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Urban motorways are among the greatest - and least forgiven - legacies of post-war planning in Britain. Ringways explores the genesis, development and collapse of London's controversial plans for nearly 500 miles of highways, to understand why such ambitious and unlamented programmes gained widespread support and triggered urban uproar. Combining a review of the wider intellectual climate with extensive archival research, Ringways asks how far the rise of the urban motorway can be attributed to urban contingency as opposed to far-seeing planners; how ideas of the environment changed as proposals were debated; and whether their fall was the work of popular revolt or expert regret.
This volume consists of selected papers presented at the Ninth International Conference on Computer-Aided Scheduling of Public Transport. Coverage includes the use of computer-aided methods and operations research techniques to improve: information management; network and route planning; vehicle and crew scheduling and rostering; vehicle monitoring and management; and practical experience with scheduling and public transport planning methods.
Transport systems have to meet the mobility needs of people and commodities on all scales, from the local to the global level. Concerns about the energy, fumes and sound emissions produced, and about the safety, service quality, intelligence and lifecycle of the systems, etc. can all be included in a systemic approach. This approach can contribute to the development of sustainable solutions, for individual vehicles as well as for transport systems. Derived from an approach combining the social and physical sciences, these solutions result from the integration of physical objects, services and organizational processes, which involve several actors. Their harmonious organization contributes to the development of more virtuous transport systems for the future of urban and inter-urban mobility.
Today, half of the world's population lives in urban areas and the rapid urbanization we are seeing is expected to continue in the next decades.The growth of urban areas around the world presents many challenges and needs to be supported by the development of adequate and sustainable infrastructures.This work offers comprehensive coverage of critical issues on the highway and urban environment which are key to understanding sustainability in the world's expanding urban areas.It offers a highly relevant round-up of the proceeding of the Highway and Urban Environment Symposium held in Nicosia, Cyprus, last year.
Land Public Transport continues to gain greater attention in
transport policy and economics, given its importance in assisting
social cohesion and its contribution to reducing congestion and
Hitler's autobahn was more than just the pet project of an infrastructure-friendly dictator. It was supposed to revolutionize the transportation sector in Germany, connect the metropoles with the countryside, and encourage motorization. The propaganda machinery of the Third Reich turned the autobahn into a hyped-up icon of the dictatorship. One of the claims was that the roads would reconcile nature and technology. Rather than destroying the environment, they would embellish the landscape. Many historians have taken this claim at face value and concluded that the Nazi regime harbored an inbred love of nature. In this book, the author argues that such conclusions are misleading. Based on rich archival research, the book provides the first scholarly account of the landscape of the autobahn.
The book will offer a representative sample of the best papers
presented at the Transport Science and Technology Congress
(TRANSTEC) Athens 2004. It will also serve as the peer reviewed
Urban freight transport has become an essential issue in urban
planning. There are many challenges and problems relating to
increasing levels of traffic congestion, negative environmental
impacts and energy consumption. To cope with these complicated
problems, new city logistics schemes are required that are aimed at
increasing the efficiency of urban freight transport systems as
well as reducing traffic congestion and impacts on the environment.
Recent developments in ICT (Information and Communication
Technology) and ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) help tackle
these difficult problems. As well, the corporate social
responsibility of shippers and freight carriers promotes
public-private partnerships in urban freight transport planning.
Many countries around the world are making large investments in
transportation improvements, but even greater investments are still
needed. Funding is the key to promoting convenient and attractive
Various types of financial resources are currently being used
and a variety of new funding systems are being introduced.
Transport policies and funding systems are at a point of
significant divergence. A detailed comparison of their conceptual
basis is extremely interesting and valuable in determining the best
direction for future transportation improvements.
Transport Policy and Funding examines how developed countries
are solving the problem of providing capital for present and future
transportation goals. After describing the theoretical basis of
funding, the authors
This book will be of value to higher level researchers and
graduate students in transportation and economics, and also to
Much of land use and transportation planning today aims to reduce
traffic congestion. However, the barometers typically used to
measure congestion provide only a snapshot of a select dimension of
a city's transportation system and fail to accurately reflect how
easy it is to reach destinations. Comprehensive and policy relevant
measures useful to land-use and transportation planning need to
capture both land use and travel dimensions.
This book focuses on the science and policy around the
multi-modal concept of accessibility. If the goal is to create
physical environments that are accessible, this work provides an up
Ken Livingstone was elected Mayor of London on a platform that
included a congestion charge for central London, a policy that
became reality on 17 February 2003. Richards uses his experience as
Director of a bliog2.5 million Government congestion charging
study, as one of those who created the scheme Livingstone adopted
and as advisor to the London Assembly, to provide a critical record
of the introduction of the London Congestion Charge, and of its
implications for congestion charging elsewhere.
Numerous books have been written which deal with transport problems
in developed and developing countries, and with the planning and
management of transport organisations in developed countries, but
none deals specifically with the planning, regulation, management
and control of public transport in developing countries.
This book meets that need. It examines and explains the problems
and characteristics of public transport systems in developing
countries, and discusses the alternative modes, management methods,
and forms of ownership, control, regulation and funding, with
particular emphasis on what is appropriate at different stages of
development and for different cultural backgrounds. It deals with
urban, rural and long distance transport services, principally by
road. This emphasis reflects the magnitude of the urban transport
problem, and the predominance of road transport in most developing
countries. The planning of bus services, particularly in urban
areas, is covered in some detail, since this is often an area of
considerable weakness. Similarly, the management of transport
services and the maintenance of vehicles, including vehicle design
and transport fleet planning, are also dealt with in depth.
The book is aimed at all those who are involved in the provision
of public transport in developing countries, including transport
planners, managers of transport undertakings, aid agency and
government officials responsible for the funding, provision or
regulation of transport, transport consultants and advisers, and in
particular students of transport or urban and rural affairs. Since
there is much in common between transport operations in the
developing world and indeveloped countries, this book should be of
interest to transport operators and planners everywhere.
David Bennetts latest book focuses on the fusion of innovative architecture and engineering on London Undergrounds Jubilee Line Extension.The book highlights the complexity of the engineering involved and the difficulties of creating architecture in reverse (a building as a hole in the ground with no elevation and with problems of light and entrance).Based on interviews with the architects, contractors and engineers involved on the project,each station is introduced in turn highlighting the design conception and constructional issues.
Schedule-Based Dynamic Transit Modeling: Theory and Applications outlines the new schedule-based dynamic approach to mass transit modeling. In the last ten years the schedule-based dynamic approach has been developed and applied especially for operational planning. It allows time evolution of on-board loads and travel times for each run of each line to be obtained, and uses behavioral hypotheses strictly related to transit systems and user characteristics. It allows us to open new frontiers in transit modelling to support network design, timetable setting, investigation of congestion effects, as well as the assessment of new technologies introduction, such as information to users (ITS technologies).
The contributors and editors of the book are leading researchers in the field of transportation, and in this volume they build a solid foundation for developing still more sophisticated models. These future models of mass transit systems will continue to add higher levels of accuracy and sensitivity desired in forecasting the performance of public transport systems.
Transit-oriented development (TOD) seeks to maximize access to mass transit and nonmotorized transportation with centrally located rail or bus stations surrounded by relatively high-density commercial and residential development. New Urbanists and smart growth proponents have embraced the concept and interest in TOD is growing, both in the United States and around the world.
"New Transit Town" brings together leading experts in planning,
transportation, and sustainable design--including Scott Bernstein,
Peter Calthorpe, Jim Daisa, Sharon Feigon, Ellen Greenberg, David
Hoyt, Dennis Leach, and Shelley Poticha--to examine the first
generation of TOD projects and derive lessons for the next
generation. It offers topic chapters that provide detailed
discussion of key issues along with case studies that present an
in-depth look at specific projects. Topics examined include: -the
history of projects and the appeal of this form of development -a
taxonomy of TOD projects appropriate for different contexts and
scales -the planning, policy and regulatory framework of
"successful" projects -obstacles to financing and strategies for
overcoming those obstacles -issues surrounding traffic and parking
-the roles of all the actors involved and the resources available
to them -performance measures that can be used to evaluate
Case Studies include Arlington, Virginia (Roslyn-Ballston corridor); Dallas (Mockingbird Station and Addison Circle); historic transit-oriented neighborhoods in Chicago; Atlanta (Lindbergh Center and BellSouth); San Jose (Ohlone-Chynoweth); and San Diego (Barrio Logan).
"New Transit Town" explores the key challenges to transit-oriented development, examines the lessons learned from the first generation of projects, and uses a systematic examination and analysis of a broad spectrum of projects to set standards for the next generation. It is a vital new source of information for anyone interested in urban and regional planning and development, including planners, developers, community groups, transit agency staff, and finance professionals.
The reliability of transportation networks has become an increasingly important issue as sustained economic growth and improvements to the quality of life around the world lead to increases in the value of time. Consequently, schedules and routes need to be able to accommodate the unexpected, like accidents, disasters or traffic flow fluctuations, with as little loss in operational efficiency as possible. Sources of unreliability include variation of demand and supply. It is widely expected that network reliability analysis will play a more important role in the planning, design and management of transportation facilities and networks in the future. This book is an outcome of the First International Symposium on Transport Network Reliability (INSTR), held at Kyoto in 2001, and consists of 24 selected papers. It covers various aspects of transport network reliability, such as definitions and methodological developments for reliability indices, behavioural analysis under uncertainty, evaluation methods for the disaster resistance of transport networks, and simulation/observation of travel time reliability.
Flexible Urban Transportation is a sweeping reassessment of
American highway and transit policy. For the last half-century,
this policy has been fixated on planning, designing and
constructing the Interstate highway system, and then coping with
the creative destruction it wrought.
"Everything should be made as simple as possible-but not simpler" Albert Einstein Traffic Theory, like all other sciences, aims at understanding and improving a physical phenomenon. The phenomenon addressed by Traffic Theory is, of course, automobile traffic, and the problems associated with it such as traffic congestion. But what causes congestion? Some time in the 1970s, Doxiades coined the term "oikomenopolis" (and "oikistics") to describe the world as man's living space. In Doxiades' terms, persons are associated with a living space around them, which describes the range that they can cover through personal presence. In the days of old, when the movement of people was limited to walking, an individual oikomenopolis did not intersect many others. The automobile changed all that. The term "range of good" was also coined to describe the maximal distance a person can and is willing to go in order to do something useful or buy something. Traffic congestion is caused by the intersection of a multitude of such "ranges of good" of many people exercising their range utilisation at the same time. Urban structures containing desirable structures contribute to this intersection of "ranges of good." xii Preface In a biblical mood, I opened a 1970 paper entitled "Traffic Control -- From Hand Signals to Computers" with the sentence: "In the beginning there was the Ford."
This book collects selected presentations of the Meeting of the EURO Working Group on Transportation, which took place at the Department of Ma- ematics at Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (or, Gothenburg), Sweden, September 9-11, 1998. [The EURO Working Group on Transpor- tion was founded at the end of the 7th EURO Summer Institute on Urban Traffic Management, which took place in Cetraro, Italy, June 21-July, 1991. There were around 30 founding members of the Working Group, a number which now has grown to around 150. Meetings since then include Paris (1993), Barcelona (1994), and Newcastle (1996). ] About 100 participants were present, enjoying healthy rain and a memorable conference dinner in the Feskekorka. The total number of presentations at the conference was about 60, coming from quite diverse areas within the field of operations research in transportation, and covering all modes of transport: Deterministic traffic equilibrium models (6 papers) Stochastic traffic equilibrium models (5 papers) Combined traffic models (3 papers) Dynamic traffic models (7 papers) Simulation models (4 papers) Origin-destination matrix estimation (2 papers) Urban public transport models (8 papers) Aircraft scheduling (1 paper) Ship routing (2 papers) Railway planning and scheduling (6 papers) Vehicle routing (3 papers) Traffic management (3 papers) Signal control models (3 papers) Transportation systems analysis (5 papers) ix x TRANSPORTATION PLANNING Among these papers, 14 were eventually selected to be included in this volume.
Travel behaviour interacts in a deep way with how we work and play. Social, intellectual, economic and technological forces continually influence the spatial and temporal activity patterns of individuals and businesses. Developments in the production, dissemination, and consumption of information have important implications for how we use our time, and how we pursue the various work, sustenance and leisure activities of our daily existence. This book provides an authoritative assessment of the state-of-the-art in travel behaviour research and applications, and identifies the principal emerging trends, challenges and opportunities in this important area of transportation research.
Transport causes a wide range of damage to human health, ecosytems and materials which are not reflected in the prices for transport. Thus, the damage caused by cars, planes, ships and trains should be known and transformed into monetary values, so called external costs. Within this book, a method to estimate the external costs stemming from the emissions of atmospheric pollutants of transport, including damage from greenhouse gases, fine particles, ozone, nitrous oxides, benzene and other carcinogenic substances, is described and applied to calculate the external costs of a huge number of current and future transport techniques operating in different locations all over Europe. A number of case studies demonstrate how the results can be used to aid policy decisions. The book is an important basis for assessing transport techniques, discussing transport taxes and charges and implementing ecopolitical instruments.
Several of the papers in this volume are concerned with assessing both the timing and the impacts of deregulation and regulatory reform in the US transportation sector. Of increasing interest is the importance of productivity growth and the role played by new technologies in a more competitive market environment. Four of the papers in this volume deal directly with these issues in the context of motor carriers and railroads, two sectors which have been operating under substantially reduced regulatory constraints for the past twenty years in the US. Although the financial condition of US railroads has improved since 1980, there is still some concern regarding their long run viability as private enterprises. Accordingly, one of the papers considers the potential for further reductions in railroad costs through transcontinental mergers, a controversial issue due to the small number of railroads that remain in the industry.
This book contains selected papers from the presentations given at the 7th EURO-Working Group Meeting on 'Iransportation, which took place at the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), Finland, during August 2-4, 1999. Altogether 31 presentations were given and 14 full papers have been selected in this publication through a peer review process coordinated by the editors. The papers in this book cover a wide range of transportation problems from the simulation of railway traffic to optimum congestion tolling and mode choice modeling with stated preference data. In general, the variety of papers clearly demonstrates the wide areas of interest of people who are involved in the research of transportation systems and their operation. They as well demonstrate the importance and possibilities of modeling and theoretical approaches in the analysis of transportation systems and problem solving. Most of the papers are purely theoretical in nature, that is, they present a theoretical model with only a hypothetical example of applica tion. There are, however, some papers, which are closer to the practice or describe applications of and give interesting results of studies made by known methodologies. It is especially noteworthy, that half of the accepted papers deal with planning and operation of public transport."
This study offers guidelines for pedestrian and bicycle traffic in African cities. The text is based on the combination of studies and test findings obtained in pilot projects carried out in Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Eldoret and Morogoro between 1995 and 2000.
Completely updated and containing two new chapters, this title covers spatial analysis and urban management using graph theory simulation.? Highly practical, the simulation approach allows readers to solve classic problems such as placement of high-speed roads, the capacity of a network, pollution emission control, and more.
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