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Metamaterials have established themselves as one of the most important topics in physics and engineering, and have found practical application across a wide variety of fields including photonics, condensed matter physics, materials science, and biological and medical physics. This modern and self-contained text delivers a pedagogical treatment of the topic, rooted within the fundamental principles of nanophotonics. A detailed and unified description of metamaterials and metasurfaces is developed, beginning with photonic crystals and their underlying electromagnetic properties before introducing plasmonic effects and key metamaterial configurations. Recent developments in research are also presented along with cutting-edge applications in the field. This advanced textbook will be invaluable to students and researchers working in the fields of optics and nanophotonics.
An overview of the optical effects in solids, addressing the physics of various materials and their response to electromagnetic radiation. The discussion includes metals, semiconductors, superconductors, and insulators. The book begins by introducing the dielectric function into Maxwell's macroscopic equations and finding their plane-wave solution. The physics governing the dielectric function of various materials is then covered, both classically and using basic quantum mechanics. Advanced topics covered include interacting electrons, the anomalous skin effect, anisotropy, magneto-optics, and inhomogeneous materials. Each subject begins with a connection to the basic physics of the particular solid, after which the measurable optical quantities are derived. It allows the reader to connect measurements (reflectance, optical conductivity and dielectric function) with the underlying physics of solids. Methods of analysing experimental data are addressed, making this an ideal resource for students and researchers interested in solid state physics, optics, and materials science.
Forewords by Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden," " and Neal F. Lane, Rice University, Texas
Nanomaterials inevitably have bright prospects, but even now they play an important role in many areas of industry. Some of these new materials are commercially available and are used in off the shelf products, others are important model systems for physicochemical and materials science research. However, research findings and application data are not compiled in a single work. The Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials collects description and data of materials which have dimensions on the nanoscale. The description of nanomaterials follows the interplay of structure, properties, processing and applications mainly in their solid phase. The chapters were arranged according to the classical materials-science classifications: carbon materials, metals, ceramics, composites, and biomaterials. For each part, materials structures represent different dimensionality; zero-dimensional clusters, nanoparticles and quantum dots, one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, and two-dimensional thin films and surfaces. Combinations cover for instance nanostructured and hybrid materials.
Almost 100 leading scientists from academia and the industry were selected to write the 32 chapters and collect the physical, chemical and mechanical data. The handbook was written and compiled for professionals and practitioners, materials scientists, physicists and chemists at universities, as well as in the fields of industrial research and production.
The Handbook is organized in seven parts. Part A: NanoCarbons. Part B: NanoMetals. Part C: NanoCeramics. Part D: NanoComposits. Part E: Nanoporous Materials. Part F: Organic and Biomaterilas. Part G: Applications and Impact.
This text on optics for graduate students explains how to determine
material properties and parameters for inaccessible substrates and
unknown films as well as how to measure extremely thin films. Its
14 case studies illustrate concepts and reinforce applications of
ellipsometry -- particularly in relation to the semiconductor
industry and to studies involving corrosion and oxide growth.
This comprehensive handbook has become the definitive reference work in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology, and this 4th edition incorporates a number of recent new developments. It integrates nanofabrication, nanomaterials, nanodevices, nanomechanics, nanotribology, materials science, and reliability engineering knowledge in just one volume. Furthermore, it discusses various nanostructures; micro/nanofabrication; micro/nanodevices and biomicro/nanodevices, as well as scanning probe microscopy; nanotribology and nanomechanics; molecularly thick films; industrial applications and nanodevice reliability; societal, environmental, health and safety issues; and nanotechnology education. In this new edition, written by an international team of over 140 distinguished experts and put together by an experienced editor with a comprehensive understanding of the field, almost all the chapters are either new or substantially revised and expanded, with new topics of interest added. It is an essential resource for anyone working in the rapidly evolving field of key technology, including mechanical and electrical engineers, materials scientists, physicists, and chemists.
This volume presents novel and innovative contributions in the domain specific to nanocomposites, specifically on aspects both related and relevant to the following: * science at the nanoscale level * innovations and advances in processing * characterization, quantification, and analysis * mechanical property evaluation and rationalization * failure analysis * technological applications at the nanoscale level The collection brings together a range of developments in areas spanning basic science, processing, analysis, characterization, mechanical property evaluation, and failure analysis rationalization of composite materials.
The first book on the topic, this is a comprehensive introduction to the modeling and design of junctionless field effect transistors (FETs). Beginning with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the technology, the authors also provide a thorough overview of published analytical models for double-gate and nanowire configurations, before offering a general introduction to the EPFL charge-based model of junctionless FETs. Important features are introduced gradually, including nanowire versus double-gate equivalence, technological design space, junctionless FET performances, short channel effects, transcapacitances, asymmetric operation, thermal noise, interface traps, and the junction FET. Additional features compatible with biosensor applications are also discussed. This is a valuable resource for students and researchers looking to understand more about this new and fast developing field.
This market-leading textbook continues its standard of excellence and innovation built on the solid pedagogical foundation that instructors expect from Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith. New to this Edition: A revised study of the MOSFET and the BJT and their application in amplifier design. Improved treatment of such important topics as cascode amplifiers, frequency response, and feedback Reorganized and modernized coverage of Digital IC Design. New topics, including Class D power amplifiers, IC filters and oscillators, and image sensors A new "expand-your-perspective" feature that provides relevant historical and application notes Two thirds of the end-of-chapter problems are new or revised A new Instructor's Solutions Manual authored by Adel S. Sedra
This book provides detailed information on the emerging applications of nanomaterials and nanoparticles within endodontics, highlighting the exciting potential clinical impact of nanotechnology in the field. The range of applications covered is diverse, encompassing drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering, antibacterial strategies, dentin tissue stabilization, dentin pulp regeneration and use in restorative and endodontic materials. Important scientific background information relating to each application is provided, with clear coverage of basic principles. In addition, potential pitfalls are identified and explained. The cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and nanoparticles is also addressed in a separate chapter. The book will be of value both for endodontic practitioners and for all scientists and graduate students who are interested in the application of nanotechnology in endodontics.
Structure- and Adatom-Enriched Essential Properties of Graphene Nanoribbons offers a systematic review of the feature-rich essential properties in emergent graphene nanoribbons, covering mainstream theoretical and experimental research. It includes a wide range of 1D systems; namely, armchair and zigzag graphene nanoribbons with and without hydrogen terminations, curved and zipped graphene nanoribbons, folded graphene nanoribbons, carbon nanoscrolls, bilayer graphene nanoribbons, edge-decorated graphene nanoribbons, and alkali-, halogen-, Al-, Ti, and Bi-absorbed graphene nanoribbons. Both multiorbital chemical bondings and spin arrangements, which are responsible for the diverse phenomena, are explored in detail. First-principles calculations are developed to thoroughly describe the physical, chemical, and material phenomena and concise images explain the fundamental properties. This book examines in detail the application and theory of graphene nanoribbons, offering a new perspective on up-to-date mainstream theoretical and experimental research.
This book presents the Einstein Relation(ER) in two-dimensional (2-D) Heavily Doped (HD) Quantized Structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The ER in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestion for the experimental determination of HD 2D and 3D ERs and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nanodevices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) are also discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the ER of the different 2D HD quantized structures (quantum wells, inversion and accumulation layers, quantum well HD superlattices and nipi structures) under different physical conditions is discussed in detail. This monograph contains 100 open research problems which form the integral part of the text and are useful for both Ph.D aspirants and researchers in the fields of condensed matter physics, solid-state sciences, materials science, nano-science and technology and allied fields.
Gain a solid understanding of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Systems Theory with this unique book. Written by a leading expert in LED lighting, it links together the photometric, electrical, thermal and chromatic elements of LED systems into a single, unified framework, and explores their complex interactions with one another. * Get to grips with chromatic, photometric and thermal modelling of LED systems * Discover new techniques for precise dimming and colour control * Learn methods for determining system parameters and internal variables * Gain insight into advanced applications for LED system design and optimization Providing straightforward and intuitive explanations, this is an ideal guide for professional engineers, graduate students and researchers working on solid-state lighting systems and smart lighting, and those taking advanced courses on LED devices and systems.
The present book volume presents a holistic view of the aspects of nanobiomaterials incl. their stellar merits and limitations, applications in diverse fields, their futuristic promise in the fields of biomedical science and drug delivery. The federal & regulatory issues on the usage of nanobiomaterials have been assigned due consideration.
The book focuses on Application of Nanotechnology in Membranes for Water Treatment but not only provides a series of innovative solutions for water reclamation through advanced membrane technology but also serves as a medium to promote international cooperation and networking for the development of advanced membrane technology for Universal well-being and to achieve the common goal of supplying economically, environmentally and societally sustainable freshwater and better sanitation systems. This book is unique because the chapters were authored by established researchers all around the globe based on their recent research findings. In addition, this book provides a holistic coverage of membrane development for water treatment, from the membrane preparation and characterizations to the performance for specific processes and applications. Since that water scarcity has become a global risk and one of the most serious challenges for the scientific community in this century, the publication of this book is therefore significant as it will serve as a medium for a good reference of an alternative solution in water reclamation. This book will provide the readers with a thorough understanding of the different available approaches for manufacturing membranes both with innovative polymeric systems and inorganic nano-materials which could give enhanced functionalities, catalytic and antimicrobial activities to improve the performance of the existing membranes. It will be useful for leading decision and policy makers, water sector representatives and administrators, policy makers from the governments, business leaders, business houses in water treatment, and engineers/ scientists from both industrialized and developing countries as well.
Focusing on the fundamental principles of nanoscience and nanotechnology, this carefully developed textbook will equip students with a deep understanding of the nanoscale. * Each new topic is introduced with a concise summary of the relevant physical principles, emphasising universal commonalities between seemingly disparate areas, and encouraging students to develop an intuitive understanding of this diverse area of study * Accessible introductions to condensed matter physics and materials systems provide students from a broad range of scientific disciplines with all the necessary background * Theoretical concepts are linked to real-world applications, allowing students to connect theory and practice * Chapters are packed with problems to help students develop and retain their understanding, as well as engaging colour illustrations, and are accompanied by suggestions for additional reading. Containing enough material for a one- or two-semester course, this is an excellent resource for senior undergraduate and graduate students with backgrounds in physics, chemistry, materials science and electrical engineering.
Understand the fundamental concepts, theoretical background, major experimental observations, and device applications of graphene photonics with this self-contained text. Systematically and rigorously developing each concept and theoretical model from the ground up, it guides readers through the major topics, from basic properties and band structure to electronic, optical, optoelectronic, and nonlinear optical properties, and plasmonics and photonic devices. The connections between theory, modeling, experiment, and device concepts are demonstrated throughout, and every optical process is analyzed through formal electromagnetic analysis. Suitable for both self-study and a one-semester or one-quarter course, this is the ideal text for graduate students and researchers in photonics, optoelectronics, nanoscience and nanotechnology, and optical and solid-state physics, who are working in this rapidly developing field.
The nanotechnology revolution that will transform human health and longevity Nano Comes to Life opens a window onto the nanoscale-the infinitesimal realm of proteins and DNA where physics and cellular and molecular biology meet-and introduces readers to the rapidly evolving nanotechnologies that are allowing us to manipulate the very building blocks of life. Sonia Contera gives an insider's perspective on this new frontier, revealing how nanotechnology enables a new kind of multidisciplinary science that is poised to give us control over our own biology, our health, and our lives. Drawing on her perspective as one of today's leading researchers in the field, Contera describes the exciting ways in which nanotechnology makes it possible to understand, interact with, and manipulate biology-such as by designing and building artificial structures and even machines at the nanoscale using DNA, proteins, and other biological molecules as materials. In turn, nanotechnology is revolutionizing medicine in ways that will have profound effects on our health and longevity, from nanoscale machines that can target individual cancer cells and deliver drugs more effectively, to nanoantibiotics that can fight resistant bacteria, to the engineering of tissues and organs for research, drug discovery, and transplantation. The future will bring about the continued fusion of nanotechnology with biology, physics, medicine, and cutting-edge fields like robotics and artificial intelligence, ushering us into a new "transmaterial era." As we contemplate the power, advantages, and risks of accessing and manipulating our own biology, Contera offers insight and hope that we may all share in the benefits of this revolutionary research.
Quantum phase transitions are strongly relevant in a number of fields, ranging from condensed matter to cold atom physics and quantum field theory. This book, now in its second edition, approaches the problem of quantum phase transitions from a new and unifying perspective. Topics addressed include the concepts of scale and time invariance and their significance for quantum criticality, as well as brand new chapters on superfluid and superconductor quantum critical points, and quantum first order transitions. The renormalisation group in real and momentum space is also established as the proper language to describe the behaviour of systems close to a quantum phase transition. These phenomena introduce a number of theoretical challenges which are of major importance for driving new experiments. Being strongly motivated and oriented towards understanding experimental results, this is an excellent text for graduates, as well as theorists, experimentalists and those with an interest in quantum criticality.
The first book to summarize the applications of CAFM as the most important method in the study of electronic properties of materials and devices at the nanoscale. To provide a global perspective, the chapters are written by leading researchers and application scientists from all over the world and cover novel strategies, configurations and setups where new information will be obtained with the help of CAFM. With its substantial content and logical structure, this is a valuable reference for researchers working with CAFM or planning to use it in their own fields of research.
In this book, the author deals mainly with two topics: (1) single-molecule visualization of switching behaviors in the DNA nanoframe system utilizing different kinds of molecular switches through the use of high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM); (2) construction of photocontrollable DNA nanostructures in programmed patterns and direct visualization of the dynamic assembling process. Here, high-speed AFM was employed to observe the dynamic movements of single molecules. Compared to a traditional single-molecule analysis method, such as fluorescence spectroscopy or electron microscopy, high-speed AFM makes possible the real-time observation of molecule behaviors. DNA nanostructures were designed and assembled as scaffolds to incorporate interested biomolecules. The observations were carried out under robust conditions without complicated pretreatment. Moreover, the photoresponsive molecules were successfully assembled into around 100 nm-sized DNA nanostructures. The assembly/disassembly of nanostructures can be regulated reversibly by photoirradiation. This book explains how DNA origami has gradually become a useful tool for the investigation of biochemical interactions in defined nanospace. It also shows the possibility of DNA nanostructures acting as nanodevices for application in biological systems, serving as a good introduction to basic DNA nanotechnology.
We have long been encouraged to think of old age as synonymous with deterioration. Yet, recent studies show that our decision-making skills improve as we age and our happiness levels peak in our eighties. What really happens to our brains as we get older?
More of us are living into our eighties than ever before. In The Changing Mind, neuroscientist, psychologist and internationally-bestselling author Daniel Levitin invites us to dramatically shift our understanding of growing older, demonstrating its many cognitive benefits. He draws on cutting-edge research to challenge common and flawed beliefs, including assumptions around memory loss and the focus on lifespan instead of 'healthspan'.
Levitin reveals the evolving power of the human brain from infancy to late adulthood. Distilling the findings from over 4000 papers, he explains the importance of personality traits, lifestyle, memory and community on ageing, offering actionable tips that we can all start now, at any age.
Featuring compelling insights from individuals who have thrived far beyond the conventional age of retirement, this book offers realistic guidelines and practical cognition-enhancing tricks for everyone to follow during every decade of their life. This is a radical exploration of what we all can learn from those who age joyously.
Authored by a rising star in the field and one of its pioneers,
this textbook is ideal for interdisciplinary courses -- bridging
chemistry, materials science, physics and biology. Adopting a
completely new and visionary approach, this is a unique learning
tool, focusing on just six concepts crucial for understanding
nanochemistry: surface, size, shape, self-assembly, defects and the
interface of biology and nanochemistry. These concepts are
elucidated through the analysis of six materials representing the
real life application of the nanochemistry concepts. The teaching
questions included provide real "food for thought," thus training
students to think as a researcher does and so develop
From quantum mechanical concepts to practical circuit applications, this book presents a self-contained and up-to-date account of the physics and technology of nanowire semiconductor devices. It includes a unified account of the critical ideas central to low-dimensional physics and transistor physics which equips readers with a common framework and language to accelerate scientific and technological developments across the two fields. Detailed descriptions of novel quantum mechanical effects such as quantum current oscillations, the metal-to-semiconductor transition and the transition from classical transistor to single-electron transistor operation are described in detail, in addition to real-world applications in the fields of nanoelectronics, biomedical sensing techniques, and advanced semiconductor research. Including numerous illustrations to help readers understand these phenomena, this is an essential resource for researchers and professional engineers working on semiconductor devices and materials in academia and industry.
Handbook of Optoelectronics offers a self-contained reference from the basic science and light sources to devices and modern applications across the entire spectrum of disciplines utilizing optoelectronic technologies. This second edition gives a complete update of the original work with a focus on systems and applications. Volume I covers the details of optoelectronic devices and techniques including semiconductor lasers, optical detectors and receivers, optical fiber devices, modulators, amplifiers, integrated optics, LEDs, and engineered optical materials with brand new chapters on silicon photonics, nanophotonics, and graphene optoelectronics. Volume II addresses the underlying system technologies enabling state-of-the-art communications, imaging, displays, sensing, data processing, energy conversion, and actuation. Volume III is brand new to this edition, focusing on applications in infrastructure, transport, security, surveillance, environmental monitoring, military, industrial, oil and gas, energy generation and distribution, medicine, and free space. No other resource in the field comes close to its breadth and depth, with contributions from leading industrial and academic institutions around the world. Whether used as a reference, research tool, or broad-based introduction to the field, the Handbook offers everything you need to get started. John P. Dakin, PhD, is professor (emeritus) at the Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, UK. Robert G. W. Brown, PhD, is chief executive officer of the American Institute of Physics and an adjunct full professor in the Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic at the University of California, Irvine.
This title features 11 new chapters unique to this edition, including chapters on grain boundaries in graphene, 2D metal carbides and carbonitrides, mechanics of carbon nanotubes and nanomaterials, biomedical applications, oxidation and purification of carbon nanostructures, sintering of nanoceramics, hydrothermal processing, nanofibers, and nanomaterials safety. It offers a comprehensive approach with a focus on inorganic and carbon-based nanomaterials, including fundamentals, applications, synthesis, and characterization. This book also provides a unique angle from the nanomaterial point of view on application, synthesis, and characterization not found in any other nanomaterials book on the market.
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