectual property services, policy, information and cooperation. Whilst many individuals, firms, institutions and governments know and use WIPO services, the ways in which it functions, how priorities are set and decisions made are less well-understood. Indeed, a diversity of WIPO's stakeholders and member governments express frustration that WIPO's governance is not only complex but at times opaque. This practical guide offers a unique insight into how WIPO is governed, described in clear, readily accessible terms for policymakers, scholars and stakeholders. The guide reviews the origins of WIPO and sets out its current functions and activities, presenting a framework for analysing WIPO's complex governance system. The core of the text will improve the reader's understanding of WIPO in five thematic areas: * Legal foundations, mandate and purpose * Decision-making structures, processes and practices * Financial arrangements (such as income sources and the budget process) * Mechanisms for accountability and control of the Secretariat (such as policies on oversight, audit and evaluation) * Transparency and external relations. The text is accompanied by a number of valuable appendices, including key documents that have, to date, not been readily available to the public. Written by a leading WIPO commentator, The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): A Reference Guide is the first comprehensive reference book to illuminate the nuts and bolts of WIPO governance. It will prove an invaluable and handy resource for those who interact with WIPO on any level, as well as to researchers seeking an introduction to how the organisation works.
How has the EU's economic crisis affected the development of economic law in the Union? This book contributes to the debate by examining EU economic law from a contextual and policy-oriented perspective. The expert authors explore areas such as the EMU and the internal market, and emphasize the important fields of public procurement, taxation, and intellectual property rights. The investigation proceeds along themes such as harmonization, institutional interplay, non-economic values, and international actions. The authors conclude that, during the crisis, the attention of the Barroso Commission focused quite narrowly on the most urgent problems, failing to consider longer-term issues to spark off bold policy endeavours, and break inter-institutional blockages. This book is targeted at scholars, policy-makers and other practitioners, as well as students, interested in EU economic law, integration, and the economic crisis.
This Handbook explores the main themes and topics of the emerging field of Global Administrative Law with contributions by leading scholars and experts from universities and organizations around the world. The variety of the subjects addressed and the internationality of the Handbook's perspectives make for a truly global and multi-dimensional view of the field. The book first examines the growth of global administrations, their interactions within global networks, the emergence of a global administrative process, and the development of the rule of law and democratic principles at a global level. It goes on to illustrate the relationship between global law and other legal orders, with particular attention to regional systems and national orders. The final section, devoted to the emergence of a global legal culture, brings the book full circle by identifying the growth of a global epistemic community. The Research Handbook on Global Administrative Law provides a contemporary overview of the nascent field in detailed yet accessible terms, making it a valuable book for university courses. Academics and scholars with an interest in international law, administrative law, public law, and comparative law will find value in this book, as well as legal professionals involved with international and supranational organizations and national civil servants dealing with supranational organizations.
In an increasingly globalised world, place and provenance matter like never before. The law relating to Geographical Indications (GIs) regulates designations which signal this provenance. While Champagne, Prosciutto di Parma, Cafe de Colombia and Darjeeling are familiar designations, the relevant legal regimes have existed at the margins for over a century. In recent years, a critical mass of scholarship has emerged and this book celebrates its coming of age. Its objective is to facilitate an interdisciplinary conversation, by providing sure-footed guidance across contested terrain as well as enabling future avenues of enquiry to emerge. The distinctive feature of this volume is that it reflects a multi-disciplinary conversation between legal scholars, policy makers, legal practitioners, historians, geographers, sociologists, economists and anthropologists. Experienced contributors from across these domains have thematically explored: (1) the history and conceptual underpinnings of the GI as a legal category; (2) the effectiveness of international protection regimes; (3) the practical operation of domestic protection systems; and (4) long-unresolved as well as emerging critical issues. Specific topics include a detailed interrogation of the history and functions of terroir; the present state as well as future potential of international GI protection, including the Lisbon Agreement, 2015; conflicts between trade marks and GIs; the potential for GIs to contribute to rural or territorial development as well as sustain traditional or Indigenous knowledge; and the vexed question of generic use. This book is therefore intended for all those with an interest in GIs across a range of disciplinary backgrounds. Students, scholars, policy makers and practitioners will find this Handbook to be an invaluable resource.
As the volume of transactions in European financial markets continues to grow, the use of financial collateral, be it in the form of cash, shares, bonds or credit claims, has become a critical tool in supporting and managing risk in financial transactions. This book is the first of its kind to offer a systematic examination of the whole law relating to financial collateral. It does so in two parts. First, it explains the law created by the Financial Collateral Arrangements (No 2) Regulations 2003, the Directive it implemented and related legislation. Second, it examines how financial collateral is used in practice in a range of different markets. It will be an essential reference point for all legal practitioners operating in financial markets. Key features: * Analytical rigour combined with insight into how financial collateral works in practice, covering both English and Scots law * Valuable discussion of control and possession tests, right of use, remedy of appropriation, close-out netting and impact of `bail-in' * Explains use of financial collateral in the derivatives market, clearing houses, direct and indirect securities holding systems and use of repos, securities lending and prime brokerage * Highlights key issues on regulatory treatment and conflicts of laws * Discusses direction of future law reform * Written by leading experts in the field.
The rapid growth of shale gas development has led to an intense and polarizing debate about its merit. This book asks and suggests answers to the question that has not yet been systematically analysed: what laws and policies are needed to ensure that shale gas development helps to accelerate the transition to sustainability? In this groundbreaking book, more than a dozen experts in policy and academia assess the role that sustainability plays in decisions concerning shale gas development in the US and elsewhere, offering legal and policy recommendations for developing shale gas in a manner that accelerates the transition to sustainability. Contributors assess good practices from Pennsylvania to around the planet, discussing how these lessons translate to other jurisdictions. Ultimately, the book concludes that major changes in law and policy are needed to develop shale gas sustainably. Policymakers and educators alike will find this book to be a valuable resource, as it tackles the technical, social, economic and legal aspects associated with this sustainability issue. Other strengths are its clear language and middle-ground policy perspective that will make Shale Gas and the Future of Energy accessible to both students and the general public.
A frank and witty memoir of life at the Bar and on the Bench, from former High Court Judge The Hon. Sir Harry Ognall. For many years, Harry Ognall enjoyed a formidable reputation as an advocate at the criminal Bar. As counsel, and later as judge, he was involved in numerous high-profile trials, both in Britain and abroad. Among many cases as a QC, he prosecuted Peter Sutcliffe, the so-called `Yorkshire Ripper'. He successfully defended six officers of the Air Force of Zimbabwe at their trial in Harare, where they faced a charge of treasonable sabotage. As a judge, he presided over the trial of Colin Stagg (the alleged `Wimbledon Common murderer'), the trial arising from the Lyme Bay canoe tragedy and the trial for the first time in the United Kingdom of a doctor's alleged involvement in euthanasia. Thoughtful and provocative, Sir Harry has advice for the aspiring young advocate, and invests this penetrating memoir with warmth, humour and understanding. His frank portrait of a lifetime in the criminal law offers unique perspectives on some of the most notorious cases of the twentieth century, as well as fascinating insights into a colourful professional life and the burdens and responsibilities that come with the privilege of high judicial office.
The Law and Practice of Trademark Transactions is a comprehensive analysis of the law governing trademark transactions in a variety of legal and business contexts, and from a range of jurisdictional and cross-border perspectives. After mapping out the internThe Law and Practice of Trademark Transactions is a comprehensive analysis of the law governing trademark transactions in a variety of legal and business contexts, and from a range of jurisdictional and cross-border perspectives. After mapping out the international legal framework applicable to trademark transactions, the book provides an analysis of important strategic considerations, including: tax strategies; valuation; portfolio splitting; registration of security interests; choice-of-law clauses; trademark coexistence agreements, and dispute resolution mechanisms.ational legal framework applicable to trademark transactions, the book provides an analysis of important strategic considerations, including: tax strategies; valuation; portfolio splitting; registration of security interests; choice-of-law clauses; trademark coexistence agreements, and dispute resolution mechanisms. Key features include: * A comprehensive overview of legal and policy-related issues * A blend of approaches underpinning strategic considerations with analytical rigour * Regional coverage of the key characteristics of trademark transactions in a range of jurisdictions * Authorship from renowned trademark experts Practitioners advising trademark owners, including trademark attorneys, will find this book to be an invaluable resource for their practice, particularly where cross-border issues arise. It will also be a key reference point for scholars working in the field.
In this clear and observant book, Kenneth Button provides an overview of the economics and political economy of transport security, considering its policy from an economic perspective. His analysis applies micro-economic theory to transport issues, supporting and enhancing the larger framework of our knowledge about personal, industrial, and national security. Button's focus on the economic aspects of transportation security strives to move beyond established technical and legal approaches, working within both the narrower microeconomics of individual and corporate efficiency and the larger trends in economic policy-making. By fitting current security trends into economic analysis, he discusses not only contemporary developments, but also their economic implications and approaches for assessing alternative strategies. This examination of applied economics is a must-read for those looking to gain a broader view of transport security issues. It is a critical resource for those in the security industries as well as those involved in education about transport, security matters, and applied microeconomics.
The motivation for this particular law of obligations is the notion that the core assumptions of the dogmatic structure of each field, and of the law of obligations as a whole, can be expected to begin to show their imperfections more clearly the further one moves from the centre, and that this kind of examination affords an opportunity to reassess both the current premises in each field as well as the overall structure of obligations.
Intellectual property (IP) law has been widely discussed in recent scholarship, though many recent works explore the topic from a largely descriptive perspective. This book provides an analytical and comparative study of Chinese and European IP law, as well as an analysis of system reforms in China. The book highlights, in three parts, intellectual property for innovation and creativity in China, comparing concepts and norms in Chinese and European IP law, and governance of practices and IP enforcement. Demonstrating that the governance of IP rights requires the adoption of a set of norms, the contributors also argue that success is dependent on a transformation of the perspectives and implementation. Students and scholars of IP law, and Chinese IP law in particular, will find this book to be a valuable resource to their work. It will also be of interest to IP practitioners looking for an insight into system reforms in China.
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