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Sunday Times Bestseller 'A paradigm-smashing chronicle of joyous entanglement' Charles Foster Waterstones Non-Fiction Book of the Month (September) Are trees social beings? How do trees live? Do they feel pain or have awareness of their surroundings? In The Hidden Life of Trees Peter Wohlleben makes the case that the forest is a social network. He draws on groundbreaking scientific discoveries to describe how trees are like human families: tree parents live together with their children, communicate with them, support them as they grow, share nutrients with those who are sick or struggling, and even warn each other of impending dangers. Wohlleben also shares his deep love of woods and forests, explaining the amazing processes of life, death and regeneration he has observed in his woodland. A walk in the woods will never be the same again.
Understanding plant anatomy is not only fundamental to the study of plant systematics and palaeobotany, but is also an essential part of evolutionary biology, physiology, ecology and the rapidly expanding science of developmental genetics. This modernised new edition covers all aspects of comparative plant structure and development, arranged in a series of chapters on the stem, root, leaf, flower, pollen, seed and fruit. Internal structures are described using magnification aids from the simple hand-lens to the electron microscope. Numerous references to recent topical literature are included, and new illustrations reflect a wide range of flowering plant species. The phylogenetic context of plant names has been updated as a result of improved understanding of the relationships among flowering plants. This clearly written text is ideal for students studying a wide range of courses in botany and plant science, and is also an excellent resource for professional and amateur horticulturists.
This invaluable book provides an illustrated ecology of eastern seashore habitats, including the ocean and continental shelf, the intertidal zone, sand dunes and beaches, and salt marshes. Donald D. Cox uses nontechnical terminology in order to provide clear references for the general public as well as professional and amateur naturalists and students. He explores the origins of the oceans, tides, wind belts, and land plants and includes useful illustrations for aid in identification. Most significantly, this guide brings together a wide range of information relative to ocean and seashore ecosystems. Cox includes the types of plants that grow near the seashore; adaptations that help plants survive in seashore habitats; poisonous, medicinal, and edible plants of the ocean and seashore; seasonal changes in the seashore habitat; and methods of naming plants and the folklore of common names. The author also provides complete and accurate details for those readers who are interested in collecting plants and preserving plant collections. The final chapter offers non-technical investigations, activities, and projects. Conservation and habitat preservation are emphasized throughout the book.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of grassland ecosystems based on publications by Chinese scholars. It offers an up-to-date review of the recent advances in grassland research in China, discusses the climatic and physical conditions governing the grasslands, describes their types and distribution, and introduces a new classification scheme for grassland ecosystems. Further, it details the plant, animal, and microbial compositions of each grassland ecosystem type, examining the above and below ground relationships between phytomass, vegetation succession, and past/current management practices with a particular focus on the steppes in China. It also includes references that are only available in the Chinese language. This scientifically rigorous book offers insights into knowledge gaps for the scientific community and identifies pressing issues facing practitioners of grassland ecology and management. It can be used as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in ecology, environmental science, natural resource management, agriculture, and other relevant fields, and is also a valuable reference resource for researchers studying drylands in China or around the globe.
This book concentrates on the group of plants showing the steepest decline among British flora over the past 25 years - plants that grow among the crops. Easy-to-use format is designed to enable people to take it into the field and to identify these species whether they are a beginner or an expert. The text covers the history of - and includes practical recommendations for managing - the places where these plants still occur 100 plant profiles include key identification features, flowering and germination times, and differences between similar species. Color distribution maps show where these plants have been seen in the past 25 years, while the accompanying text indicates their current location.
This books presents an updated compilation on fundamental interaction mechanisms of microbial communities with the plant roots and rhizosphere (belowground) and leaves and aerial parts (aboveground). Plant rhizopshere recruits its own microbial composition that survive there and help plants grow and develop better under biotic and abiotic conditions. Similar is the case with the beneficial microorganisms which are applied as inoculants with characteristic functions. The mechanism of plant-microbe interactions is interesting phenomenon in biological perspectives with numerous implications in the fields. The First volume focuses on the basic and fundamental mechanisms that have been worked out by the scientific communities taking into account different plant-microbe systems. This includes methods that decipher mechanisms at cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels and the functions that are the final outcome of any beneficial or non-beneficial interactions in crop plants and microbes. Recent advances in this research area is covered in different book chapters that reflect the impact of microbial interactions on soil and plant health, dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities, interaction mechanisms of microbes with multiple functional attributes, microbiome of contrasting crop production systems (organic vs conventional), mechanisms behind symbiotic and pathogenic interactions, endophytic (bacterial and fungal) interaction and benefits, rhizoplane and endosphere associations, signalling cascades and determinants in rhizosphere, quorum sensing in bacteria and impact on interaction, mycorrhizal interaction mechanisms, induced disease resistance and plant immunization, interaction mechanisms that suppress disease and belowground microbial crosstalk with plant rhizosphere. Methods based on multiphasic and multi-omics approaches were discussed in detail by the authors. Content-wise, the book offers an advanced account on various aspects of plant-microbe interactions and valuable implications in agro-ecological perspectives.
This book presents a political ecology study on deforestation in the Teknaf Peninsula of Bangladesh. The study's aim was to elucidate social factors contributing to processes of deforestation, including poverty, migration of refugees, forest encroachment, and power relations entailed in forest management. The individual analyses presented in the book are entirely based on primary information obtained through original field work conducted over a period of 7 years, and on remote sensing using satellite imagery and GIS techniques. The second half of the book considers reforestation approaches such as social and homestead forestry that have wider applications within developing countries.
From deep ocean trenches and the geographical poles to outer space, organisms can be found living in remarkably extreme conditions. This book provides a captivating account of these systems and their extraordinary inhabitants, 'extremophiles'. A diverse, multidisciplinary group of experts discuss responses and adaptations to change; biodiversity, bioenergetic processes, and biotic and abiotic interactions; polar environments; and life and habitability, including searching for biosignatures in the extraterrestrial environment. The editors emphasize that understanding these systems is important for increasing our knowledge and utilizing their potential, but this remains an understudied area. Given the threat to these environments and their biota caused by climate change and human impact, this timely book also addresses the urgency to document these systems. It will help graduate students and researchers in conservation, marine biology, evolutionary biology, environmental change and astrobiology better understand how life exists in these environments and their susceptibility or resilience to change.
This book focuses on multiple plant stresses and the molecular basis of adaptation, addressing the molecular mechanism and adaptation for both abiotic and biotic stresses. Ensuring the yield of crop plants grown under multiple individual and/or combined stresses is essential to sustaining productivity. In this regard, the development of broad-spectrum stress-tolerant plants is important. However, to date information has largely been compiled only on the individual stress tolerance mechanisms, and the mechanisms behind plants' tolerance to two or more individual or simultaneous stresses are not fully understood. Especially combinatorial stress, a new stress altogether, has only recently been made the object of systematic study. Now several research groups around the world have begun exploring the concurrent stress tolerance mechanisms under both biotic and abiotic stress combinations. This book presents contributions from various experts, highlighting the findings of their multiple individual and concurrent stress tolerance dissection studies.
Historical ecology is a research framework which draws upon diverse evidence to trace complex, long-term relationships between humanity and Earth. With roots in anthropology, archaeology, ecology and paleoecology, geography, and landscape and heritage management, historical ecology applies a practical and holistic perspective to the study of change. Furthermore, it plays an important role in both fundamental research and in developing future strategies for integrated, equitable landscape management. The framework presented in this volume covers critical issues, including: practicing transdisciplinarity, the need for understanding interactions between human societies and ecosystem processes, the future of regions and the role of history and memory in a changing world. Including many examples of co-developed research, Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology provides a platform for collaboration across disciplines and aims to equip researchers, policy-makers, funders, and communities to make decisions that can help to construct an inclusive and resilient future for humanity.
This thoroughly revised and updated edition provides an accessible overview of the rapidly advancing field of plant physiology. Key topics covered include absorption of water, ascent of sap, transpiration, mineral nutrition, fat metabolism, enzymes and plant hormones. Separate chapters are included on photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen metabolism, and emphasis is placed on their contribution to food security, climate resilient farming (or climate-smart agriculture) and sustainable development. There is also a chapter on the seminal contributions of plant physiologists. Supported by the inclusion of laboratory experimental exercises and solved numerical problems, the text emphasises the conceptual framework, for example, in coverage of topics such as thermodynamics, water potential gradients and energy transformation during metabolic processes, water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Bringing together the theoretical and practical details, this text is accessible, self-contained and student-friendly.
This book presents various aspects of agroforestry research and development, as well as the latest trends in degraded landscape management. Over the last four decades, agroforestry research (particularly on degraded landscapes) has evolved into an essential problem-solving science, e.g. in terms of sustaining agricultural productivity, improving soil health and biodiversity, enhancing ecosystem services, supporting carbon sequestration and mitigating climate change. This book examines temperate and tropical agroforestry systems around the world, focusing on traditional and modern practices and technologies used to rehabilitate degraded lands. It covers the latest research advances, trends and challenges in the utilization and reclamation of degraded lands, e.g. urban and peri-urban agroforestry, reclamation of degraded landscapes, tree-based multi-enterprise agriculture, domestication of high-value halophytes, afforestation of coastal areas, preserving mangroves and much more. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for a broad range of stakeholders including farmers, scientists, researchers, educators, students, development/extension agents, environmentalists, policy/decision makers, and government and non-government organizations.
How do you record the wildlife in a wood? This book explains ways to record the flora and fauna found in woodland and outlines the sources you can use to find out more about the history and management of an area. Whether you have just a few hours, or a few years, there are examples that you can follow to find out more about this important habitat. Woods include some of the richest terrestrial wildlife sites in Britain, but some are under threat and many are neglected, such that they are not as rich as they might be. If we are to protect them or increase their diversity we need first to know what species they contain, how they have come to be as they are, to understand how they fit into the wider landscape. Conservation surveys are the bedrock on which subsequent protection and management action is based. There is not one method that will be right for all situations and needs, so the methods discussed range from what one can find out online, to what can be seen on a general walk round a wood, to the insights that can come from more detailed survey and monitoring approaches. Fast-evolving techniques such as eDNA surveys and the use of LiDAR are touched on.
Graph theory can be applied to ecological questions in many ways, and more insights can be gained by expanding the range of graph theoretical concepts applied to a specific system. But how do you know which methods might be used? And what do you do with the graph once it has been obtained? This book provides a broad introduction to the application of graph theory in different ecological systems, providing practical guidance for researchers in ecology and related fields. Readers are guided through the creation of an appropriate graph for the system being studied, including the application of spatial, spatio-temporal, and more abstract structural process graphs. Simple figures accompany the explanations to add clarity, and a broad range of ecological phenomena from many ecological systems are covered. This is the ideal book for graduate students and researchers looking to apply graph theoretical methods in their work.
Towns and villages are sometimes viewed as minor, even quaint, spots, whereas this book boldly reconceptualizes these places as important dynamic environmental 'hotspots'. Multitudes of towns and villages with nearly half the world's population characterize perhaps half the global land surface. The book's pages feature ecological patterns, processes, and change, as well as human dimensions, both within towns and in strong connections and effects on surrounding agricultural land, forest land, and arid land. Towns, small to large, and villages are examined with spatial and cultural lenses. Ecological dimensions - water, soil and air systems, together with habitats, plants, wildlife and biodiversity - are highlighted. A concluding section presents concepts for making better towns and better land. From a pioneer in both landscape ecology and urban ecology, this highly international town ecology book opens an important frontier for researchers, students, professors, and professionals including environmental, town, and conservation planners.
The rate of species and natural habitat loss across our planet is steadily accelerating. This book argues that existing practises of plant conservation are inadequate and firmly supports the placement of ecological restoration at the cornerstone of biodiversity conservation. The author unifies different aspects of conservation into one coherent concept, including natural area protection, ex situ conservation and in situ interventions through either population management or ecological restoration. Assisted colonization, experimentation, and utilization of threatened plant species are raised as crucial elements in restoration, with partly novel ecosystems being among its major target areas. Covering a wide spectrum of plant conservation examples, and offering practical methodologies alongside the theoretical context, this is a vital resource for students, research scientists and practitioners in conservation biology and restoration ecology.
This volume sits at the cross-roads of a number of areas of scientific interest that, in the past, have largely kept themselves separate - agriculture, forestry, population genetics, ecology, conservation biology, genomics and the protection of plant genetic resources. Yet these areas also have a lot of common interests and increasingly these independent lines of inquiry are tending to coalesce into a more comprehensive view of the complexity of plant-pathogen associations and their ecological and evolutionary dynamics. This interdisciplinary source provides a comprehensive overview of this changing situation by identifying the role of pathogens in shaping plant populations, species and communities, tackling the issue of the increasing importance of invasive and newly emerging diseases and giving broader recognition to the fundamental importance of the influence of space and time (as manifest in the metapopulation concept) in driving epidemiological and co-evolutionary trajectories.
This book considers all aspects of black pepper from its growth, as a flowering vine, to how the dried fruit (peppercorn) is used as a spice and traded as a commodity. It is the economic mainstay of several India states and, principally, in Kerala State, with the Indian subcontinent being the largest black pepper producer. Indonesia has also emerged as a large producer of black pepper. Black pepper commands a leading position among the spices and has an immense commercial importance to world trade, finding its way onto the dining table of millions around the world, on the European and North American continents, and Japan. The use of black pepper ranges from a simple dietary component and flavour enhancer, to that of a spice with huge pharmacological benefits.
Plant remains can preserve a critical part of history of life on Earth. While telling the fascinating evolutionary story of plants and vegetation across the last 500 million years, this book also crucially offers non-specialists a practical guide to studying, dealing with and interpreting plant fossils. It shows how various techniques can be used to reveal the secrets of plant fossils and how to identify common types, such as compressions and impressions. Incorporating the concepts of evolutionary floras, this second edition includes revised data on all main plant groups, the latest approaches to naming plant fossils using fossil-taxa and techniques such as tomography. With extensive illustrations of plant fossils and living plants, the book encourages readers to think of fossils as once-living organisms. It is written for students on introductory or intermediate courses in palaeobotany, palaeontology, plant evolutionary biology and plant science, and for amateurs interested in studying plant fossils.
Gardeners interested in food security permaculture localism organic and forest gardening Horticulture students, landscape designers and architects. Similar titles One Straw Revolution, Masanobu Fukuoka Silent Spring, Rachel Carson Creating a Forest Garden, Martin Crawford
Emphasizing the unpredictable nature of plant behaviour under stress and in relation to complex interactions of biological pathways, this work covers the versatility of plants in adapting to environmental change. It analyzes environmentally triggered adaptions in developmental programmes of plants that lead to permanent, heritable DNA modifications.
This book combines urban planning and architectural tools in an attempt to overcome the limitations of sectoral measures. In this perspective, it offers a forum for the debate of different approaches used by schools of planning and architecture. It explores strategies by drawing from the potential contributions of cognitive models for decisions, the role of utopian thinking and retrofitting actions and their interconnectedness, the role of cultural legacy for urban and landscape design, the design perspectives about public spaces, and the role of architecture design and urban and regional planning for landscape quality. The book also discusses on design as a process of decision-making that operates as an act of empathy that aligns with human and ecological values - emotional, physical and socio-cultural. Each planning and design act has different possible effects able to help making clear strategic and local actions, contributing to community empowerment and to landscape and local governance. Design activity along the river and multiple experiences (design processes, urban fringe design, agri-urban models, river parks, UNESCO sites, River Contracts, greenbelts and ecological networks), through reflection on design roles, helping to understand the design process and its results at different scales. Roberta Ingaramo, architect, PhD, is Assistant Professor in Architectural and Urban Design, Department of Architecture and Design (DAD), Polytechnic University of Turin (Italy), Master in Conservation of Historic Towns and Buildings, Katholieke Universiteit (Belgium). [email protected] Angioletta Voghera, architect, PhD, is Associate Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, Inter-university Department of Urban and Regional Studies and Planning (DIST), Polytechnic University of Turin (Italy). [email protected]
Plant leaves collectively represent the largest above-ground surface area of plant material in virtually all environments. Their optical properties determine where and how energy and gas exchange occurs, which in turn drives the energy budget of the planet, and defines its ecology and habitability. This book reviews the state-of-the-art research on leaf optics. Topics covered include leaf traits, the anatomy and structure of leaves, leaf colour, biophysics and spectroscopy, radiometry, radiative transfer models, and remote and proximal sensing. A physical approach is emphasised throughout, providing the necessary foundations in physics, chemistry and biology to make the context accessible to readers from various subject backgrounds. It is a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and government agency practitioners in remote sensing, plant physiology, ecology, resource management and conservation.
Mangroves and seagrasses form extensive and highly productive ecosystems that are both biologically diverse and economically valuable. This book, now in its third edition and fully updated throughout, continues to provide a current and comprehensive introduction to all aspects of the biology and ecology of mangroves and seagrasses. Using a global range of examples and case studies, it describes the unique adaptations of these plants to their exacting environments; the rich and diverse communities of organisms that depend on mangrove forests and seagrass meadows (including tree-climbing shrimps, synchronously flashing fireflies, and 'gardening' seacows); the links between mangrove, seagrass, and other habitats; and the evolution, biodiversity, and biogeography of mangroves and seagrasses. The economic value of mangroves and seagrasses is also discussed, including approaches to rational management of these vital resources and techniques for the restoration of degraded habitats. A final chapter, new to this edition, examines the potential effects of global climate change including sea level rise. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, particular emphasis is placed on the organisms that dominate these fascinating aquatic ecosystems although pollution, conservation, and experimental aspects are also considered. This accessible textbook assumes no previous knowledge of mangrove or seagrass ecology and is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professional ecologists, conservation practitioners, and resource managers.
Based on research in Bolinao, this book assesses the importance of small-scale disturbance by burrowing shrimps. It covers the distribution of burrowing shrimp disturbance, the behavior of the snapping shrimp Alpheus macellarius in situ and as observed from tank experiments, and the effects of short-term burial and leaf clipping on the growth patterns of the dominant seagrass Thalassia hemprichii. The book examines the role of bioturbation by burrowing shrimps in seagrass meadows, foraging strategies of A. macellarius and its mutualistic symbiosis with Cryptocentrus spp., shrimp disturbance and T. hemprichii, and small-scale disturbance and large-scale dynamics.
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