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The fifty years, 1880-1930, saw momentous changes in the economy and social life of Cape Town, the Mother City.
Growth and physical expansion altered the previous character of the city, but this was accompanied by social and cultural developments springing from the opinions and interests of the citizens.
A.B. Reid, in his career as a Master Builder and subsequently as leader in the public life of Cape Town, not only contributed to the changes that took place but also influenced their direction.
Community development both a collective effort and an achievement driven by individual facilitators with the aim of lifting a community out of poverty. The sixth edition of Community Development: Breaking the cycle of poverty continues to be a definitive guide for community development workers, students and practitioners alike. The book contextualises poverty and explains the process of community development.
It pays attention to the development environment and explains concepts such as asset-based community development and the social enterprise sector. In addition to context and process, the book details the skills required by a community development worker to function in the field. It also explains how to empower the development worker to train others in order to build capacity in the community and work towards breaking the cycle of poverty.
This edition of Community Development: Breaking the cycle of poverty is strengthened by the inclusion of extensive support material. More practical case studies, specifically relevant to the South African environment, have been added and questions on the case studies are included in the book.
This interdisciplinary collection of eleven original essays focuses on the environmental impact of transportation, which is, as Tatiana Prorokova-Konrad and Brian C. Black note in their introduction, responsible for 26 percent of global energy use. Approaching mobility not solely as a material, logistical question but as a phenomenon mediated by culture, the book interrogates popular assumptions deeply entangled with energy choices. Rethinking transportation, the contributors argue, necessarily involves fundamental understandings of consumption, freedom, and self. The essays in Transportation and the Culture of Climate Change cover an eclectic range of subject matter, from the association of bicycles with childhood to the songs of Bruce Springsteen, but are united in a central conviction: "Transport is a considerable part of our culture that is as hard to transform as it is for us to stop using fossil fuels - but we do not have an alternative.
This is a wide-ranging and internationally-focussed introduction to planning for the urban landscape. It provides an up-to-date account of planning, reflecting throughout on the need for sustainable, efficient and equitable solutions to planning problems. Taking account of the sometimes conflicting expectations of markets, citizens, public organizations and planners, it demonstrates the similarities of challenges faced in different national planning systems. The author traces the historical evolution of planning and urban governance, and explores the range of urban problems and policies likely to be found in almost any city in the developed world. Combining the latest theory in the field with practical insight and numerous illustrative case studies, the author comprehensively addresses issues of economic change and development; retailing and the role of urban centres; housing provision and neighbourhood renewal; urban design and conservation; green and blue infrastructure; and mobility and accessibility. Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject, this text is the ideal accessible introduction to the planning field, giving equal focus to both theory and practice. Whilst celebrating the work of planners, it also provides essential critical analysis of how key decisions are made and implemented, the benefits and limitations of planning, and ultimately its potential in achieving 'good city form'.
Fifty years ago, urban waterfronts were industrial, polluted, and diseased. Today, luxury homes and shops line riverbanks, harbours, and lakes across Europe and North America. The visual drama of physical reconstruction makes this transition look swift and decisive, but reimaging water is a slow process, punctuated by small cultural shifts and informal spatial seizures that change the meaning of wet urban spaces. In The Politics of Urban Water, Kimberley Kinder explores how active residents in Amsterdam deployed their cityscape when rallying around these concerns, turning space into a vehicle for social reform. While market dynamics certainly contributed to the transformation of Amsterdam's shorelines, squatters, partiers, artists, historians, environmentalists, tourists, reporters, and government officials also played crucial roles in bringing waterscapes to life. Their interventions pulled water in new directions, connecting it to political discussions about affordable housing, cultural tolerance, climate change, and national identity. Over time, these political valences have become embedded in laws, norms, symbols, markets, and landscapes, bringing rich undercurrents of friction to urban shores. Amsterdam's development serves as both an inspiration and a cautionary tale for cities across Europe and North America where rapid new growth creates similar pressures and anxieties.
The objective of this book is to better understand the nature of urban governance regarding the provision of basic urban services in rapidly growing mid-sized towns and cities in developing countries. Set within the context of understanding urban planning and management within the wider city setting, the study focuses on the provision of the basic urban services of housing, water and sanitation especially within informal settlements. Using the case study of the mid-sized city of Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia, the publication explores: (i) the types, processes, and stakeholders that constitute formal urban governance in the provision of basic urban services; (ii) understanding how stakeholders gain and benefit from 'on the ground' formal service arrangements, and why; and (iii) for those who do not directly benefit from the formal arrangements, how individuals, groups and communities organize and access governance to meet their basic urban needs. The methods employed to better understand the nature of urban governance and its relationship to the provision of basic urban services comprised primary (face-to-face household surveys interviewing 448 respondents, ground mapping at a plot size level in four informal settlements, and semi-structured interviews with 12 stakeholders) and secondary data regarding urban governance, planning and management. The study reveals that urban governance arrangements in fast growing mid-sized cities have emerged both formally and informally to cope with basic urban service needs across a range of settlement types and socio-cultural groups. The major modes of governance arrangements in the informal settlements consist of traditional, formal and informal, and hybrid governance which co-evolve as their boundaries overlap and intersect through time at varying levels of 'equilibrium'. The 'governance equilibrium' represents a 'balance' at a specific point and place in time in how stakeholders utilize and share resources, and access various contributions.
WINNER OF THE WAINWRIGHT PRIZE FOR WRITING ON GLOBAL CONSERVATION Winner of the Richard Jefferies Society and White Horse Book Shop Literary Prize 'splendid' -The Guardian 'visionary' -New Statesman Britain has all the space it needs for an epic return of its wildlife. Only six percent of our country is built upon. Contrary to popular myth, large areas of our countryside are not productively farmed but remain deserts of opportunity for both wildlife and jobs. It is time to turn things around. Praised as 'visionary' by conservationists and landowners alike, Rebirding sets out a compelling manifesto for restoring Britain's wildlife, rewilding its species and restoring rural jobs - to the benefit of all.
The loss of a home can lead to major violations of a person's dignity and human rights. Yet, evictions take place everyday in all countries across Europe. This book provides a comparative assessment of human rights, administrative, procedural and public policy norms, in the context of eviction, across a number of European jurisdictions. Through this comparison the book exposes the emergence of consistent, Europe-wide standards and norms. With contributions from experts across Europe, the chapters provide an assessment of eviction procedures in 11 jurisdictions, including Germany, France, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Each chapter examines a number of factors relating to evictions in the respective jurisdiction, such as, the human rights and legal framework, nature and extent of evictions taking place, risk factors leading to evictions and relevant best practice guidance. All together, this book will make a significant contribution to the understanding of the similarities and differences between eviction policies across European states. As the first work of its kind to provide an in-depth comparison of eviction policies across Europe, Loss of Homes and Evictions Across Europe will be of great interest to those who are researching European housing law and human rights law and policy. Housing law and public policy makers, and those working within associated European institutions, will also find the data and accompanying analysis invaluable for informing their work.
This book reconsiders the fundamental principles of zoning and city planning over the course of the past one-hundred years, and the lessons that can be learned for the future of cities. Bringing together the contributions of leading scholars, representing diverse methodologies and academic disciplines, this book studies core questions about the functionality of cities and the goals that should be promoted via zoning and planning. It considers the increasing pace of urbanization and growth of mega cities in both developed and developing countries; changing concepts on the role of mixed-use and density zoning; new policies on inclusionary zoning as a way to facilitate urban justice and social mobility; and the effects of current macrophenomena, such as mass immigration and globalization, on the changing landscape of cities. The book's twelve chapters are divided into four parts, each addressing different aspects of zoning and planning by combining theoretical analysis with a close observation of diverse case studies from North America and Europe to the Middle East and developing economies. Part I offers a critical analysis of the conventional account of zoning as a top-down form of land-use regulation starting with the 1916 NYC code. Part II studies how contemporary concepts of zoning, both substantive and procedural, impact the built environment across today's cities. Part III revisits the economic foundations of zoning and urban policy in the context of domestic markets, as compared with the regulatory and market effects of interstate agreements on cross-border real estate investments. Part IV analyzes the dominant, yet often implicit social and political motives that are driving zoning policies across different countries. This volume's focus on the ties between zoning policy and economics, politics, socioeconomic conditions, and the local-to-global scope of governance will appeal to scholars and students of political science, economics, law, planning, sustainability, geography, sociology, and architecture, as well as policy-makers and practitioners, especially those in developing countries and transitional and emerging economies.
Elgar Research Agendas outline the future of research in a given area. Leading scholars are given the space to explore their subject in provocative ways, and map out the potential directions of travel. They are relevant but also visionary. Transport significantly affects everyday life in our modern world. Highlighting key challenges and opportunities, this Research Agenda identifies current and future themes that are central to both research and practice in the transport sector. With chapters written by eminent scholars and practitioners, it provides readers with a state-of-the art analysis of the topic. This Research Agenda identifies areas of research required to inform transport policy development that will in turn support improved societal outcomes. Chapters examine transport policy from a range of different viewpoints, offering insights into socio-economic environments, the importance of technology, and the differing approaches to transport policy across five continents. Transport is on the cusp of major transformation, and such disruptive change demands the broad, integrated approach that this Research Agenda provides. Written in a non-technical style, this book will appeal to transport policy practitioners, looking to improve current infrastructure to better suit the needs of the future. Public policy and geography scholars focusing on the impact and importance of transport will also find this to be a valuable read.
How might school funds be spent more effectively in today's uncertain environment? This up-to-date volume explores a range of ideas to help schools and districts better manage their resources, including: how to rethink staffing and management to get more value for employee compensation; how policymakers might revisit pension arrangements in ways that control costs while putting more teacher compensation in the form of take-home pay; how educators and policymakers can leverage technology as a performance-enhancer and not just a cost-cutting opportunity; and how districts might frame spending options differently in order to more properly assess the needs and preferences of students and families. As American education enters the next decade of challenges, including shortfalls due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Getting the Most Bang From the Education Buck will be a valuable guide for how to spend dollars wisely and well. Book Features: A systematic look at issues like pension costs, declining enrollments, and school choice. Reflects changes in the political, policy, and practical landscapes to address the world as it stands now. A user-friendly presentation with sensible talk about how to make dollars go further. Each chapter covers a specific topic-from staffing to declining enrollments to pensions-making it easy for practitioners and professors to find their subject of interest.
The majority of the world's population now live in cities, nearly a quarter of which boast populations of one million or more. The rise of globalisation has granted cities unprecedented significance, both politically and economically, leading to benefits and problems at national and international levels. The Handbook of Emerging 21st-Century Cities explores the changes that are occurring in cities, and the impacts that they are having, at the local, national and global scale. Bringing together voices from around the world, this Handbook provides an interdisciplinary view of the changes that are happening in emerging cities, examining a range of topics from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. With chapters covering changes in urban economies, social dynamics, and emerging technology this Handbook radically rethinks the dynamics of cities in the 21st century, including those in the global south. The Handbook of Emerging 21st-Century Cities is an important addition to the literature, and is a useful resource for students of geography, economics, sociology, anthropology and urban planning. Its insights will also be of value for public administrators and urban planners, and anyone else whose work impacts on, or is impacted by, cities.
This book addresses unexpected disasters and shocks in cities and urban systems by providing quantitative and qualitative tools for impact analysis and disaster management. Including environmental catastrophes, political turbulence and economic shocks, Resilience and Urban Disasters explores a large range of tumultuous events and key case studies to thoroughly cover these core areas. Chapters explore novel contributions on urban evolution and adjustment patterns based on studies from across the globe. Both causal mechanisms and policy responses to the high social costs of urban disasters are addressed. In particular, the book explores the socio-economic impacts on urban systems that are subject to disasters, including migration due to large earthquakes in Japan, the economic impact of terrorist attacks in Istanbul and labour market changes as a result of natural disasters in Italy. Urban planning and urban economics scholars will greatly benefit from the multidisciplinary analyses of a variety of case studies in the book. City planners and urban administrators will also find the exploration of potential paths of resilience for cities to be an invaluable tool for future planning.
"The first edition of Municipal finance and accounting was published in 2007, and was the first comprehensive text on the principles and best practice of municipal finance and accounting to appear since Dr Jack Cowden's 1968 treatment of more or less the same subject matter. The first edition was revised in 2011, the main changes being the inclusion of considerable additional material on the legislative framework governing municipalities, an extensive revision of the chapter on municipal budgets in order to incorporate the approaches introduced by the 2009 regulations on budgets and reporting requirements, and various amendments to chapters 3 and 4 to reflect the advent of further GRAP standards and changes in important local government statutes. The example of the annual financial statements contained in Chapter 5 was entirely redone to accord with the requirements of GRAP, and the chapter itself amended to include summaries of most of the prescribed GRAP standards. The many changes in municipal finance that occurred since 2011 have now necessitated a second revision. All new enacted legislation and amendments to existing legislation have been included, as well as important impending legislation and new regulations, particularly those issued in terms of the Municipal Systems Act and Municipal Finance Management Act. Important MFMA circulars are also covered, as are other significant guidelines issued by the National Treasury. Various other matters of importance in relation to the financial administration and governance of municipalities are also dealt with, including municipal public accounts committees (MPACs), new approaches to grants, the supply chain management reporting framework and several significant court cases. An updated version of the annual financial statements has also been prepared. As with the original edition, this revised version deals holistically with all the key features of municipal finance and accountancy, with emphasis on the principles of sound financial governance in municipalities. It is designed for use in tertiary education and also for regular consultation by accounting officers, financial and non-financial officials and councillors in the performance of their duties. Municipal finance and accounting should be useful to anyone involved with, or interested in, the financial administration and governance of municipalities."
The political and symbolic centrality of capital cities has been challenged by increasing economic globalization. This is especially true of secondary capital cities; capital cities which, while being the seat of national political power, are not the primary economic city of their nation state. David Kaufmann examines the unique challenges that these cities face entering globalized, inter-urban competition while not possessing a competitive political economy. Varieties of Capital Cities offers empirically rich case studies of four secondary capital cities: Bern, Ottawa, The Hague, and Washington, DC. Analysed with an innovative research framework, this book shows through its clearly structured analysis, that while the pressures facing these cities are the same, the mechanisms they employ to cope with them are very different. They have formulated a wide variety of policies to supplement their capital function with economically promising profiles, even though they cannot escape their destinies as government cities. This book is an impressive contribution to an area of study largely neglected by urban studies, political science, and economic geography. With vital lessons for urban policy makers, the interested practitioner will find a pool of inspiration for their urban strategies. Students and scholars of these subjects will find this book interesting, and will also find it invaluable as a lesson for how to develop and execute comparative case studies.
An urban history of modern Britain, and how the built environment shaped the nation's politics Foundations is a history of twentieth-century Britain told through the rise, fall, and reinvention of six different types of urban space: the industrial estate, shopping precinct, council estate, private flats, shopping mall, and suburban office park. Sam Wetherell shows how these spaces transformed Britain's politics, economy, and society, helping forge a midcentury developmental state and shaping the rise of neoliberalism after 1980. From the mid-twentieth century, spectacular new types of urban space were created in order to help remake Britain's economy and society. Government-financed industrial estates laid down infrastructure to entice footloose capitalists to move to depressed regions of the country. Shopping precincts allowed politicians to plan precisely for postwar consumer demand. Public housing modernized domestic life and attempted to create new communities out of erstwhile strangers. In the latter part of the twentieth century many of these spaces were privatized and reimagined as their developmental aims were abandoned. Industrial estates became suburban business parks. State-owned shopping precincts became private shopping malls. The council estate was securitized and enclosed. New types of urban space were imported from American suburbia, and planners and politicians became increasingly skeptical that the built environment could remake society. With the midcentury built environment becoming obsolete, British neoliberalism emerged in tense negotiation with the awkward remains of built spaces that had to be navigated and remade. Taking readers to almost every major British city as well as to places in the United States and Britain's empire, Foundations highlights how some of the major transformations of twentieth-century British history were forged in the everyday spaces where people lived, worked, and shopped.
Elgar Research Agendas outline the future of research in a given area. Leading scholars are given the space to explore their subject in provocative ways, and map out the potential directions of travel. They are relevant but also visionary. This book seeks to answer the question: what do we need to know about the success, failure and future prospects of creating walkable, diverse urbanism? Separating out what we already know from what we don't, it advances a research agenda aimed at helping to sustain the New Urbanism movement. As the book clearly demonstrates, there is a lot we still need to learn about creating and sustaining good cities. A wide array of topics are covered, from big picture concerns about the need for more theory development, to more fundamental topics like sustaining urban retail and encouraging multi-modal transportation. The authors explore research needs from the social, environmental, and economic sides of New Urbanism, from small-scale DIY tactics to large-scale policy platforms like the UN's New Urban Agenda, from zoning reform to autonomous vehicles and climate change. New Urbanism is a large topic, and the research needed to sustain it is equally large. We still need to know - in a more rigorous way - whether, and how, New Urbanist principles are ever achieved, whether the outcomes associated with a particular implementation strategy are providing environmental, social and economic benefits as claimed, and what the best strategy might be for fulfilling each goal. This unique book offers profound and intriguing insights into the development and growth of New Urbanism. It will be required reading for students and scholars of urban planning and design, and urban studies more broadly.
This book provides theories, experiences, reflections and future directions for social scientists who wish to engage with policy-oriented research in, and for, cities and regions. The 'policy learning' perspective is comprehensively discussed, focusing on actors promoting 'policy knowledge' and interaction among different stakeholders. Theoretical frameworks and practical experiences of policy-orientated research for European regions and cities are comprehensively explored in this timely book. The authors review current theories and present novel case studies of policy-orientated research. By combining policy analysis with urban and regional studies, the book highlights how researchers can be agents of policy learning, helping policymakers to learn how to learn. This book offers unique, real world insights for researchers, practitioners and stakeholders interested in research-based approaches to cities and regions.
American Indian reservation planning is one of the most challenging and poorly understood specializations within the American planning profession. Charged with developing a strategy to protect irreplaceable tribal homelands that have been repeatedly diminished over the ages through unjust public policy actions, it is also one of the most imperative. For centuries tribes have faced historical bigotry, political violence, and an unrelenting resistance to self-governance. Aided by a comprehensive reservation planning strategy, tribes can create the community they envisioned for themselves, independent of outside forces. In Planning the American Indian Reservation, Zaferatos presents a holistic and practical approach to explaining the practice of Native American planning. The book unveils the complex conditions that tribes face by examining the historic, political, legal, and theoretical dimensions of the tribal planning situation in order to elucidate the context within which reservation planning occurs. Drawing on more than thirty years of professional practice, Zaferatos presents several case studies demonstrating how effective tribal planning can alter the nature of the political landscape and help to rebalance the uneven relationships that have been formed between tribal governments and their nontribal political counterparts. Tribal planning's overarching objective is to assist tribes as they transition from passive objects of historical circumstances to principal actors in shaping their future reservation communities.
Peter Hall s seminal Cities of Tomorrow remains an unrivalled account of the history of planning in theory and practice, as well as of the social and economic problems and opportunities that gave rise to it. Now comprehensively revised, the fourth edition offers a perceptive, critical, and global history of urban planning and design throughout the twentieth-century and beyond. * A revised and updated edition of this classic text from one of the most notable figures in the field of urban planning and design * Offers an incisive, insightful, and unrivalled critical history of planning in theory and practice, as well as of the underlying socio-economic challenges and opportunities * Comprehensively revised to take account of abundant new research published over the last decade * Reviews the development of the modern planning movement over the entire span of the twentieth-century and beyond * Draws on global examples throughout, and weaves the author s own fascinating experiences into the text to illustrate this authoritative story of urban growth
Between 1817 and 1898, New York City evolved from a vital Atlantic port of trade to the center of American commerce and culture. With this rapid commercial growth and cultural development, New York came to epitomize a nineteenth-century metropolis. Although this important urban transformation is well documented, the critical role of select Union soldiers turned New York engineers has, until now, remained largely unexplored. In Designing Gotham, Jon Scott Logel examines the fascinating careers of George S. Greene, Egbert L. Viele, John Newton, Henry Warner Slocum, and Fitz John Porter, all of whom studied engineering at West Point, served in the United States Army during the Civil War, and later advanced their civilian careers and status through the creation of Victorian New York. These influential cadets trained at West Point in the nation's first engineering school, a program designed by Sylvanus Thayer and Dennis Hart Mahan that would shape civil engineering in New York and beyond. After the war, these industrious professionals leveraged their education and military experience to wield significant influence during New York's social, economic, and political transformation. Logel examines how each engineer's Civil War service shaped his contributions to postwar activities in the city, including the construction of the Croton Aqueduct, the creation of Central Park, and the building of the Brooklyn Bridge. Logel also delves into the administration of New York's municipal departments, in which Military Academy alumni interacted with New York elites, politicians, and civilian-trained engineers. Examining the West Pointers' experiences, as cadets, military officers during the war, and New Yorkers, Logel assesses how these men impacted the growing metropolis, the rise of professionalization, and the advent of Progressivism at the end of the century.
Based on fieldwork in Malaysia, this book provides a critical examination of the country's main urban region. The study first provides a theoretical reworking of geographies of modernity and details the emergence of a globally-oriented, 'high-tech' stage of national development. The Multimedia Super Corridor is framed in terms of a political vision of a 'fully developed' Malaysia before the author traces an imagined trajectory through surrounding landscapes in the late 1990s. As the first book length giving an academic analysis of the development of Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Area and the construction of the Multimedia Super Corridor, this work offers a situated, contextual account which will appeal to all those with research interests in Asian Urban Studies and Asian Sociology.
For the past 150 years, architecture has been a significant tool in the hands of city planners and leaders. In Creating Cities/Building Cities, Peter Karl Kresl and Daniele Ietri illustrate how these planners and leaders have utilized architecture to achieve a variety of aims, influencing the situation, perception and competitiveness of their cities. Whether the objective is branding, re-vitalization of the economy, beautification, development of an economic and business center, status development, or seeking distinction with the tallest building, distinctive architecture has been an essential instrument for those who manage the course of a city's development. Since the 1870s, and the reconstruction of Chicago following the Great Fire, architecture has been affected powerfully by advances in design, technology and materials used in construction. The authors identify several key elements in such a strategic initiative, and in the penultimate chapter examine several cases of cities that have ignored one or more of these elements and have failed in their attempt. A unique set of insights into this fascinating topic, this study will appeal to specialists in urban planning, economic geography, and architecture. Readers interested in urban development will also find its coverage accessible and enlightening.
Decision-makers within the mobility, transport and logistics sector need to account for a wide range of conflicting information from actors with varied backgrounds and interests. This book presents Multi Actor Multi Criteria Analysis (MAMCA) developed by Professor Cathy Macharis, designed to involve and empower stakeholders within these sectors at all stages of the decision-making process. This comprehensive work draws on 15 years of research, during which MAMCA has been deployed to support sustainable decisions within the transport and mobility sectors. Contrary to traditional approaches in the area, the MAMCA methodology pushes stakeholder perspectives to the forefront of analysis using a co-construction approach, making the methodology unique within the group decision-making literature. Based on a strong record of both theoretical and real-life applications in the context of mobility, transport and logistics, this book provides decision-makers, managers and practitioners with the tools to use, understand and replicate the MAMCA methodology.
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