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As the environment becomes more fragile, existing transportation networks are more and more strained. Issues such as food miles and embodied energy in goods and products will become far more significant. Personal carbon quotas are likely to force a re-evaluation of our current lifestyles and single trips will carry greater levels of expectation. Casual long distance travel may be socially decried.
This book looks at the varied bus companies that once served this Sussex market town from the turn of the twentieth century to the present day. Laurie James tells of the ups and downs of the humble companies that operate bus services in and around Horsham. Profusely illustrated with many images, the book will be of interest to both locals and bus enthusiasts alike.
Les amendements qui figurent dans la presente publication ont ete adoptes par le Comite a sa sixieme session (14 decembre 2012). Les amendements comprennent: des modifications aux epreuves de la serie 7 relatives a la classification des objets explosibles extremement peu sensibles; des modifications aux epreuves de la serie 8 relatives a la classification des emulsions, suspensions ou gels de nitrate d'ammonium servant a la fabrication d'explosifs de mine (ENA); des modifications aux epreuves de la serie H permettant de determiner la temperature de decomposition auto-acceleree des peroxydes et des matieres auto-reactives; des modifications aux procedures a suivre pour le classement des matieres explosibles desensibilisees liquides et des liquides inflammables de la classe 3; une nouvelle methode d epreuve pour les matieres comburantes solides; des modifications a l epreuve T6 pour les piles au lithium.
Hurricane Katrina: Performance of Transportation Systems is a comprehensive evaluation of the gulf coast's bridge, railroad, and roadway performance following Hurricane Katrina. While the failure of the levees in New Orleans attracted most media attention, other infrastructure also suffered significant damage. Throughout the gulf coast, bridges sustained minor to major damage, with several in Mississippi and Louisiana completely collapsing. Similarly, countless railways and roads were impeded by massive piles of debris. This book is thorough and compelling account of Hurricane Katrina's devastating impact upon the gulf coast's major transportation systems. Topics in this report include: Overview of Hurricane Katrina and Damage; Emergency Preparedness; Highway Bridges, Railroad, and Roadway Performance and Repair; Rerouting and Traffic Demands; Impact on New Design; and, Conclusions and Lessons Learned.
The construction and operation of highways has a significant impact on the environment. While such impact is impossible to avoid, modern highways are constructed and landscaped to minimise these impacts as far as possible. Good landscaping minimises the impact on those living or working close to the highway, while at the same time regenerating the natural landscape disturbed during construction. Using as its background the successful landscape design of the Nanjing-Hangzhou Expressway in Jiangsu Province, China, which opened to traffic in 2007, Highway Landscape Design includes reference to all aspects of the landscaping of highways, including interchanges, embankments, central reservations, bridges, service and toll station areas, and drainage systems. Appropriate consideration is given to the negative impact on the surrounding environment during the process of construction and it discusses the ecological evaluation and conservation strategy for the highway route. China is in some respects at the forefront of highway landscape design as a result of rapid growth and development coupled with the financial resources to implement major infrastructure works, and the concepts, technologies and methods developed for this Expressway provide valuable experience for sustainable development strategies for such infrastructure.
To best serve current and future generations, infrastructure needs to be resilient to the changing world while using limited resources in a sustainable manner. Research on and funding towards sustainability and resilience are growing rapidly, and significant research is being carried out at a number of institutions and centers worldwide. This handbook brings together current research on sustainable and resilient infrastructure and, in particular, stresses the fundamental nexus between sustainability and resilience. It aims to coalesce work from a large and diverse group of contributors across a wide range of disciplines including engineering, technology and informatics, urban planning, public policy, economics, and finance. Not only does it present a theoretical formulation of sustainability and resilience but it also demonstrates how these ideals can be realized in practice. This work will provide a reference text to students and scholars of a number of disciplines.
We all use some form of transport almost every day of our lives. It is one of the most important factors in determining the economic wellbeing of a town or city. And it is also one of the major sources of environmental damage to our planet. Yet, Britain has never had a coherent transport policy. Transport ministers are regarded as insignificant compared with their colleagues in other ministries. Successive governments have failed to get to grips with the twin challenge of getting people around cheaply and safely while safeguarding the environment. In this entertaining polemic, Christian Wolmar, a former national newspaper journalist who has written about transport for over two decades, explains why politicians have never got to grips with the issue, sets out the problems this has caused and points to a few rational solutions.
This unique monograph, a classic in its field, provides an account of the development of models and methods for the problem of estimating equilibrium traffic flows in urban areas. The text further demonstrates the scope and limits of current models. Some familiarity with nonlinear programming theory and techniques is assumed. 1994 edition.
Roads matter to people. This claim is central to the work of Penny Harvey and Hannah Knox, who in this book use the example of highway building in South America to explore what large public infrastructural projects can tell us about contemporary state formation, social relations, and emerging political economies.Roads focuses on two main sites: the interoceanic highway currently under construction between Brazil and Peru, a major public/private collaboration that is being realized within new, internationally ratified regulatory standards; and a recently completed one-hundred-kilometer stretch of highway between Iquitos, the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon, and a small town called Nauta, one of the earliest colonial settlements in the Amazon. The Iquitos-Nauta highway is one of the most expensive roads per kilometer on the planet.Combining ethnographic and historical research, Harvey and Knox shed light on the work of engineers and scientists, bureaucrats and construction company officials. They describe how local populations anticipated each of the road projects, even getting deeply involved in questions of exact routing as worries arose that the road would benefit some more than others. Connectivity was a key recurring theme as people imagined the prosperity that will come by being connected to other parts of the country and with other parts of the world. Sweeping in scope and conceptually ambitious, Roads tells a story of global flows of money, goods, and people-and of attempts to stabilize inherently unstable physical and social environments.
Communities are embracing a new and safer way to build streets for everyone - even as they struggle to change decades of rules, practice, and politics that prioritise cars. They have discovered that changing the design of a single street is not enough: they must upend the way transportation agencies operate. Completing Our Streets begins with the story of how the complete streets movement united bicycle riders, transportation practitioners and agencies, public health leaders, older people, and smart growth advocates to dramatically re-frame the discussion of transportation safety. Next, it explores why the transportation field has been so resistant to change - and how the movement has broken through to create a new multi-modal approach. In Completing Our Streets, Barbara McCann, explains that the movement is not about street design. Instead, practitioners and activists have changed the way projects are built by focusing on three strategies: reframe the conversation; build a broad base of political support; and provide a clear path to a multi-modal process. McCann shares stories of practitioners in cities and towns who have embraced these strategies to fundamentally change the way transportation projects are chosen, planned, and built. The complete streets movement is based around a simple idea: streets should be safe for people of all ages and abilities, whether they are walking, driving, bicycling, or taking the bus. Completing Our Streets gives practitioners and activists the strategies, tools, and inspiration needed to translate this idea into real and lasting change in their communities.
Seventy percent of the oil America uses each year goes to transportation. In "Transport Beyond Oil", leading experts show how to slash that statistic and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The authors demonstrate that smarter development and land use decisions, paired with better transportation systems, can dramatically lower energy consumption. John Renne calculates how oil can be saved through a future with more transit-oriented development. Petra Todorovitch examines the promise of high speed rail. Peter Newman envisions 100 per cent oil-free cities through the development of electric-transit, renewable natural gas, and other sustainable energy sources. Additional topics include funding transit, freight transport, and non-motorised transportation systems. Each chapter provides policy prescriptions and their measurable results. "Transport Beyond Oil" delivers practical solutions, based on quantitative data. This fact-based approach offers a new vision of travel that is both transformational and achievable.
In car-clogged urban areas across the world, the humble bicycle is enjoying a second life as a legitimate form of transportation. City officials are rediscovering it as a multi-pronged (or -spoked) solution to acute, 21st-century problems, including affordability, obesity, congestion, climate change, inequity, and social isolation. As the world's foremost cycling nation, the Netherlands is the only country where the number of bikes exceeds the number of people, primarily because the Dutch have built a cycling culture accessible to everyone, regardless of age, ability, or economic means. Chris and Melissa Bruntlett share the incredible success of the Netherlands through engaging interviews with local experts and stories of their own delightful experiences riding in five Dutch cities. Building the Cycling City examines the triumphs and challenges of the Dutch while also presenting stories of North American cities already implementing lessons from across the Atlantic. Discover how Dutch cities inspired Atlanta to look at its transit-bike connection in a new way and showed Seattle how to teach its residents to realize the freedom of biking, along with other encouraging examples. Tellingly, the Dutch have two words for people who ride bikes: wielrenner ("wheel runner") and fietser ("cyclist"), the latter making up the vast majority of people pedaling on their streets, and representing a far more accessible, casual, and inclusive style of urban cycling-walking with wheels. Outside of their borders, a significant cultural shift is needed to seamlessly integrate the bicycle into everyday life and create a whole world of fietsers. The Dutch blueprint focuses on how people in a particular place want to move.
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) provides about $40 billion to the states annually to build and maintain highways and bridges through the federal-aid highway program. This book describes the process and factors that could affect highway project time frames; examines state DOTs' views on the benefits and challenges of the provisions to expedite highway projects established in SAFETEA-LU and describes additional initiatives that state DOTs and FHWA have implemented to expedite the completion of highway projects.
The National Weather Service (NWS) plays a significant role in providing weather services to the aviation community. NWS's weather products and data are vital components of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) air traffic control system, providing weather information to local, regional, and national air traffic management, navigation, and surveillance systems. NWS aviation weather products include forecasts and warnings of meteorological conditions that could affect air traffic, including thunderstorms, air turbulence, and icing. This book examines options for enhancing the efficiency of aviation weather services provided at en-route centres, with a focus on meteorological services and winter safety.
The twenty thematic chapters in this book provide a broad set of perspectives on the plight, possibilities and opportunities of urban transport in the developing world, set against the challenges of sustainable development. The contributors expertly set the international context of transport policy-making and planning for developing cities and present a critical review of recent developments that have taken place and which offer lessons for the future. The special features that distinguish this book are: its multiple institutional perspectives on transport in urban development of developing cities; its efforts to link sustainability with urban transport and other development concerns; and its understanding of the consequences of globalism in choices and obligations for urban transport. This Handbook will prove invaluable for professional practitioners and academics engaged in and concerned with the future of movement in cities of the developing world. It will also be of interest to students of urban transport and city planning, particularly those from developing countries. Politicians, policy-makers and international development agencies and investors, as well as those working for international non-government organizations wishing to familiarize themselves with the mounting transportation challenges of developing cities, will also find this book a source of inspiration.
This book examines greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels and trends from the transportation sector and analyses the full range of strategies available to reduce these emissions. These strategies include introducing low-carbon fuels, increasing vehicle fuel economy, improving transportation system efficiency, and reducing carbon-intensive travel activity. Policy options for implementing these strategies are also discussed, including an economy-wide price signal; efficiency standards; market incentives; transportation planning and funding programs and research and development.
City distribution plays a key role in supporting urban lifestyles, helping to serve and retain industrial and trading activities, and contributing to the competitiveness of regional industry. Despite these positive effects, it also generates negative (economic, environmental and social) impacts on cities worldwide. Relatively little attention has been paid to these issues by researchers and policymakers until recently. The analyses found in City Distribution and Urban Freight Transport aim to improve knowledge in this important area by recognizing and evaluating the problems, with a focus on urban freight transport systems. This book offers a thorough evaluation of city distribution and urban freight transport, highlighting the importance of developing methodologies that reflect and integrate stakeholder perceptions. Case studies demonstrate that knowledge and awareness in the area of urban freight transport is low, and that broadening knowledge in this area is integral to the innovation of new urban freight policies. The authors argue that the main challenge for researchers lies in developing methodologies that facilitate communication and cooperation between the different actors, citing that this can be achieved by defining either a common evaluation framework with quantitative indicators or an evaluation framework where the points of view have been explicitly modeled. This will be of interest to researchers, city planners and policymakers. Students and scholars of development, public policy, and urban studies will also find much of relevance in this important volume.
The bicycle enjoyed a starring role in urban history over a century ago, but now it is back, stronger than ever. It is the single most important tool for improving our cities. Designing around it is the most efficient way to make our cities life-sized--to scale cities for humans. It is time to cement the bicycle firmly in the urban narrative in US and global cities. Enter urban designer Mikael Colville-Andersen. He has worked for dozens of global cities on bicycle planning, strategy, infrastructure design, and communication. He is known around the world for his colorful personality and enthusiasm for the role of bike in urban design. In Copenhagenize, he shows cities how to effectively and profitably re-establish the bicycle as a respected, accepted, and feasible form of transportation. Building on his popular blog of the same name, Copenhagenize offers vivid project descriptions, engaging stories, and best practices, alongside beautiful and informative visuals to show how to make the bicycle an easy, preferred part of everyday urban life. Copenhagenize will serve as inspiration for everyone working to get the bicycle back into our cities. It will give planners and designers the ammunition to push back against the Automobile Age and convince the skeptics of the value of the life-sized city. This is not a guide on how to become Copenhagen, but how to learn from the successes and failures (yes, failures) of Copenhagen and other cities around the world that are striving to become more livable. We need to act in order to save our cities--and us--from ourselves. Copenhagenize shows the path forward.
When a city wins the right to hold the Olympics, one of the oft cited advantages to the region is the catalytic effect upon the urban and transport projects of the host cities. However, with unparalleled access to documents and records, Eva Kassens-Noor questions and challenges this fundamental assertion of host cities who claim to have used the Olympic Games as a way to move forward their urban agendas In fact, transport dreams to stage the "perfect games" of the International Olympic Committee and the governments of the host cities have lead to urban realities that significantly differ from the development path the city had set out to accomplish before winning the Olympic bid. Ultimately it is precisely the IOC's influence - and the city's foresight and sophistication (or lack thereof) in coping with it - that determines whether years after the Games there are legacies benefitting the former hosts. The text is supported by revealing interviews from lead host city planners and key documents, which highlight striking discrepancies between media broadcasts and the internal communications between the IOC and host city governments. It focuses on the inside story of the urban and transport change process undergone by four cities (Barcelona, Atlanta, Sydney, and Athens) that staged the Olympics and forecasts London and Rio de Janeiro's urban trajectories. The final chapter advises cities on how to leverage the Olympic opportunity to advance their long-run urban strategic plans and interests while fulfilling the International Olympic Committee's fundamental requirements. This is a uniquely positioned look at why Olympic cities have - or do not have - the transport and urban legacies they had wished for. The book will be of interest to planners, government agencies and those involved in organizing future Games.
Marketable permits (or quotas) for emissions of pollutants have proven their effectiveness in controlling sulphur dioxide emissions by U.S. power plants, or for the rapid elimination of lead in gasoline in the 80 in the USA. With regard to greenhouse gas emissions, the European Emission Trading Scheme on stationary installations has been operational since 2005. Is this type of instrument applicable to transportation, considering the nuisances they generate (congestion, noise, air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions)? This book introduces the concept of marketable permits and analyses their relevance for the various nuisances of transportation. It presents some examples of applications and reviews a number of proposals. Potential application areas are identified, with particular developments as regards CO2 emissions from transport.
Policymakers at all levels of government are debating a wide range of options for addressing the nation's faltering economic conditions. One option that is once again receiving attention is accelerated investments in the nation's public infrastructure -- that is, highways, mass transit, airports, water supply and wastewater, and other facilities -- in order to create jobs while also promoting long-term economic growth. This book examines policy issues associated with using infrastructure as a mechanism to benefit economic recovery. Discussed are state-level driver data and the effect of look-back periods on recidivism prevalence; restraint use and minimum drinking age laws; electronic stability control; mobile device use while driving; the impact of fuel price increases on the aviation industry; aviation safety; and the assessment of potential mariner-training needs.
As the U.S. population ages, access to safe and reliable transportation alternatives is critical to helping older adults remain in their homes as long as possible. HHS, DOT, VA, and other federal agencies may provide funds to state and local entities to help older adults access transportation. This book examines the federal programs that provide funding for transportation services for older adults and the extent to which the programs that fund these services are coordinated; and how state and local transportation agencies and aging network organisations in selected states coordinate transportation for older adults and the challenges they face in coordinating or providing these services. The book also addresses the federal programs that provide funding for NEMT services; how federal agencies are coordinating NEMT services; and how NEMT services are coordinated at the state and local levels and the challenges to coordination.
This is a powerful critique of the growing tendency to reduce the
new housing debate to a mere choice between greenfield and
brownfield locations. This book points at the structure and
organisation of the housebuilding industry, supply and demand
pressures in the housing market, the contested nature of
sustainability and the political character of the planning process.
All factors which must be considered if a truly effective housing
land policy is to be devised.
If you own a car, use public transportation, go to work or school, use health care, shop or dine out, or are part of a metropolitan community, parking affects you, probably in more ways than you've thought about. Because parking has such a huge effect on what happens in cities and towns and how the greater transportation system functions, decision-makers are beginning to realize that it's critical to employ parking expertise at the beginning of the planning process. Designing and implementing an effective, professionally managed parking strategy can mean the difference between frustrating and costly traffic congestion and efficient, time-saving traffic flow. A Guide to Parking provides information on the current state of parking, providing professionals and students with an overview on major areas of parking and the transportation and mobility industry, punctuated by brief program examples.
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