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Explaining in detail how new e-mobility technologies work, and the system requirements which must be fulfilled for these new technologies to be implemented, this book augments this analysis with discussion of the business models, financing and social and economic conditions that will foster the emergence of a new e-mobility industry. New e-mobility technologies and business models will initiate changes in work patterns and in our personal choices on transportation means. This book looks at how smart cities may apply the "internet of things" to the transportation environment and how this may create a complete set of new technologies and service offerings that will enable the advent of the unmanned vehicle society. This e-mobility revolution will disrupt the transport market and bring opportunities and threats for many potential actors. These consequences are analysed within. This book is suitable for anyone interested in the e-mobility revolution and its impact on the future of cars, buses and trains.
In a context where climate change urgently requires us to alter our paradigms, this book explores the possibilities of cities that are both more energy efficient and more respectful of the environment. Based on the observation that urban planning has been detrimentally affected by the compartmentalization of knowledge and practices, this book is conceived as a dialog between transport and urban planning on the one hand, and between engineering and social science on the other. Systemic analysis and a historical approach, integrating the teachings of the last two centuries, constitute at the methodological level the framework in which this dialog unfolds. Based on examples of good practice, Transport and Town Planning identifies an effective set of levers of action and proposes an original method to guide and accompany urban transition with a large share of the initiative reserved for the actors concerned.
Since the early 1980s, the periodic debate over the reauthorization of federal surface transportation programs has been primarily about money and its distribution. In each of the five reauthorizations that took place during that period, the federal fuel taxes and other sources of revenue dedicated to the highway trust were reliably providing the various surface transportation programs with more money year after year. In 2009, this was not the case. For the first time in decades, driving declined significantly, with a concomitant decrease in fuel tax revenues. Going forward the program cannot count on new money from the familiar sources. The law authorising federal surface transportation programs expired at the end of 2009, but Congress has failed to enact a new authorisation. This book examines the surface transportation program reauthorization issues for the 112th Congress; funding and finance; the Donor-Donee State issue of funding equity and federalism issues in surface transportation policy.
This book on road traffic congestion in cities and suburbs describes congestion problems and shows how they can be relieved. The first part (Chapters 1 - 3) shows how congestion reflects transportation technologies and settlement patterns. The second part (Chapters 4 - 13) describes the causes, characteristics, and consequences of congestion. The third part (Chapters 14 - 23) presents various relief strategies - including supply adaptation and demand mitigation - for nonrecurring and recurring congestion. The last part (Chapter 24) gives general guidelines for congestion relief and provides a general outlook for the future. The book will be useful for a wide audience - including students, practitioners and researchers in a variety of professional endeavors: traffic engineers, transportation planners, public transport specialists, city planners, public administrators, and private enterprises that depend on transportation for their activities.
This edited collection brings together feminist research on transport and planning from different epistemologies, with the intention to contribute to a more holistic transport planning practice. With a feminist perspective on transport policy and planning, the volume insists on the political character of transport planning and policy, and challenges gender-blindness in a policy area that impacts the everyday lives of women, men, girls, and boys. The chapters discuss everyday mobility as an embodied and situated activity in both conceptual and theoretical ways and suggest practical tools for change. The contributions of this collection are threefold: integrating gender research and transport planning, combining quantitative and qualitative gender research perspectives and methods, and highlighting the need to acknowledge the politicization of transport planning and transport practice.
CONTENTS: Roads, Pro - Poor & Pro - Growth Provision of Road Infrastructure in India; Issues & Strategies; Maintaining Highways on Maintain-Operate-Transfer Basis: A Business Model to Commercialize Highways in India; The Crisis of Public Transport in India: Overwhelming Needs but Limited Resources; Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Indian Roads-Development with Responsibility; Road Transport & Poverty Reduction in Tanzania; Guide to Process & Code of Practice for National Road Project Planning & Acquisition of Property for National Roads; All Roads Lead to Vietnam' s Danang; Linkages Between Infrastructure & Economic Growth; Implications of Selected Urban Road Tolling Policies for New Zealand (Executive Summary); The Road from Mumbai to Pune; Asphalt Net Covers China's West; Generated Traffic & Induced Travel Implications for Transport Planning.
This book presents a history of roundabouts, an introduction to their design, calculations of their capacity and traffic-safety features. It describes the key features of standard roundabouts and their limitations. Alternative types of roundabouts are a fairly recent development and have only been implemented in a few countries to date. The book illustrates a broad variety of these recent alternative types of roundabouts, as well as proposed types still in the development phase, explaining for each the specific needs it meets, its advantages and drawbacks. In closing, the book offers an outlook on the role of roundabouts in future street traffic.
The increasing use of cellular phones has served as a catalyst for growing interest in driver distraction in recent years. While the use of cellular phones poses a significant and increasing risk to roadway safety, studies show that it represents a relatively small proportion of a bigger distraction program. This book examines current knowledge on driver distraction to help state and local governments formulate effective policies, regulations and laws relating to this challenging issue.
Eurocorridors are characterized by intensive transport flows and dynamic patterns of establishment and household locations. They are also considered the backbones of powerful spatial and economic forces in the areas that connect urban regions. One of the main difficulties in the spatial planning of eurocorridors has been the need to engage in different types of collective action. Such an approach can be extremely challenging in practice, useful to researchers in the fieldand to professionals as well.
In the light of this, the book s main objectives are:
- To define the problem by analyzing the key features, which include freight and passenger transport policies and issues; the territorial context, with its geographical, social, economic and cultural aspects; the plurality of subjects with different aims and resources and the lack of homogeneous information.
- To illustrate assessment models and evaluation frameworks (MCDA; Discrete Choice Analysis; Collaborative Assessments; Geovisualization Technologies) in theoretical terms and by the use of case studies."
Airlines have imposed a variety of fees on a range of optional services, such as checked and carry-on bags; meals; blankets; early boarding; and seat selection. According to airline officials, the fees are based on a combination of factors, including the cost of providing the service, competition, and consumer demand. The fees have supplemented airline revenues, providing at least $3 billion in 2009. However, information about the fees is not fully disclosed through all ticket distribution channels used by consumers, making it difficult for them to compare the total cost of flights offered by different carriers. This book addresses the nature and relationship to cost and disclosure of airline fees; the potential impact of such fees on the Airport and Airway Trust Fund; checked and mishandled baggage issues; and the process, if any, for refunding government-imposed taxes and fees when passengers do not use non-refundable tickets.
The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is the federal agency primarily responsible for safety in the rail industry. FRA's safety programs were last authorised in 1994; their authorisation expired in 1998. Most measures of rail safety have improved significantly since FRA's last authorisation, including the number of grade crossing collisions and fatalities and the number of employee injuries and deaths. However, the improvements in safety measures have levelled off in recent years. Given significant projected continued increases in freight and passenger rail activity in the coming decade, there is concern that without additional efforts, some of the gain of the past decade may be lost. This book explores the issues, regulations and safety of U.S. railroads.
Transport economics and policy analysis is a field which has seen major advances in methodology in recent decades. The transport sector has many unique characteristics - non-storability, economies of scale and scope, indivisibilities and the extensive production of positive and negative externalities - that need careful consideration in any analysis. The aim of this Handbook is to provide an overview of the essential research methods with illustrations of how they are applied in practice. The book is divided into six sections - transport costs, externalities, transport demand, pricing and investment, deregulation and privatisation, and transport policy impacts. Each section comprises several chapters, divided by mode of transport or other relevant factor. Some of the unique features include: * a comprehensive overview of methods used in transport economics and policy analysis from leading researchers in the field * up-to-date methodology for analysing transport costs and demand * examples of how to value the full range of externalities of transport, including both costs and benefits * guidance on how to assess the impact of privatisation and (de)regulation, with examples from local public transport, rail and air * identification of the relevant factors involved in transport pricing, including roads, public transport, ports and airports * an analysis of the neglected topic of equity in transport. This illustrative overview of research methods will be essential to researchers, students and practitioners in academia, government and business.
The future is urban. Indeed, the battle for sustainable development will be won or lost in cities. Not a moment too soon, then, that urbanization is suddenly at the centre of global policy making. In 2015 the governments of the UN adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and in 2016 they adopted the New Urban Agenda. However, the question of how these Agendas will be pursued concretely remains. Unfortunately, the prevailing model is rigidly technocratic Charter of Athens from 1933-the strict functionalist separation of activities that it prescribes still dominates planning practices worldwide. The purpose of The Quito Papers and the New Urban Agenda is to start a discussion that both challenges this status quo and opens up new lines of enquiry. It intentionally does not propose a manifesto made up of simplistic slogans and recommendations as cities in the 21st century are more fragile and complex. Its content, therefore, is intentionally broad, ranging from architecture, planning and urban design, to land ownership and regulation, water management and environmental philosophy. This multifaceted assembly of perspectives critiques the tenets of the Charter of Athens, identify new trends and propose new insights on contemporary urbanization. Part One outlines the overall challenges facing cities in the 21st century and Part Two offers a number of conceptual frameworks and approaches for dealing with those challenges. Each Part is also composed of a body of illustrated arguments, synthesized from selectively-abridged background papers from over 15 commissioned authors, interspersed with in-depth papers.
The SAGE Handbook of Transport Studies is an authoritative survey of contemporary transportation systems examined in terms of economic, social, and technical issues, as well as environmental challenges. Incorporating an extensive range of approaches - from modes, terminals, planning and policy to more recent developments related to supply chain management, information systems and sustainability/ecology - the work provides a cohesive and extensive overview of transport studies.
Authored by international experts in their field, each individual chapter bridges a broad range of conceptual, theoretical and geographical perspectives, and the Handbook is divided into six sections:
- Transport in the Global World
- Transport in Regions and Localities
- Transport, Economy and Society
- Transport Policy
- Transport Networks and Models
- Transport and the Environment
This Handbook will be an indispensible resource for academics, planners, and policy-makers.
Traffic accidents (TAs) represent a significant public health issue and are associated with behavioral factors, vehicles safeties and conditions of the urban spaces. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, road crashes are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are many studies showing that children and adolescents may suffer significant and long-lasting psychosocial consequences following TAs. Countless research has been conducted during the last decades aiming to investigate the relationship between driver behavior and road features. This book provides new research on traffic accidents and safety.
Road safety is an important sustainable development goal, yet relatively underappreciated and greatly underfunded. Every year, more than 1.2 million people are killed globally while another 50 million are injured as a consequence of road traffic accidents. Approximately 90% of all road accidents now happen in low- and middle-income countries.Recognizing the need to support member States in urgently and effectively addressing road safety challenges, three of the United Nations regional commissions initiated the project: "Strengthening the national road safety management capacities of selected developing countries and countries with economies in transition". The project aimed to assist four countries to enhance their national road safety management capacities and to effectively address and improve their national road safety records. The project was implemented in Albania, Dominican Republic, Georgia and Viet Nam. The Road Safety Performance Reviews assessed the current road safety situation, helped the Governments concerned to identify the most critical road safety issues and recommended actions to be taken. Based on the identified priority needs, capacity-building seminars and workshops for national road safety stakeholders were organized. Additionally, the project raised public awareness on road safety issues and sensitized national experts, as well as the public and non-governmental sectors to the need to set ambitious road safety targets and implement specific measures to improve road safety.
The coming of the railways in the 1830s killed off the stage-coach trade; almost all rural roads reverted to low-level local use. Cyclists were the first group in a generation to use roads and were the first to push for high-quality leadership for roads. They were also the first promoters of motoring; the first motoring journalists had first been cycling journalists; and there was a transfer of technology from cycling to motoring without which cars as we know them wouldn't exist! 64 car marques, including Rolls-Royce, Aston Martin, Chevrolet, Cadillac and GMC, had bicycling beginnings. Roads Were Not Built for Cars is a history book, focussing on a time when cyclists had political clout, in Britain and especially in America. The book researches the Roads Improvement Association - a lobbying group created by the Cyclists' Touring Club in 1886 - and the Good Roads movement organised by the League of American Wheelmen in the same period.
Delivering a sustainable transport system is not just a matter of adopting a number of technological innovations to improve performance in terms of people, planet, and profits. A broader structural and societal transition is needed in technology, as well as in institutions, behavioural patterns, and the economy as a whole. In this broader view, neither the free market nor the public sector will be the unique key player in making this transition happen. Elements of such an approach are presented in this book in a number of domains: integrating transport infrastructure and land use planning, thus connecting fields that are rather unconnected in day-to-day policies; experiments with dynamic transport optimization, including reports on pilot projects to test the viability of transitions; towards reliable transport systems, describing a reversal from supply-driven towards demand-driven approaches; and sustainable logistics and traffic management, from 'local' city distribution to global closed supply chain loops.
For the first time in half a century, real transformative innovations are coming to our world of passenger transportation. The convergence of new shared mobility services with automated and electric vehicles promises to significantly reshape our lives and communities for the better--or for the worse. The dream scenario could bring huge public and private benefits, including more transportation choices, greater affordability and accessibility, and healthier, more livable cities, along with reduced greenhouse gas emissions. The nightmare scenario could bring more urban sprawl, energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and unhealthy cities and individuals. In Three Revolutions, transportation expert Dan Sperling, along with seven other leaders in the field, share research-based insights on potential public benefits and impacts of the three transportation revolutions. They describe innovative ideas and partnerships, and explore the role government policy can play in steering the new transportation paradigm toward the public interest--toward our dream scenario of social equity, environmental sustainability, and urban livability. Many factors will influence these revolutions--including the willingness of travelers to share rides and eschew car ownership; continuing reductions in battery, fuel cell, and automation costs; and the adaptiveness of companies. But one of the most important factors is policy. Three Revolutions offers policy recommendations and provides insight and knowledge that could lead to wiser choices by all. With this book, Sperling and his collaborators hope to steer these revolutions toward the public interest and a better quality of life for everyone.
"Mobility and Environment" calls for a mobility revolution which does not simply mean taking a bus instead of a car: it implies a dramatic shift in the political debate from a technical to a political culture. The author introduces his book by disputing non-political Sustainable Development policies which are among the major culprits for the conservatism in environmental policies.
For at least forty years, urban mobility policies, based on compulsive infrastructure building, have failed both in satisfying transportation demand and in coping with high environmental impacts. Nonetheless decision-makers keep employing the same professionals and therefore they act as shepherds who commit their sheep in the wolf s custody. Corrado Poli treats mobility policy as a political, ethical, social and educational issue rather than as a mere civil engineering one.
"Mobility and Environment "challenges some deeply entrenched professional and economic monopolies which negatively affect urban and transportation planning in North America and Europe, and argues the old idea which bounded transportation and communication. A real environmentalist effort in traffic planning should begin from new technologies and from the analysis of citizens preferences. A series of new projects are presented which include mobility demand reduction and focus on democracy in planning."
Forecasting Urban Travel presents in a non-mathematical way the evolution of methods, models and theories underpinning travel forecasts and policy analysis, from the early urban transportation studies of the 1950s to current applications throughout the urbanized world. From original documents, correspondence and interviews, especially from the United States and the United Kingdom, the authors seek to capture the spirit and problems faced in different eras, as changing information requirements, computing technology and planning objectives conditioned the nature of forecasts. With over 1000 references, the book charts the key ideas relating to land use, travel demand, network costs and flows, and their interactions, from both research and practice to the present states of the art. The authors examine the widening scope and variety of models for analysing and forecasting personal travel and goods movement, identifying contributions from economics, psychology, geography, regional science, operational research, transportation engineering and mathematics. Finally, they offer their views of the future directions and requirements facing the field. Offering a historical presentation of urban forecasting models covering six decades, accessible to a wide range of students, researchers and planners, this book will be of great interest to undergraduate and graduate students in transportation courses in civil engineering, economics, geography, regional science and planning. Through its discussion of critiques and missed opportunities as travel demand, network and land- use transportation models evolved, the book will also serve as a valuable resource for teachers, academic researchers and practitioners in travel behaviour and forecasting.
This volume explores the governance patterns of three cities of the Americas, Seattle, Montreal, and Curitiba, which all present different but interesting cases in dealing with sustainable urban transport challenges. The authors study empirical data from these three cities to analyze how specific governmental and policy instruments (planning, consultation and market mechanisms for example) were implemented in each case. Through concepts coming from policy studies and sociology, for example, such as path dependency, institutional culture and transaction costs, the three cities are also looked at in a broader perspective in order to better understand how they deal differently with their common challenges.
Public transportation in rural areas can be critical to connecting people to jobs, shopping, and health services. The Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Formula Grants for Rural Areas Program (rural transit program) is FTA's only dedicated grant program for rural and tribal transit. FTA apportions nearly all program funds to states. This book examines FTA's funding, oversight, and other support for the rural transit program; changes in services, ridership, and costs since 2009; and challenges that rural and tribal transit providers face and possible actions to address them.
The understanding of empirical traf?c congestion occurring on unsignalized mul- lane highways and freeways is a key for effective traf?c management, control, or- nization, and other applications of transportation engineering. However, the traf?c ?ow theories and models that dominate up to now in transportation research journals and teaching programs of most universities cannot explain either traf?c breakdown or most features of the resulting congested patterns. These theories are also the - sis of most dynamic traf?c assignment models and freeway traf?c control methods, which therefore are not consistent with features of real traf?c. For this reason, the author introduced an alternative traf?c ?ow theory called three-phase traf?c theory, which can predict and explain the empirical spatiot- poral features of traf?c breakdown and the resulting traf?c congestion. A previous book "The Physics of Traf?c" (Springer, Berlin, 2004) presented a discussion of the empirical spatiotemporal features of congested traf?c patterns and of three-phase traf?c theory as well as their engineering applications. Rather than a comprehensive analysis of empirical and theoretical results in the ?eld, the present book includes no more empirical and theoretical results than are necessary for the understanding of vehicular traf?c on unsignalized multi-lane roads. The main objectives of the book are to present an "elementary" traf?c ?ow theory and control methods as well as to show links between three-phase traf?c t- ory and earlier traf?c ?ow theories. The need for such a book follows from many commentsofcolleaguesmadeafterpublicationofthebook"ThePhysicsofTraf?c."
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