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Fatalities on U.S. roads now total over 40,000 each year. Future reductions may require the Department of Transportation (DOT) to address new trends such as evolving crash-avoidance technologies and rapidly changing electronic devices that may distract drivers who use them on the road. This book examines how the DOT is deciding on responses to the crash avoidance and electronic distractions trends and other efforts to improve highway safety.
Aircraft and automobile manufacturing are considered by many to be the technological backbones of the U.S. manufacturing base. As the Obama Administration and Congress debate how to strengthen American manufacturing, aerospace is likely to receive considerable attention. Like other manufacturing industries, the world-wide recession has affected aerospace manufacturing, with both the defence and commercial sides of the industry facing difficult business conditions for the near and medium term. This book examines the U.S. commercial aerospace manufacturing industry and provides a discussion of major trends affecting the future of this industry.
This book sheds light on Sir Peter Hall's visions and contributions as recalled by experts. Specialists from the fields of transport and geography testify to Sir Peter Hall's enormous impact on urban planning, urban geography, and transport geography, and The IGU Commission on Transport and Geography together with the IGU Urban Commission would like to commemorate this. After an Introduction by Richard Knowles and Celine Rozenblat, Peter Taylor presents his high-level contribution "Polymath in City Studies," and Jonathan Reades presents Sir Peter Hall's views on "Location and Innovation." This is followed by "An Innovator of Enhancing Transport and Urban Development Relationships" by Chia-Lin Chen. Kathy Pain explains their common work on "The Mega City Regions," while Michael Batty recalls how they collaborated on "World Cities and Information Cities." Celine Rozenblat and Dan O'Donoghue welcome "The Visionary for World and European cities".
Timely updates, increased citizen engagement, and more effective marketing are just a few of the reasons transportation agencies have already started to adopt social media networking tools. Best Practices for Transportation Agency Use of Social Media offers real-world advice for planning and implementing social media from leading government practitioners, academic researchers, and industry experts. The book provides an overview of the various social media platforms and tools, with examples of how transportation organizations use each platform. It contains a series of interviews that illustrate what creative agencies are doing to improve service, provide real-time updates, garner valuable information from their customers, and better serve their communities. It reveals powerful lessons learned from various transportation agencies, including a regional airport, city and state departments of transportation, and municipal transit agencies. Filled with examples from transportation organizations, the text provides ideas that can apply to all modes of transportation including mass transit, highways, aviation, ferries, bicycling, and walking. It describes how to measure the impact of your social media presence and also examines advanced uses of social media for obtaining information by involving customers and analyzing their social media use. The book outlines all the resources you will need to maintain a social media presence and describes how to use social media analytical tools to assess service strengths and weaknesses and customer sentiment. Explaining how to overcome the digital divide, language barriers, and accessibility challenges for patrons with disabilities, it provides you with the understanding of the various social media technologies along with the knowhow to determine which one is best for a specific situation and purpose.
One of the most important factors that affect a person's risk of injury in a motor vehicle crash is the age of the person. This book investigates patterns of injury severity, location of injuries, and contact sources for the driver injuries by driver age. Also discussed in this compilation is how age-related declines in vision, cognition, and physical ability affect how older road users drive and use various other modes of transportation. Also, effective response to traffic incidents can enhance safety and mobility for both road users and responders.
To improve aviation safety, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) plans to have in place the initial capabilities of a risk-based approach to safety oversight, known as a safety management system (SMS), by the end of fiscal year 2010. FAA is also implementing new procedures and technologies to enhance the safety, capacity, and efficiency of the national airspace system. Data are central to SMS and FAA's ability to test the impact of these changes on safety. This book addresses the FAA's current and planned use of data to oversee safety; the preliminary information on aircraft icing and winter operations; information on modifying the age standard for commercial pilots; potential strategies to address air ambulance safety concerns; and a look at increased efforts to address runway incursions.
While Congress has been interested in high speed rail (HSR) since the 1960s, the provision of $8 billion for intercity passenger rail projects in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, enacted in February 2009, under the Obama administration, has invigorated the prospect of high speed passenger rail transportation in the United States. This book provides an overview of high speed rail in the United States and discusses what high speed rail would encompass, describes congressional initiatives to promote HSR and looks at high speed rail in selected other countries. Also discussed is the rationale for developing HSR, cost estimates and some of the challenges expected in implementing HSR.
The idea of designing and building quieter pavements is not new, but in recent years there has been a groundswell of interest in making this a higher priority. Various State Highway Agencies and the Federal Highway Administration have responded accordingly with both research and implementation activities that both educate on the state-of-the-practice, and advance the state-of-the-art. This book aims to educate the transportation industry, and in some cases the general public, about the numerous principles behind quieter pavements, as well as summarising the Long-Term Pavement Performance programs and its major activities.
After a decade of steady investment and construction, Chinese railways have evolved into an era of high-speed. This book has two objectives. The first is to introduce the Chinese railway system to an international audience and document the evolutionary process of railway development in China. For the first time, this book clarifies the Chinese experience with HSR deployment and details the economic and physical achievements and related managerial issues and institutional challenges. The second objective is to discuss and analyze critical concerns regarding Chinese railway operations, management and institutional structure. This book analyses best practices of railway reform, reform strategies and considers how to improve China's related institutions. This research reflects on experiences in other countries and policy implications for the Chinese railway system. The book makes recommendations for how to improve the capability and capacity of institutions and organizations, in order to achieve sustainable development of the Chinese HSR system.
The authors in this book present and review varied important data relating to today's automobiles; their safety assessment, performance, energy consumption, the related insurance industry and the psychology of driving. Discussed herein is the philosophy which should be followed by non-life insurance rate-makers for the selection of tariff variables and posterior estimation of premiums in automobile insurance; the driving ability profile of people with Parkinson's Disease; and new high strength steels and alloys being applied to automotive bodies to improve crash worthiness and reduce their weight.
Based on the work of Poly5, or the Mediterranean Corridor, mega-transport infrastructure project, this ground-breaking reference explains how and why traditional top-down government-defined transport planning policies are failing, due to their tendency to eschew acknowledgement of profoundly multifarious local and regional issues. The authors use cognitive reports from the Mediterranean Corridor experience as a learning platform, unpacking the tangled sources of the challenges faced to find firm ground from which to embark upon future projects. They propose the replacement of the current fragmented and unbalanced implementation efforts across various territories with a bottom-up, holistic, inclusive approach in which individual territories and regions have buy-in from the outset, a chance to bring their strengths to bear on the broader infrastructural planning, an ongoing communication channel to report and tackle difficulties and clear, strategic directives to drive sustainable future growth of environmentally desirable and practical mega-transport systems.
Safety and Security in Transit Environments presents interdisciplinary studies from leading international authors. This important volume identifies key challenges and complexities in addressing security and safety concerns in transit settings, policy recommendations for prevention, and new frontiers for research at transit settings. Chapter 9 of this book is open access under a CC BY license via link.springer.com.
In the years preceding the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States lacked a comprehensive national policy and strategy for aviation security. The United States approach to aviation security had largely been shaped by past events such as the bombing of Pan Am flight 103 in December, 1988. This book explores the national aviation security policy established by the President. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has developed a publicly-available national strategy for aviation security that addresses threats to aviation using a risk-based methodology to complement the overarching National infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and seeks to deter and prevent terrorist attacks against aviation, mitigate damage and expedite recovery and minimise the impact of an attack to the aviation system. The strategy seeks to achieve these objectives by engaging domestic and international partners and carrying out specific actions set forth in a series of supporting plans for operational security, surveillance and intelligence, threat response, system recovery, and co-ordination.
This book includes an in-depth analysis of the environmental and energy security impacts of replacing the internal combustion engine vehicle with various forms of electric vehicles and replacing gasoline and diesel fuel with alternative fuels including electricity, hydrogen and biofuels. In addition to a detailed "well-to-wheels" analysis of local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and oil consumption for each alternative vehicle, the book estimates the market penetration potential of each fuel/vehicle combination to determine the most likely societal impact of each alternative vehicle pathway. To support the market penetration estimates, the book analyses the likely cost of each alternative vehicle in mass production and the cost of installing the necessary fuel infrastructure to support each option. The book provides sufficient detail to allow decision makers in governments and industry to choose among the alternative vehicle/fuel combinations that will lead to a truly sustainable transportation system.
Growing demands on the transportation system and constraints on public resources have led to calls for more private sector involvement in the provision of highway and transit infrastructure through what are known as "public-private partnerships" (PPPs). A PPP, broadly defined, is any arrangement whereby the private sector assumes more responsibility than is traditional for infrastructure planning, financing, design, construction, operation, and maintenance. This book describes the wide variety of public-private partnerships in highways and transit, but focuses on the two types of highway PPPs that are generating the most debate: the leasing by the public sector to the private sector of existing infrastructure; and the building, leasing, and owning of new infrastructure by private entities.
Written by an expert in parking management, Parking Management for Smart Growth shows how to manage on- and off-street parking supplies to achieve Smart Growth. In the last 50 years, parking management has grown from a minor aspect of local policy and regulation to a central position in the provision of transportation access. The higher densities, tight land supplies, mixed land uses, environmental and social concerns, and alternative transportation modes of Smart Growth demand a different approach - actively managed parking. This book offers a set of tools and a method for strategic parking management so that communities can better use parking resources and avoid overbuilding parking. It explores new opportunities for making the most from every parking space in a sharing economy and taking advantage of new digital parking tools to increase user interaction and satisfaction. Examples are provided of successful approaches for parking management, from London to Pasadena. At its essence, the book provides a path forward for strategic parking management in a new era of tighter parking supplies.
This textbook provides an introduction to the concept of sustainability in the context of transportation planning, management, and decision-making. The book is divided into two parts. In the first part, indicators and frameworks for measuring sustainable development in the transportation sector are developed. In the second, the authors analyze actual planning and decision-making in transportation agencies in a variety of governance settings. This analysis of real-world case studies demonstrates the benefits and limitations of current approaches to sustainable development in transportation. The book concludes with a discussion on how to make sustainability count in transportation decision-making and practice.
The requirement for sustainable transport in urban areas has become more onerous in the past decade due to a number of negative externalities which have been increasingly associated with growing mobility and the advances made in the technology and available options for sustainable transport. However, whilst on one hand technology has supported the reduction of environmental impacts of increased (car) mobility, other policies and actions influencing behaviour have been identified as key contributors to reduce the impact of transport. While the intentions behind particular policies point towards sustainability goals, attitudes towards mode choice are proving more difficult to shift. Specific actions are driving best practice in reducing car dependence by providing alternative means of car sharing and public transport use, whilst others look at promoting non-motorized forms of transport. This publication brings together an international group of researchers and presents work from different countries dealing with issues related to transport policy, attitudes and mode choice, car sharing and alternative modes of transport, and discusses the future of non-motorized modes of transport.
This book will bring a state of the art overview of the research done in sustainable logistics. It will be structured along the four A's of sustainable logistics:- 1 Awareness: it is important that companies and policy makers are aware of the effects of their activities and policies. New methods to estimate the effects of the logistic activities and the change towards more sustainable ways will be covered. 2 Avoidance: transport can be avoided by a better collaboration between actors (vertically and horizontally. Papers covering this topic will be introduced here. 3 Acting and shifting the goods to more environmental friendly modes or to the non peak hours. 4 Anticipation of new technologies: the use of more environmental friendly vehicles (electric,.LNG,..) within the logistic chain.
While intercity passenger transport counts for about 2% of the total passenger transport volume the share of the total passenger kilometers traveled is estimated more than one third. In many countries the major part of intercity transport is performed by car and air and as a result, the contribution to the carbon footprint is substantially higher than the share of overall passenger transport performance. This creates a challenge to develop a sustainable organization of intercity transport which requires a true joint effort of policy makers, industry sectors and households. This presupposes that all options for reducing the carbon footprint of the transport modes - car, air and rail - are fully exploited through modern propulsion technology, use of regenerative energy and efficient organization of transport processes. Basic conditions for meeting this requirement are an incentive compatible public framework of regulation, taxation, charging and education, the private willingness to adjust to new behavioral patterns and a consequent push of technological progress towards energy and CO2 savings. This book begins with an international comparison of intercity transport and the current state of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) of this transport segment. A focus is given to comparing the situation in the EU, the US and Japan while describing the more recent development of intercity transport in China, followed by an analysis of intercity transport policies and their contribution to meet the global climate change issues. This book will be of interest to researchers in transportation economics and policy, as well as civil engineering and planning.
Through the New Starts program, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) evaluates and recommends new fixed guideway transit projects for funding using the evaluation criteria identified in law. In August 2007, FTA issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), in part, to incorporate certain provisions within the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient, Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) into the evaluation process. SAFETEA-LU requires the authors to annually review FTA's New Starts process. This book discusses (1) the information captured by New Starts project justification criteria, (2) challenges FTA faces as it works to improve the New Starts program, and (3) options for evaluating New Starts projects. To address these objectives, the authors reviewed statutes, FTA guidance and regulations governing the New Starts program, and interviewed experts, project sponsors, and Department of Transportation (DOT) officials.
Surface transportation congestion most likely will be a major issue for Congress as it considers reauthorisation of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act -- A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA), P.L. 109-59, which is set to expire on 30 September 2009. By many accounts, congestion on the nation's road and railroad networks, at seaports and airports, and on some major transit systems is a significant problem for many transportation users, especially commuters, freight shippers, and carriers. Indeed, some observers believe congestion has already reached crisis proportions. Others are less worried, believing congestion to be a minor impediment to mobility, the by-product of prosperity and accessibility in economically vibrant places, or the unfortunate consequence of over reliance on cars and trucks that causes more important problems such as air pollution and urban sprawl. Trends underlying the demand for freight and passenger travel -- population and economic growth, the urban and regional distribution of homes and businesses, and international trade -- suggest that pressures on the transportation system are likely to grow substantially over the next 30 years. Although transportation congestion continues to grow and intensify, the problem is still geographically concentrated in major metropolitan areas, at international trade gateways, and on some intercity trade routes. Because of this geographical concentration, most places and people in America are not directly affected by transportation congestion. Consequently, in recent federal law, Congress, for the most-part, has allowed states and localities to decide the relative importance of congestion mitigation vis-a-vis other transportation priorities. This has been accompanied by a sizeable boost in funding for public transit and a more moderate boost in funding for traffic reduction measures as part of a patchwork of relatively modest federally directed congestion programs. Congress may decide to continue with funding flexibility in its reauthorisation of the surface transportation programs. States and localities that suffer major transportation congestion would be free to devote federal and local resources to congestion mitigation if they wish. Similarly, congestion-free locales would be able to focus on other transportation-related problems, such as connectivity, system access, safety, and economic development. Alternatively, Congress may want to more clearly establish congestion abatement as a national policy objective, given its economic development impact, and take a less flexible and, in other ways, more aggressive approach to congestion mitigation. Three basic elements that Congress may consider are (1) the overall level of transportation spending, (2) the prioritization of transportation spending, and (3) congestion pricing and other alternative ways to ration transportation resources with limited government spending. Congress also may want to consider the advantages and disadvantages of specific transportation congestion remedies. Hence, this book discusses the three basic types of congestion remedies proposed by engineers and planners: adding new capacity, operating the existing capacity more efficiently, and managing demand.
Travel by car invariably involves the use of a car parking space at the start and end of the journey, the provision of which impacts on travel demand and travel behaviour. The presence or absence of parking at the destination also has significant implications for the demand for public transport. The impact of parking on mode share and travel demand more generally thus has implications for transport and sustainability. Parking has been extensively used as a means of managing the demand for car travel, be it by use of parking pricing, regulation or parking supply via polices such as park and ride. Given the ubiquitous nature of parking in our cities, there is a relative lack of research at least when compared to measures such as road pricing of which much has been written but of which there are few schemes in existence world-wide. This book advances the debate with respect to parking; covering the issues of supply and demand, the various policy measures, namely economic, regulatory, regional wide or organisational. Carefully selected case studies highlight specific examples with industry and research implications. It concludes with a piece about the future direction of parking policy.
As urban congestion continues to be an ever increasing problem, routing in these settings has become an important area of operations research. This monograph provides cutting-edge research, utilizing the recent advances in technology, to quantify the value of dynamic, time-dependent information for advanced vehicle routing in city logistics. The methodology of traffic data collection is enhanced by GPS based data collection, resulting in a comprehensive number of travel time records. Data Mining is also applied to derive dynamic information models as required by time-dependent optimization. Finally, well-known approaches of vehicle routing are adapted in order to handle dynamic information models. This book interweaves the usually distinct areas of traffic data collection, information retrieval and time-dependent optimization by an integrated methodological approach, which refers to synergies of Data Mining and Operations Research techniques by example of city logistics applications. These procedures will help improve the reliability of logistics services in congested urban areas.
The aim of the book is to present the emerging environmental issues in organization and management of transport logistics. The scope of the book includes set of solutions which show different stakeholders' viewpoints on sustainability. It points out how the transport operations organized and conducted in companies and regions might be consistent with the concept of sustainable development. The scope of the book takes into consideration trade-off relations between actors directly and indirectly involved in transport networks. Therefore, the authors present, in individual chapters, innovative approach to eco-friendly organization and coordination of transport processes, as well as management of transport networks.
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