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This comprehensive and accessible textbook introduces the basic concepts of transport policy and decision-making to students of transport policy, transport planning, urban transport, transport evaluation and public policy. It presents the foundations and rationale of transport policy, incorporating a review of the policy formulation process and models of decision-making appropriate to public sector policy-makers. Topics covered include: * The basics of transport planning and traffic theory deemed necessary to understand policy implications of issues including congestion, safety and parking. * Potential solutions to problems such as road user charges, travel demand management, voluntary travel behaviour change, transport system management and public transport investment. * Prescriptions for technological change. * Discussion of the need for an integrated land transport policy along with a case study to illustrate how this might be developed for a typical metropolitan area.
For cities investing in public transit infrastructure, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) continues to grow as a popular mode of choice. BRT implementation, planning, operation, performance and impacts, from a wide range of developed and developing cities across the globe are examined in depth in this exemplary book, with contributions by academics and practical experts on BRT. Each chapter is self-contained, presenting empirical research and grounded examples of BRT in specific urban spaces. Providing rich insight, the chapters also suggest lessons for cities elsewhere. As a whole, the book frames the chapters with the question of how BRT is valued, providing a timely lens to the broader conceptual question of how transport infrastructure can and ought to be valued in the twenty-first century. Urban and transport studies scholars will find this an invaluable read, as it compares BRT to similar forms of public transport in cities, exploring the pros and cons of the system. The rich set of empirical examples and research suggestions in this book will aid advanced students in determining dissertation and research topics.
This expanded and revised fourth edition of The Geography of Transport Systems provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the field with a broad overview of its concepts, methods and areas of application. Aimed mainly at an undergraduate audience, it provides an overview of the spatial aspects of transportation and focuses on how the mobility of passengers and freight is linked with geography. The book is divided in ten chapters, each covering a specific conceptual dimension, including networks, modes, terminals, freight transportation, urban transportation and environmental impacts, and updated with the latest information available. The fourth edition offers new material on the issues of transport and the economy, city logistics, supply chains, security, energy, the environment, as well as a revised content structure. With over 160 updated photographs, figures and maps, The Geography of Transport Systems presents transportation systems at different scales ranging from global to local and focuses on different contexts such as North America, Europe and East Asia. This volume is an essential resource for undergraduates studying transport geography, as well as those interested in economic and urban geography, transport planning and engineering. A companion web site, which contains additional material, has been developed for the book and can be found here: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/
In the last forty years or so the research field exploring the relationship and interaction between transport and development has developed rapidly. While sophistication in analysis has increased, understanding the effective integration of transport and development often remains poor in theory and in practice - with sometimes devastating effects. This Handbook provides a comprehensive analysis of both the current and emerging thinking in this field, drawing on multidisciplinary thinking in transport planning, transport, urban and spatial economics, and the wider social sciences. With 45 chapters from leading international authors, the book is organised around three main themes: * urban structure and travel; * transport and spatial impacts; * wider dimensions in transport and development. The chapters each present commentary on key issues within these themes, presenting the debate on the impacts of urban structure on travel, the impacts of transport investment on development, and social and cultural change on travel. A multitude of competing inter-disciplinary perspectives are considered - leaving the reader with an invaluably comprehensive and critical understanding of the field. This major Handbook will serve as a guide for undergraduates and graduate students, researchers, consultants, and also practitioners and policy makers, wishing to find a comprehensive and original reference to research on transport and development.
The integration of land use and transport planning is key to making cities sustainable and liveable. Accessibility can provide an effective framework for this integration. However, today there is a significant gap between the advances in scientific knowledge on accessibility and its effective application in planning practice. In order to close this gap, Designing Accessibility Instruments introduces a novel methodology for the joint assessment and development of accessibility instruments by researchers and practitioners. The book: provides a theoretical and professional analysis of the main concepts behind the definition, use and measurement of accessibility; undertakes a comprehensive inventory and critical analysis of accessibility instruments, focusing on the bottlenecks in their transposition to planning practice; introduces and applies a novel methodology for the assessment and improvement of the practical use and usefulness of accessibility instruments; presents six in-depth illustrative case study applications of the methodology, representing a range of cities with different geographical and institutional settings, and different levels of urban and transport planning integration. The book is supported by a companion website - www.accessibilityplanning.eu - which extrapolates its content to a broader scope and keeps it updated and valid with new iterations of the methodology and further advances on the initial and new case studies.
What factors shaped the airports policy of the busiest aviation city in the world? What has been the role of politicians, planners and communities? Why has it proved so difficult to make a decision on airports and stick to it? Inside London's Airports Policy is the first book to provide a complete history of London's airport policy, considering whether we can make better decisions if we learn from the lessons of history. Based on the author's extensive industry experience, and detailed research of key documents, public records and academic papers, plus interviews with key individuals, the book sets out the studies, consultations, inquiries, commissions and debates that have directed London's Airport policy on the troubled flight path which it has taken. The book covers in detail a period from the mid-1970s, when the Maplin project was cancelled, to the present day. Along the way, there are periods of incremental growth with new terminals at Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted; a policy vacuum of the early 1990s and the Heathrow Terminal 5 Inquiry; a long term strategy outlined in the 2003 White Paper; and the Airports Commission of 2012-2015. Case studies of airports in other countries and in the UK outside of the South East provide interesting comparisons. Written in a straightforward style with personal insights, Inside London's Airports Policy will be a fascinating read for all those with an interest in the development of aviation, airports and transport, including planners, engineers, civil servants, community representatives and politicians. Students and academics wishing to study examples of the decision making process will also find this an engaging read.
The future is urban. Indeed, the battle for sustainable development will be won or lost in cities. Not a moment too soon, then, that urbanization is suddenly at the centre of global policy making. In 2015 the governments of the UN adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and in 2016 they adopted the New Urban Agenda. However, the question of how these Agendas will be pursued concretely remains. Unfortunately, the prevailing model is rigidly technocratic Charter of Athens from 1933-the strict functionalist separation of activities that it prescribes still dominates planning practices worldwide. The purpose of The Quito Papers and the New Urban Agenda is to start a discussion that both challenges this status quo and opens up new lines of enquiry. It intentionally does not propose a manifesto made up of simplistic slogans and recommendations as cities in the 21st century are more fragile and complex. Its content, therefore, is intentionally broad, ranging from architecture, planning and urban design, to land ownership and regulation, water management and environmental philosophy. This multifaceted assembly of perspectives critiques the tenets of the Charter of Athens, identify new trends and propose new insights on contemporary urbanization. Part One outlines the overall challenges facing cities in the 21st century and Part Two offers a number of conceptual frameworks and approaches for dealing with those challenges. Each Part is also composed of a body of illustrated arguments, synthesized from selectively-abridged background papers from over 15 commissioned authors, interspersed with in-depth papers.
On 17 October 1989 one the largest earthquakes to occur in California since the San Francisco earthquake of April 1906 struck Northern California. Damage was extensive, none more so than the partial collapse of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge's eastern span, a vital link used by hundreds of thousands of Californians every day. The bridge was closed for a month for repairs and then reopened to traffic. But what ensued over the next 25 years is the extraordinary story that Karen Trapenberg Frick tells here. It is a cautionary tale to which any governing authority embarking on a megaproject should pay heed. She describes the process by which the bridge was eventually replaced as an exercise in shadowboxing which pitted the combined talents and shortcomings, partnerships and jealousies, ingenuity and obtuseness, generosity and parsimony of the State's and the region's leading elected officials, engineers, architects and other members of the governing elites against a collectively imagined future catastrophe of unknown proportions. In so doing she highlights three key questions: If safety was the reason to replace the bridge, why did it take almost 25 years to do so? How did an original estimate of $250 million in 1995 soar to $6.5 billion by 2014? And why was such a complex design chosen? Her final chapter - part epilogue, part reflection - provides recommendations to improve megaproject delivery and design.
In recent years, many states have experienced natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and storms, which have caused catastrophic damage to transportation infrastructure and overwhelmed the capacity of state and local governments to respond and recover. Reconstruction after these events can cost taxpayers billions of dollars. As part of the continuing federal role in responding to and recovering from natural disasters and similar events, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), within the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), administers the Emergency Relief Program which provides funding to repair or reconstruct federal-aid highways and roads on federal lands damaged or destroyed by natural disasters and other catastrophic events. This book provides an overview of emergency relief programs for U.S. highways and roads with a focus on strengthening oversight of project eligibility decisions.
Viewing transportation through the lens of current social, economic, and policy aspects, this four-volume reference work explores the topic of transportation across multiple disciplines within the social sciences and related areas, including geography, public policy, business, and economics. Features: Approximately 675 signed articles authored by prominent scholars are arranged in A-to-Z fashion and conclude with Further Readings and cross references. A Chronology helps readers put individual events into historical context; a Reader's Guide organizes entries by broad topical or thematic areas; a detailed index helps users quickly locate entries of most immediate interest; and a Resource Guide provides a list of journals, books, and associations and their websites. While articles were written to avoid jargon as much as possible, a Glossary provides quick definitions of technical terms. To ensure full, well-rounded coverage of the field, the General Editor with expertise in urban planning, public policy, and the environment worked alongside a Consulting Editor with a background in Civil Engineering. The index, Reader's Guide, and cross references combine for thorough search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic edition. Available in both print and electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Transportation is an ideal reference for libraries and those who want to explore the issues that surround transportation in the United States and around the world. Key Themes: Administration, Operations, and Evaluation Air Transportation Systems Economics of Transportation Energy, Environmental, and Health Impacts Facilities and Infrastructure Intermodal Transportation Systems International Transportation and Policy Labor Issues/Employee Relations Planning and Policy Safety and Security Social Issues in Transportation Surface Transportation Systems Technology, Design, and Engineering Transportation, Finance of Transportation Legislation Transportation Modeling Transportation Organizations and Agencies Travel Behavior and Research Water Transportation Systems
There are now over 2,000 cities with a bike share program. Bike Share examines all the major developments in the 50-year history of bike share. The book provides a detailed focus on contemporary bike share programs, including many of the most prominent systems, such as those in Paris, London, and New York, as well as the rapidly emerging dockless bike share sector. This book also addresses how rapid technological innovation, particularly in terms of mobile internet devices and electric assist bicycles may change the face of not just cycling, but urban mobility more generally. By the end of 2018 it was estimated that there are more than 20 million bicycles in the global bike share fleet, with most of these dockless, coming online only in the last three years. Consequently, research examining bike share has not kept pace with the rapid deployment of this new form of urban mobility. Bike Share addresses a number of key themes such as: The urban age, contextualising bike share within a wider urbanism movement and how it sits within the growing sharing economy. The impact of bike share, looking at systems in China, Europe, North America and Australia to see how these programs have changed travel patterns and consequent impact on car use, emissions, congestion, public health and safety. The bike share business model, including how ride sourcing services like Uber and Lyft are beginning to integrate their business with bike share service providers. Public reaction to bike share. Bike share gone wrong, looking at systems that have failed to achieve their ridership estimates. And the future of bike share including public transport smart card integration, mobile payments, and electric assist bicycles. The book provides scholars, city planners, transportation practitioners and students with a resource that captures the most pertinent scientific findings and practical lessons that have been from bike share programs around the world.
Transit and cities grow together. As cities work to become more compact, sustainable, and healthy, their work is paying dividends: in 2014, Americans took 10.8 billion trips on public transit, the highest since the dawn of the highway era. But most of these trips are on streets that were designed to move private cars, with transit as an afterthought. The NACTO Transit Street Design Guide places transit where it belongs, at the heart of street design. The guide shows how streets of every size can be redesigned to create great transit streets, supporting great neighbourhoods and downtowns. The Transit Street Design Guide is a well-illustrated, detailed introduction to designing streets for high-quality transit, from local buses to BRT, from streetcars to light rail. Drawing on the expertise of a peer network and case studies from across North America, the guide provides a much-needed link between transit planning, transportation engineering, and street design. The Transit Street Design Guide presents a new set of core principles, street typologies, and design strategies that shift the paradigm for streets, from merely accommodating service to actively prioritizing great transit. The book expands on the transit information in the acclaimed Urban Street Design Guide, with sections on comprehensive transit street design, lane design and materials, stations and stops, intersection strategies, and city transit networks. It also details performance measures and outlines how to make the case for great transit street design in cities. The guide is built on simple mathematics: allocating scarce space to transit instead of private automobiles greatly expands the number of people a street can move. Street design and decisions made by cities, from how to time signals to where bus stops are placed, can dramatically change how transit works and how people use it. The Transit Street Design Guide is a vital resource for every transportation planner, public transport operations planner, and city traffic engineer working on making streets that move more people more efficiently and affordably.
This book is a comprehensive and objective guide to understanding hydrogen as a transportation fuel. The effects that pursuing different vehicle technology development paths will have on the economy, the environment, public safety and human health are presented with implications for policy makers, industrial stakeholders and researchers alike. Using hydrogen as a fuel offers a possible solution to satisfying global mobility needs, including sustainability of supply and the potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This book focuses on research issues that are at the intersection of hydrogen and transportation, since the study of vehicles and energy-carriers is inseparable. It concentrates on light duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), set in the context of other competing technologies, the larger energy sector and the overall economy. The book is invaluable for researchers and policy makers in transportation policy, energy economics, systems dynamics, vehicle powertrain modeling and simulation, environmental science and environmental engineering.
Mobility, accessibility, networks, and interactions across space are at the heart of how spaces and places are brought into being and continue to change. In a series of articles that chart the development of thinking about space, place, and transport, this book highlights the role that a geographic perspective has played in transport studies, raises questions about transport policy, and points to additional questions worthy of research. The volume is divided into four parts covering fundamental concepts, individual behaviour in urban spatial context, inter-regional transport and policy issues.
The design of streets, and the connections between streets of different character, is the most important task for architects and urbanists working in an urban context. Considered at two distinct spatial scales - that of the individual street - the Street Section - and the complex of city streets - the City Transect - Urban Section identifies a range of generic street types and their success or otherwise in responding to climatic, cultural, traditional, morphological, social and economic well being. Using comparative studies a profile of best practice in street and city design is identified, showing methodologies in both the analysis of, and design for, successful streets and public places - place-making. In uniquely dealing with both the historic and contemporary description and analysis of urban 'streets' around the world, the work is of both academic and professional interest to architects, urban planners and designers, highway engineers, landscape and urban design advisers in both the public and private sectors; students, amenity and civic societies, city authorities and government agencies.
Although society has become increasingly dependent on the timely
operation of logistics systems, we still face many problems
regarding efficiency, the environment, energy consumption, and
safety in urban transport and logistics under normal cases and in
disasters. As such, understanding how to address these challenges
has become essential for creating better urban planning and policy
The book addresses Information and Communication Technologies
(ICT) and Intelligent Transport System (ITS) applications within
urban logistics. It considers supply chains, road safety in
hazardous material transport, and logistics and transport design in
mixed traffic areas. It also introduces the notion of the
megalopolis and the need for improved planning relative to human
usage, freight transportation, and city logistic planning.
Communities are embracing a new and safer way to build streets for everyone - even as they struggle to change decades of rules, practice, and politics that prioritise cars. They have discovered that changing the design of a single street is not enough: they must upend the way transportation agencies operate. Completing Our Streets begins with the story of how the complete streets movement united bicycle riders, transportation practitioners and agencies, public health leaders, older people, and smart growth advocates to dramatically re-frame the discussion of transportation safety. Next, it explores why the transportation field has been so resistant to change - and how the movement has broken through to create a new multi-modal approach. In Completing Our Streets, Barbara McCann, explains that the movement is not about street design. Instead, practitioners and activists have changed the way projects are built by focusing on three strategies: reframe the conversation; build a broad base of political support; and provide a clear path to a multi-modal process. McCann shares stories of practitioners in cities and towns who have embraced these strategies to fundamentally change the way transportation projects are chosen, planned, and built. The complete streets movement is based around a simple idea: streets should be safe for people of all ages and abilities, whether they are walking, driving, bicycling, or taking the bus. Completing Our Streets gives practitioners and activists the strategies, tools, and inspiration needed to translate this idea into real and lasting change in their communities.
Local road practitioners across the country play a critical role in addressing crash risks at the local level and may be able to identify the specific or unique conditions that contribute to crashes within their jurisdictions. The Local Road Safety Plan (LRSP) offers a foundation for consensus and focus. It defines key emphasis areas and strategies that impact local rural roads and provides a framework to accomplish safety enhancements at the local level. The LRSP helps communities take a proactive stance in reducing and preventing local road fatalities and injuries. This book guides the development of an LRSP. It provides information to local practitioners about identifying stakeholders and partnerships needed to build support, tools to analyse data, and resources to identify safety issues and select safety strategies.
How can we design transport environments that cater to the situation awareness needs of different end-users? This book answers this question by showcasing how state-of-the-art human factors theory and methods can be used to understand how situation awareness differs across drivers, cyclists, motorcyclists, and pedestrians and creates new designs that cater to these diverse situation awareness needs. Written by experts in the field and based on a major program of work funded by the Australian Research Council, this book outlines the distributed situation awareness model and provides practical guidance on how to study situation awareness naturalistically and how to create designs that support, rather than hinder, situation awareness. The book closes by outlining outline a generic framework to support similar applications in other areas, and discusses future applications in areas such as vehicle automation, artificial intelligence, and cybersecurity. Features Challenges traditional road safety analysis, design processes and conventions Outlines a novel on-road study methodology for analyzing naturalistic interactions among drivers, cyclists, motorcyclists and pedestrians Presents a review of state-of-the-art situation awareness theory and methods Provides practical guidance on a series of human factors methods Describes a framework to support the design of transport environments Evaluates new intersection concepts that encompass features designed to prevent collisions at intersections
Vehicles carrying objects that are not properly secured pose a safety risk on our nation's roadways. Debris that falls from a vehicle can collide with other vehicles or pedestrians, causing serious injuries or fatalities. According to data collected by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), there were about 440 fatalities caused by roadway debris in 2010. However, the exact number of incidents resulting from vehicles carrying unsecured loads is unknown. This book examines NHTSA's data collection efforts as well as states' laws related to unsecured loads. It also discusses the extent that Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration's (PHMSA) data reliably identify wetline safety risks; options for addressing wetline safety risks, and how well PHMSA has assessed the costs and benefits of addressing these risks through regulation.
This book provides a political history of urban traffic congestion in the twentieth century, and explores how and why experts from a range of professional disciplines have attempted to solve what they have called 'the traffic problem'. It draws on case studies of historical traffic projects in London to trace the relationship among technologies, infrastructures, politics, and power on the capital's congested streets. From the visions of urban planners to the concrete realities of engineers, and from the demands of traffic cops and economists to the new world of electronic surveillance, the book examines the political tensions embedded in the streets of our world cities. It also reveals the hand of capital in our traffic landscape. This book challenges conventional wisdom on urban traffic congestion, deploying a broad array of historical and material sources to tell a powerful account of how our cities work and why traffic remains such a problem. It is a welcome addition to literature on histories and geographies of urban mobility and will appeal to students and researchers in the fields of urban history, transport studies, historical geography, planning history, and the history of technology.
When the automobile was first introduced, few Americans predicted its fundamental impact, not only on how people would travel, but on the American landscape itself. Instead of reducing the amount of wheeled transport on public roads, the advent of mass-produced cars caused congestion, at the curb and in the right-of-way, from small midwestern farm towns to New York, Chicago, Detroit, and Los Angeles.
"Lots of Parking" examines a neglected aspect of this rise of the automobile: the impact on America not of cars in motion but of cars at rest. While most studies have tended to focus on highway construction and engineering improvements to accommodate increasing flow and the desire for speed, John A. Jakle and Keith A. Sculle examine a fundamental feature of the urban, and suburban, scene--the parking lot. Their lively and exhaustive exploration traces the history of parking from the curbside to the rise of public and commercial parking lots and garages and the concomitant demolition of the old pedestrian-oriented urban infrastructure. In an accessible style enhanced by a range of interesting and unusual illustrations, Jakle and Sculle discuss the role of parking in downtown revitalization efforts and, by contrast, its role in the promotion of outlying suburban shopping districts and its incorporation into our neighborhoods and residences.
Like Jakle and Sculle's earlier works on car culture, Lots of Parking will delight and fascinate professional planners, landscape designers, geographers, environmental historians, and interested citizens alike.
Published in association with the Center for American Places
This Reader provides a critical review of British transport policy
since the Labour Government came into office in 1997 and looks at
possible solutions to Britain's ongoing transport problems.
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