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While many transportation and city planners, researchers, students, practitioners, and political leaders are familiar with the technical nature and promise of vehicle automation, consensus is not yet often seen on the impact that will result, or the policies and actions that those responsible for transportation systems should take. The End of Driving: Transportation Systems and Public Policy Planning for Autonomous Vehicles explores both the potential of vehicle automation technology and the barriers it faces when considering coherent urban deployment. The book evaluates the case for deliberate development of automated public transportation and mobility-as-a-service as paths towards sustainable mobility, describing critical approaches to the planning and management of vehicle automation technology. It serves as a reference for understanding the full life cycle of the multi-year transportation systems planning processes, including novel regulation, planning, and acquisition tools for regional transportation. Application-oriented, research-based, and solution-oriented rather than predict-and-warn, The End of Driving concludes with a detailed discussion of the systems design needed for accomplishing this shift. From the Foreword by Susan Shaheen: The authors ... extend potential solutions through a set of open-ended exercises after each chapter. Their approach is both strategic and deliberate. They lead the reader from definitions and context setting to the transition toward automation, employing a range of creative strategies and policies. While our quest to understand how to deploy automated vehicles is just beginning, this book provides a thoughtful introduction to inform this evolution.
This book explores the opportunities and challenges of the sharing economy and innovative transportation technologies with regard to urban mobility. Written by government experts, social scientists, technologists and city planners from North America, Europe and Australia, the papers in this book address the impacts of demographic, societal and economic trends and the fundamental changes arising from the increasing automation and connectivity of vehicles, smart communication technologies, multimodal transit services, and urban design. The book is based on the Disrupting Mobility Summit held in Cambridge, MA (USA) in November 2015, organized by the City Science Initiative at MIT Media Lab, the Transportation Sustainability Research Center at the University of California at Berkeley, the LSE Cities at the London School of Economics and Politics and the Innovation Center for Mobility and Societal Change in Berlin.
This book provides guidelines for the implementation of an adaptive lighting system for roadway lighting. Based on the analysis of crashes and lighting performance, a series of criteria and the associated design levels have been developed to provide an approach for light level selection and the adjustability of the light level based on the needs of the driving environment. The application, the technology needs, the benefit cost, the legal implications of adaptive lighting, as well as the data, the analysis, and the developed methodology are all considered in this book.
A central goal of transportation is the delivery of safe and efficient services with minimal environmental impact. In practice, though, human mobility has flourished while nature has suffered. Awareness of the environmental impacts of roads is increasing, yet information remains scarce for those interested in studying, understanding, or minimizing the ecological effects of roads and vehicles.
"Road Ecology" addresses that shortcoming by elevating
previously localized and fragmented knowledge into a broad and
inclusive framework for understanding and developing solutions. The
book brings together fourteen leading ecologists and transportation
experts to articulate state-of-the-science road ecology principles,
and presents specific examples that demonstrate the application of
those principles. Diverse theories, concepts, and models in the new
field of road ecology are integrated to establish a coherent
framework for transportation policy, planning, and projects. Topics
examined include: -foundations of road ecology -roads, vehicles,
and transportation planning -vegetation and roadsides -wildlife
populations and mitigation -water, sediment, and chemical flows
-aquatic ecosystems -wind, noise, and atmospheric effects -road
networks and landscape fragmentation
Forming the 23rd addition to a successful series, this book contains papers presented by an extensive selection of international delegates at the 23rd International Conference on Urban Transport and the Environment. Due to its continued success and multiplicity of topics, the series is considered to be a leading source of new research in the area of transport engineering. Transportation in urban areas, with its related environmental and social impacts, is of significant concern for government policymakers and for the urban citizens who need efficient transport systems. Extensive reviews of these systems are required to devise and then safeguard their operational use, maintenance, safety and security. The continuing requirement for better and more efficient urban transport systems and the need for a healthier environment has added to the increasing international desire for new technologies and developments in this essential field. The variety of topics covered reflects the complex interaction of urban transport systems with their environment and the need to establish integrated strategies. These topics include: Urban Strategies; Urban Transport Planning and Management; Public Policies and Governance; Public Transport Systems; Transportation Modelling and Simulation; Mobility and Public Space; Eco-mobility Transport Systems; Infrastructure Development; Innovations in Transport; Environmental Impact; Traffic Control; Human Factor and Railway Safety; Safety and Security; Traffic Accidents; Travel Behaviour Studies; Railway Systems.
Comprising contributions from a range of experts, this volume offers a critical commentary on the governmenta s sustainable transport policy.* A critical commentary on the Blair governmenta s sustainable transport policy and its implementation.* Firmly rooted in an appreciation of the politics of this controversial field.* Experts contribute up--to--the--minute analyses of the key issues.* Will inform debate over the future of transport policy.* Includes a Foreword by David Begg, Chair of the Commission for Integrated Transport.
Shortlisted in the Edward Stanford Travel Writing Awards 2020. Travel writer and journalist Gail Simmons follows in the footsteps of Robert Louis Stevenson as she walks from High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire to Tring in Hertfordshire via Great Missenden and Wendover, tracing not only the changes in the landscape of the last 150 years but also those yet to come with the imminent arrival of the controversial HS2, the high-speed railway from London to Birmingham. Just as Stevenson spoke to people he met along the way, Simmons encounters those whose lives will be affected by HS2: a tenant farmer, a retired businessman-turned-campaigner, a landscape historian and a conservationist. In the autumn of 1874 a young, unknown travel writer called Robert Louis Stevenson walked from High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire to Tring in Hertfordshire. He wrote up his three-day journey across the Chiltern Hills in an essay titled In the Beechwoods, penned a decade before he found fame as the author of Treasure Island and The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Stevenson observed the natural world, reflecting on the experience of walking across this landscape at a time when England was still largely agrarian and when most people still earned their living from working the land. During his walk he was accompanied by a 'carolling of larks' that was so integral to his journey he 'could have baptized it "The Country of Larks" '. Almost 150 years later Simmons walks across the same landscape, observing the loss of flora, fauna and the whole rural way of life, replaced by commuters and dormitory villages, a trend portrayed by John Betjeman in Metro-land (1973), which described suburban life alongside the Metropolitan Railway. Divided into three parts to parallel Stevenson's journey the book offers a detailed, almost forensic, examination of this distinctive landscape of English chalk downland interwoven with recollections from Simmons of growing up in a Chilterns commuter village. 'I might have left long ago' she says, 'but this place still matters to me'.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Smart Cities and Green ICT Systems, SMARTGREENS 2016, and the Second International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, VEHITS 2016, held in Rome, Italy, in April 2016. The 11 full papers of SMARTGREENS 2016 presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 72 submissions. VEHITS 2016 received 49 paper submissions from which 5 papers were selected and published in this book. The papers reflect topics such as smart cities, energy-aware systems and technologies, sustainable computing and communications, sustainable transportation and smart mobility.
Speeding is defined as exceeding posted speed limits or driving too fast for conditions. This is a behaviour that some drivers engage in without recognising the risks or seriously considering the consequences. The most serious consequences of speeding are the fatalities and serious injuries that result from crashes. Over the last ten years, speeding has been consistently identified as a contributing factor in nearly one-third of all roadway fatalities nation-wide. Crashes involving speeding occur on all road types but are particularly prevalent on the local rural road system. This book provides information on how to develop a Speed Management Program that is tailored to meet the needs of local rural road practitioners. A Speed Management Program can be effective in lowering the number of speeding crashes and the resulting fatalities and serious injuries on local rural roads. Non-motorised modes of travel can also be expected along these roads. Non-motorised transportation is primarily comprised of biking, walking, equestrian, and horse-drawn vehicles but may also include other non-powered transportation devices. This book is also a guide to assist local rural road practitioners in making effective use of current practices and resources addressing non-motorised mobility and safety, thereby creating a more accommodating and viable transportation system for all road users.
Data Analytics for Intelligent Transportation Systems provides in-depth coverage of data-enabled methods for analyzing intelligent transportation systems that includes detailed coverage of the tools needed to implement these methods using big data analytics and other computing techniques. The book examines the major characteristics of connected transportation systems, along with the fundamental concepts of how to analyze the data they produce. It explores collecting, archiving, processing, and distributing the data, designing data infrastructures, data management and delivery systems, and the required hardware and software technologies. Users will learn how to design effective data visualizations, tactics on the planning process, and how to evaluate alternative data analytics for different connected transportation applications, along with key safety and environmental applications for both commercial and passenger vehicles, data privacy and security issues, and the role of social media data in traffic planning.
This book investigates the link between institutions and public policies with specific reference to transport. It opens by examining the main arguments for the establishment of metropolitan transport authorities. The potential impacts of institutional change on the policy efficiency of institutions are then examined. Key problems for institutional designers are identified, showing how they can hamper the achievement of desired policy outcomes through institutional solutions. Two in-depth case studies on institutional change in metropolitan transport (in London and Barcelona) are presented with a view to testing the aforementioned hypotheses and providing insights into the ways in which the two transport institutions were reformed. The concluding chapter identifies lessons for institutional designers and highlights the policy results that may be expected from the constitution of metropolitan transport authorities.
This book presents selected articles from the Second International Workshop on Vehicular Adhoc Networks for Smart Cities, 2016 (IWVSC'2016). In order to promote further research activities and challenges, it highlights recent developments in vehicular networking technologies and their role in future smart cities.
First Published in 2014. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
The book contains the proceedings of CAETS 2015 Convocation on 'Pathways to Sustainability: Energy, Mobility and Healthcare Engineering' that was held on October 13-14, 2015 in New Delhi. This 3 volume proceedings provide an international forum for discussion and communication of engineering and technological issues of common concern. This volume talks about 'Mobility' and includes 14 chapters on diverse topics like creating sustainable transportation systems, mobility of the future, unique engineering features like Delhi metro, digitally re-imagining mobility, trends and future strategies of transportation electrification, etc. The contents of this book will be useful to researchers, professionals, and policy makers alike.
A mileage-based road user charge would involve assessing owners of individual vehicles on a per-mile basis for the distance the vehicle is driven. Currently, federal highway and public transportation programs are funded mainly by motor fuel tax receipts that flow into the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). The tax rates, set on a per-gallon basis, have not been raised since 1993, and receipts have been insufficient to support the transportation programs authorised by Congress since FY2008. The long-term viability of motor fuels taxes is also questionable because of increasing vehicle fuel efficiency and the wider use of electric vehicles. Economists have favored the use of mileage-based user charges as an alternative to motor fuels taxes to support highway funding. This book examines considerations and viability of road user charges based on mileage.
In the last forty years or so the research field exploring the relationship and interaction between transport and development has developed rapidly. While sophistication in analysis has increased, understanding the effective integration of transport and development often remains poor in theory and in practice - with sometimes devastating effects. This Handbook provides a comprehensive analysis of both the current and emerging thinking in this field, drawing on multidisciplinary thinking in transport planning, transport, urban and spatial economics, and the wider social sciences. With 45 chapters from leading international authors, the book is organised around three main themes: * urban structure and travel; * transport and spatial impacts; * wider dimensions in transport and development. The chapters each present commentary on key issues within these themes, presenting the debate on the impacts of urban structure on travel, the impacts of transport investment on development, and social and cultural change on travel. A multitude of competing inter-disciplinary perspectives are considered - leaving the reader with an invaluably comprehensive and critical understanding of the field. This major Handbook will serve as a guide for undergraduates and graduate students, researchers, consultants, and also practitioners and policy makers, wishing to find a comprehensive and original reference to research on transport and development.
Millions of Americans are unable to provide their own transportation or have difficulty accessing public transportation. Such transportation-disadvantaged individuals may include those who are elderly, have disabilities, or have low income. This book examines the federal programmes that are authorized to use federal funds for transportation services to assist these 'transportation-disadvantaged' individuals in accessing human service programmes.
This volume discusses post-socialist urban transport functioning and development in Russia, within the context of the country's recent transition towards a market economy. Over the past twenty-five years, urban transport in Russia has undergone serious transformations, prompted by the transitioning economy. Yet, the lack of readily available statistical data has led to a gap in the inclusion of Russia in the body of international transport economics research. By including ten chapters of original, cutting-edge research by Russian transport scholars, this book will close that gap. Discussing topics such as the relationship between urban spatial structure and travel behavior in post-soviet cities, road safety, trends and reforms in urban public transport development, transport planning and modelling, and the role of institutions in post-soviet transportation management, this book provides a comprehensive survey of the current state of transportation in Russia. The book concludes with a forecast for future travel development in Russia and makes recommendations for future policy. This book will be of interest to researchers in transportation economics and policy as well as policy makers and those working in the field of urban and transport planning.
Based on the work of Poly5, or the Mediterranean Corridor, mega-transport infrastructure project, this ground-breaking reference explains how and why traditional top-down government-defined transport planning policies are failing, due to their tendency to eschew acknowledgement of profoundly multifarious local and regional issues. The authors use cognitive reports from the Mediterranean Corridor experience as a learning platform, unpacking the tangled sources of the challenges faced to find firm ground from which to embark upon future projects. They propose the replacement of the current fragmented and unbalanced implementation efforts across various territories with a bottom-up, holistic, inclusive approach in which individual territories and regions have buy-in from the outset, a chance to bring their strengths to bear on the broader infrastructural planning, an ongoing communication channel to report and tackle difficulties and clear, strategic directives to drive sustainable future growth of environmentally desirable and practical mega-transport systems.
* A thorough exploration of low carbon mobility transitions from a range of disciplinary and theoretical perspectives; * A broad view of low carbon transition across travel, transport, tourism and mobilities studies; * A critical exploration of the global, regional and local prospects for low carbon mobility transitions; * Illustrating examples of low carbon transition, from leading scholars researching in a wide range of geographic contexts. Arranged in three interrelated sections; People and Place, Structures in Transition, and Innovations for Low Carbon Mobility, Low Carbon Mobility Transitions presents nineteen theoretically-informed, empirically grounded chapters and case studies that comprehensively address the prospects for global, regional, and local systemic transitions to low carbon mobility. Bringing together the work of leading researchers from 26 universities, research centres and consultancies, spanning six continents, it critically explores the wide-ranging regional contexts in which a low carbon transition has been, is being, or can be achieved. In doing so, it highlights the place-specific, geopolitical and cultural sensitivities of low carbon transitions at national, regional and local (urban) scales. The overlapping roles of technological innovation, behaviour change and policy frameworks are critically examined in this book, providing timely insights into the opportunities for decarbonising the current systems of transport, in order to achieve the radical emissions reductions required to prevent lasting impacts of climate change. Highlights of the book include: * Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary insights into low carbon mobility transitions; * Research-informed chapters and case studies including a range of geographic contexts across the global North and South; * New perspectives on the intersecting and overlapping roles of technological innovation, behaviour change and policy frameworks; * Expert assessments of systemic low carbon transition. About the Editors Debbie Hopkins is a Research Fellow at the Transport Studies Unit, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford (UK), and a Junior Research Fellow in Geography at Mansfield College, Oxford. James Higham is a Professor in the Department of Tourism, University of Otago (New Zealand), Visiting Professor, University of Stavanger (Norway) and co-editor of the Journal of Sustainable Tourism.
This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air transportation, advanced Air Traffic Control (ATC) technologies and procedures for increasing the airport runway capacity, Underground Freight Transport (UFT) systems in urban area(s), Long Intermodal Freight Train(s) (LIFTs), road mega trucks, large advanced container ships and freight/cargo aircraft and advanced freight/goods collection distribution networks. This book is intended for postgraduates, researchers, professionals and policy makers working in the transport industry.
This thesis explores the use of travel plans for new residential developments as a tool for managing car use and encouraging the use of more sustainable forms of transport. It provides coverage of the scale of travel planning practice for new developments, industry perspectives on their development and implementation, and an assessment of their quality and effectiveness. It combines implementation theory and planning enforcement theory to identify opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of travel plans for new residential developments and to guide future travel planning practice. This thesis is useful and will appeal to both researchers and practitioners involved in transport planning for new residential developments.
This book provides a systematic assessment of the performance of electric and hybrid buses in urban areas on a daily basis and presents a complete set of technical scenarios to promote their efficient exploitation. It will also help readers understand how future buses will perform on specific roads and how the latest technologies can be integrated into existing fleets by proposing a methodology for evaluating the energy consumption for general and specific routes and scenarios. Covering all aspects relating to the daily use of electric and hybrid buses, including maintenance strategies, power train configuration, battery replacements, route evaluation, and charging speed, emphasis is placed on energy efficiency and effective implementation. Addressing key developments in intelligent vehicle technologies, the book presents innovative transportation technologies and a broad range of topics in transportation-related sustainability research, from vehicle systems and design, to mass transit systems.
In recognition of the importance of road safety as a major health issue, the World Health Organization has declared 2011-2021 the Decade of Safety Action. Several countries in Europe, North America, and Asia have been successful in reducing fatalities and injuries due to road traffic crashes. However, many low-income countries continue to experience high rates of traffic fatalities and injuries. Transport Planning and Traffic Safety: Making Cities, Roads, and Vehicles Safer offers a source book for road safety training courses as well as an introductory textbook for graduate-level courses on road safety taught in engineering institutes. It brings together the international experiences and lessons learned from countries which have been successful in reducing traffic crashes and their applicability in low-income countries. The content is based on lectures delivered during an international course on transportation planning and traffic safety, sponsored annually by the Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme (TRIPP) at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. The book is interdisciplinary and aimed at professionals-traffic and road engineers, vehicle designers, law enforcers, and transport planners. The authors examine trends in performance of OECD countries and highlight the public health and systems approach of traffic safety with the vulnerable road user in focus. Topics include land use (transportation planning, mobility, and safety), safety education and legislation, accident analysis, road safety research, human tolerance to injury, vehicle design, safety in construction zones, safety in urban areas, traffic calming, public transportation, safety laws and policies, and pre-hospital care of the injured.
The U.S. Department of Transportation released results from an unprecedented ten-month study of potential electronic causes of unintended acceleration in Toyota vehicles. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) launched the study last spring at the request of Congress, and enlisted NASA engineers to conduct new research into whether electronic systems or electromagnetic interference played a role in incidents of unintended acceleration. NASA engineers found no electronic flaws in Toyota vehicles capable of producing the large throttle openings required to create dangerous high-speed unintended acceleration incidents. This book provides an analysis of the research by NASA engineers and the U.S. Department of Transportation into Toyota automobiles and the unintended acceleration episodes that have been reported.
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