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As our understanding of genetics increases, its application to criminal justice becomes more significant. This timely book examines the use of genetic information both in criminal investigations and during the trial process. It discusses current scientific understanding and considers some potential legal, ethical and sociological issues with the use of genetic information. The author draws together debates from scientists, ethicists, sociologists and lawyers in order to understand how the criminal justice system currently reacts, and ought to react, to the new challenges presented by genetic evidence. She asks the important question of where priorities should lie: whether with society's desire to be protected from crime, or with an individual's desire to be protected from an unwanted intrusion into his or her genome. Topics include rights of privacy and consent in obtaining DNA samples, evidentiary issues in court, the impact of genetic evidence on punishment theory and sentencing, and genetic discrimination. This book will be of use to criminal and medical law students, along with academics, practitioners and policymakers interested in exploring the various criminal law issues in relation to genetics. It will also be of interest to criminal justice, philosophy, ethics, sociology and psychology students and academics looking explore the legal issues involved in such a topic.
Carbon Pricing reflects upon and further develops the ongoing and worthwhile global debate into how to design carbon pricing, as well as how to utilize the financial proceeds in the best possible way for society. The world has recently witnessed a significant downward adjustment in fossil fuel prices, which has negative implications for the future of our environment. In light of these negative developments, it is important to understand the benefits of environmental sustainability through well-documented research. This discerning book considers the design of carbon taxes and examines the consequential outcomes of different taxation compositions as regulatory instruments. Expert contributors assess a variety of national experiences to provide an empirical insight into the use of carbon taxes, emissions trading, energy taxes and excise taxes. The overarching discussion concludes that successful policies used by some countries can be implemented in other jurisdictions with minimum new research and experimentation. This astute work will benefit scholars, practitioners and policymakers alike with an interest in the fields of environmental law, environmental economics, sustainable development and taxation law.
Trade secret protection has long been of critical strategic importance to business interests and globalization of commerce has driven an increasing need to govern the preservation of confidentiality in international business transactions. This book offers an authoritative and unparalleled resource on US and international trade secret law and identifies optimal practices for securing trade secrets in varying jurisdictions. Defined as the international standard for trade secret protection, the United States' trade secret laws are explained in depth, illustrating their capacity and impediments. The proposed EU Trade Secret Directive and the impact this will have on international transactions is also closely examined, along with overviews of the laws in common law, civil law and mixed-law countries. The book combines detailed substantive analysis with clear practical guidance on questions such as how businesses can avoid misappropriation and maintain data exclusivity when engaging in global commerce, through the utilization of alternative self-help strategies. Key features: * Presents a roadmap for understanding trade secrets, including requirements for, defences to, and remedies. * Covers both business-to-business and employment relationships. * Authoritative commentary on US and EU trade secrecy laws in addition to coverage of the UK, India, China, Mexico, Brazil, Canada and Japan. * Dependable analysis from two leading scholars in the field. * Practical advice on overcoming the challenges businesses face when engaging in international transactions, including strategies for avoiding misappropriation. * Clear guidance on enforcement mechanisms and litigation procedure. This well-organized reference work will benefit legal practitioners in the commercial field across many jurisdictions, particularly those advising on business transactions or implementing protection strategies for trade information. Policymakers will find the definition of trade secret law characteristics for multiple countries, alongside the consideration of the proposed EU Trade Secret Directive, pragmatic and informative.
While the partnership has been a viable alternative to incorporation for centuries, the much more recent limited liability company (LLC) has increasingly become the business organization of choice for new firms in the United States. This Handbook includes extensive discussion of alternatives to incorporation, including several chapters devoted to alternative entities in foreign jurisdictions. Distinguished contributors include academics, practitioners, and prominent jurists. This Handbook explores partnerships, LLCs, business trusts and related topics. Specially commissioned chapters by leading scholars in the field examine issues such as fiduciary duties, agency principles, contractual freedom, tax treatment, the special circumstances of law firms, and dissolution. While much of the emphasis is on US law, a number of chapters also include treatments of Japan, the UK, Russia, China, Taiwan, India and Brazil. This Handbook's expert analysis makes it a valuable resource for both scholars and practitioners of business law, as well as law students.
With effective solutions in both criminal and civil disputes at a premium, reformers have advanced varied forms of jury systems as a means of fostering positive political, economic, and social change. Many countries have recently integrated lay participation into their justice systems, and this book argues that the convergence of current forces makes this an ideal time for Japan to expand lay participation into its civil realm. This book offers a detailed examination of the historical underpinnings of citizen participation in Japan's justice system, and analysis of new reforms related to Japan's adoption of its saibanin seido or quasi-jury "lay judge system" for serious criminal trials in 2009. Its vivid and groundbreaking research includes an exploration of civil jury trials held in Okinawa after World War II, discussion of citizen participation and its potential impact on environmental civil lawsuits after the Fukushima nuclear disaster, and lessons about jury trials based on the experience of the United States and the recent proliferation of citizen involvement in the justice system around the world. This cutting-edge book project will fascinate legal scholars and students as well as practitioners, political activists, organizations, and policymakers who are interested in citizen participation in Japan and other countries around the world, as it addresses societal harms perpetrated by the government or other entities, judicial reforms, democratic movements, and global justice.
The leading text in the field, Introduction to Feminist Legal Theory was the first book that served as an introductory survey of feminist jurisprudence. Its historical view of feminist legal theory places issues in social context and thoroughly reviews the evolving paradigms of contemporary feminism from the 1970s through the present. The full range of legal issues affecting women are covered, including gender discrimination, rape, sexual harassment, motherhood, reproductive issues, and much more. Clear, energetic presentation keeps students engaged and involved with succinct overviews, intellectually stimulating material, and jargon-free prose.
The Third Edition features up-to-date theories and topics, such as the "autonomy" feminism and "masculinities" theory. Expansion of the current theory-based structure includes the "big three" feminisms described in the previous edition and the "new three" feminisms, which are expanded in the third edition. New applied areas are covered as well, such as transgender legal issues and sex trafficking. While the book remains U.S.-focused, important new material on global and comparative feminism has been added. Throughout the text, students will find discussion about changes in the law since 2003 on issues such as rape, pay equity, sex stereotyping, marriage equality, Title IX, and more.
Documents Annex: http://www.nyupress.org/justtradeannex/index.html It is generally assumed that pro-trade laws are not good for human rights, and legislation that protects human rights hampers vibrant international trade. In a bold departure from this canon, Just Trade makes a case for reaching a middleground between these two fields, acknowledging their coexistence and the significant points at which they overlap. Using actual examples from many of the thirty-five nations of the Western Hemisphere, the authors-one a human rights scholar and the other a trade law expert-carefully combine their knowledge to examine human rights policiesthroughout the world, never overlooking the very real human rights problems that arise from international trade. However, instead of viewing the two kinds of law as isolated, polar, and sometimes hostile opposites, Berta Esperanza Hernandez-Truyol and Stephen J. Powell make powerful suggestions for how these intersections may be navigated to promote an international marketplace that embraces both liberal trade andliberal protection of human rights.
This thoughtful book provides an overview of the major developments in the theory and practice of `environmental justice'. It illustrates the direction of the evolution of rights of nature and exposes the diverse meanings and practical uses of the concept of environmental justice in different jurisdictions, and their implications for the law, society and the environment. The term 'environmental justice' has different meanings to different scholars and is applied in many different contexts. For some, the focus is on equal distribution of the earth's benefits, with concern for the interests of the less wealthy, disadvantaged minorities, or indigenous peoples. For others, the focus is on the interests of the earth and nature itself. Additionally, for some, environmental justice is a framework for discourse, whilst for others it connotes specific legal principles and procedures. The application of these interpretations through the law involves diverse approaches and rules. In this timely book, expert contributors identify the meanings and the practical translations of environmental justice, reflecting the perspectives of academic, judicial and indigenous people from many countries. Among the issues considered are the rights of nature and its application through judicial practice, and approaches to respecting the laws, cultures and the rights of Indigenous peoples. This integrated exploration of the topic will provide an excellent resource for scholars, judicial officers and practitioners interested in environmental and social justice issues.
Much of the history of corporate law has concerned itself not with shareholder power, but rather with its absence. Recent shifts in capital market structure require a reassessment of the role and power of shareholders. These original, specially commissioned contributions by leading scholars in corporate law and financial economics provide a contemporary analysis of shareholder power and consider the regulatory consequences of changing ownership patterns around the world. The book begins with chapters on shareholder activism by institutional investors, hedge funds, and controlling shareholders. Further chapters explore the relationship between shareholders and the board of directors, shareholder activism around mergers and acquisitions, and turf battles during shareholder litigation. The final section offers a number of international perspectives on shareholder power in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Students and scholars of corporate law will value the Handbook's timely exploration of modern shareholder power as well as its fresh perspective and scope.
The predicament of uncontrolled growth in a finite world puts the global commons - such as oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere - at risk. So far, states have not found the means to protect what, essentially, is outside their jurisdiction. However, the jurisprudence of international law has matured to a point that makes global governance beyond state-negotiated compromises both possible and desirable. This book makes an ambitious, yet well-researched and convincing, case for trusteeship governance. Earth Governance shows how the United Nations, together with states, can draw from their own traditions to develop new, effective regimes of environmental trusteeship. Klaus Bosselmann argues that the integrity of the earth's ecological system depends on institutional reform, and that only an ethic of stewardship and trusteeship will create the institutions, laws and policies powerful enough to reclaim and protect the global commons. This comprehensive exploration of environmental governance will appeal to scholars and students of environmental law, and international law and relations, as well as to UN and government officials and policymakers.
What is the level of convergence between the international investment law framework and the international legal regime regulating intellectual property rights? This discerning book examines the interface between intellectual property and foreign direct investments. Taking a multi-disciplinary approach, the author scrutinizes the circumstances in which, and the extent to which, international investment law's traditional protective standards apply to intellectual property rights investments. After concluding that the TRIPS agreement has shortcomings in this respect, the author analyses intellectual property rights in the context of international investment law in light of traditional standards of protection including the protection against indirect expropriation, the National Treatment Principle, the Most-Favoured Nation clause, fair and equitable treatment, and the prohibition of performance requirements, while emphasizing the importance of transfers of technology within and to developing countries. These explorations contribute to the debates surrounding the fragmentation of international law arising from its expansion and diversification. Scholars, students and practitioners in the field of international investment law, as well as those interested in the protection of intellectual property rights at an international level, will find this book to be a useful and informative read.
Elgar Advanced Introductions are stimulating and thoughtful introductions to major fields in the social sciences and law, expertly written by the world's leading scholars. Designed to be accessible yet rigorous, they offer concise and lucid surveys of the substantive and policy issues associated with discrete subject areas. Inside cover: Elgar Advanced Introductions are stimulating and thoughtful introductions to major fields in the social sciences and law, expertly written by the world's leading scholars. This highly readable introduction gives a nuanced overview of the legal mechanisms behind the operation of international organizations such as the UN, the EU and the World Bank. It offers perceptive insights by placing the law of international organizations in a political context and presents a systematic discussion of a variety of relevant legal notions, ranging from the powers of international organizations to mechanisms of accountability. Written by a leading authority on the topic, it provides a concise and accessible examination of this developing facet of international law. Key features include: * Well-written and clearly organized arguments * Up-to-date with the latest developments * A focus on the bigger picture, rather than any one detail * Discusses law in a global context.
The presumption of innocence is widely accepted as a fundamental principle of criminal justice. In some countries (like South Africa and Canada) it has been elevated to a constitutionally guaranteed right, subject to a general limitations clause. The presumption of innocence is also found in international instruments and there is much laudatory rhetoric in support of this presumption. There is, however, very little consensus regarding the exact content and scope of the presumption of innocence. This lack of consensus creates considerable confusion concerning the practical application of the presumption. This book is an attempt to secure consensus, and to present some constructive solutions to the various theoretical and practical problems which exist in respect of the presumption of innocence.
EU climate law is one of the most dynamic and fastest growing areas of EU law. This exciting new textbook provides a comprehensive account of essential EU climate mitigation law. In addition, the contents cover a number of important and topical issues related to the EU's efforts to tackle climate change. Written by some of the key thinkers on EU climate law from the University of Groningen, each chapter addresses the relevant directives and regulations as well as their implementation issues, explaining how this affects current policy and academic debate. The chapters therefore not only describe but also critically reflect upon EU climate law. Key features include: * Comprehensive introduction to EU climate mitigation law * Discussion of the climate targets and instruments of the EU * Review of the relevant climate-related directives and regulations * Analysis of their implementation problems * Relationship between climate law and broader issues including energy law * Educational design based on reviews by climate law students The combination of educational design and analytical accuracy makes the textbook suitable for both students and professionals. This introduction is highly recommended for courses on EU climate mitigation law, also in the context of broader curricula on climate law, energy law and EU law in general.
This volume seeks to give voice to communities in rural and urban South Africa in their late-1990s struggle to reclaim their land. The text makes use of communities' and individuals' own speech and song.
Legal Reasoning, Research, and Writing for International Graduate Students helps readers understand and approach legal research and writing assignments the way attorneys do in the United States. Since most students will have studied civil law and some comparative law, but are unfamiliar with
This authoritative Research Handbook presents, for the first time, a comprehensive overview of the salient content and major developments in environmental law in transitional China. Through this rigorous examination, it gives a unique insight into the implementation problems and reform needs of environmental governance in China. This timely book explores the core concepts, basic mechanisms and key challenges of Chinese environmental law, extending the frontier of understanding in this fundamental area. Combining theory and practice, the expert contributors provide an introduction to and comments on relevant environmental laws and regulations and their latest developments. The Research Handbook builds upon previous knowledge of Chinese environmental law, divulging concerns on redressing environmental protection issues in the context of economic growth and sustainable development. Readers will gain a discerning insight into the nuances of environmental regulation in China from this extensive review. This necessary exploration of Chinese environmental law will be an indispensible reference point for academics and advanced students of environmental studies in general, and environmental law in particular. Practitioners will find the work both informative and important.
The explosion in intellectual capital coincides with a growing understanding of the importance of human capital to the firm. Managing the Legal Nexus Between Intellectual Property and Employees: Domestic and Global Contexts highlights some of the most critical contemporary issues occurring at the intersection of intellectual property law, employment law, and global trade. In addition to the legal dimensions, the book tackles issues of strategy and decision-making for businesses. The contributors discuss the use of employment contracts to protect intellectual property, ownership of intellectual property created by employees, officer liability issues relating to infringement, post-employment confidentiality and non-compete agreements, and inadvertent or deliberate misappropriation of trade secrets. The discussion of key topics in intellectual property law in the US and abroad makes this a valuable resource for both academics and practitioners worldwide. Business managers, government employees, and intellectual property owners will appreciate its timely and cutting-edge analysis.
Bringing together leading international scholars in the field, this authoritative Handbook combines critical and doctrinal scholarship to illuminate some of the challenging tensions in the legal relationships between humans and the environment, and human rights and environment law. The accomplished contributors provide researchers and students with a rich source of reflection and engagement with the topic. Split into five parts, the book covers epistemologies, core values and closures, constitutionalisms, universalisms and regionalisms, with a final concluding section exploring major challenges and alternative futures. An essential resource for students and scholars of human rights law, the volume will also be of significant interest to those in the fields of environmental and constitutional law.
The patent has emerged as a dominant force in 21st century economic policy. This book examines the impact of the BRICS and other emerging economies on the global patent framework and charts the phenomenal rise in the number of patents in some of these countries. Guided by three of the world's leading thinkers on patent law and development, a group of experts from around the world, including the BRICS and key developed country patent powers, examine critical issues raised by patent globalization. Is increasing use of the patent system in China, India, Brazil and other emerging markets part of a deeper change in world technological leadership? Do the established patent powers of Europe, Japan and the USA continue to lead regulatory development of patent systems or are new models being formed in emerging markets? What are the effects of patent globalization on regions like the Middle East, Africa and lower income areas of Asia? Through the answers to these questions, the reader is furnished with a rounded understanding of 21st century patent globalization and emerging market dynamics. This book will appeal to patent law specialists, as well as scholars interested in the intersection between patents, innovation and economic development. In particular, the in-depth analysis would also be useful for policy analysts within government or research institutes working on patent policy issues.
Highly valued by its citizens, the European social model is a defining feature of Europe and the European Union yet is under threat from the effects of both globalisation and the aftermath of the financial crisis. The Sustainability of the European Social Model addresses this issue in light of the current crisis that changed the landscape. It examines how social Europe responds to uncertainties that affect its development from a range of different disciplinary perspectives. The book begins by analysing interactions between EU law and national policies from a comparative perspective, highlighting the legal, social and institutional complexities that constrain the development of `social Europe' It assesses the sustainablibity of EU law and policies in the areas of pensions and employment policy and then focuses on two crucial areas of EU social policy: the regulations on working time and the provisions of social services of general interest. The expert contributors compare the experiences of a range of Member States (and also bring in external comparison) to explore topics such as ageing, job quality, social protection and employment policies, social dialogue and the relationship between the various methods of European policymaking such as the 'community method' and the Open Method of Co-ordination. The analyses show that sustainability of the European social model will depend heavily on addressing failings in European governance. Insightful and comprehensive, this book is a detailed and timely resource for academic researchers. Its practical, policy-oriented insights into important issues in social and employment policy, as well as into European policymaking itself, will also be of great interest to practitioners and policymakers.
Estate and Trust Administration For Dummies, 2nd Edition (9781119543879) was previously published as Estate and Trust Administration For Dummies, 2nd Edition (9781118412251). While this version features a new Dummies cover and design, the content is the same as the prior release and should not be considered a new or updated product. Your plain-English guide to administering an estate and/or trust As more and more of the population reach senior ages--including baby boomers, many of whom do not have wills--an increasing number of people are being thrust into the role of executor, administrator, personal representative of an estate, or trustee of a trust after the death of a loved one. This updated edition of Estate & Trust Administration For Dummies guides you through the confusing process of administering an estate and/or trust. Settling an estate and administering a trust can be complicated, messy, and time-consuming for individuals named as executor or trustee, most of whom have no previous experience with such matters. Estate & Trust Administration For Dummies shows you how to make sound decisions for your unique circumstances. Guides you through the confusing process of administering an estate and/or trust Provides expert advice on unfamiliar estate and trust tax law Gives you a practical checklist to follow for all of your estate and trust administration questions and concerns Whether you're looking for guidance on how to navigate the probate process and estate taxes, settle debts and bequests, fund a trust, comply with tax regulations, or anything in between, this hands-on, friendly guide takes away the mystery and provides detailed answers to all of your estate and trust administration questions.
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