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Accessibility is a concept central to integrated transport and land use planning. The goal of improving accessibility for all modes, for all people, has made its way into mainstream transport policy and planning in communities worldwide. This unique and fascinating book introduces new accessibility approaches to transport planning across Europe and the United States. The expert contributors present a wide variety of perspectives on transport and communication issues and explore their impacts on society at an international level. Best practice in both accessibility analysis and modelling are highlighted via widely interdisciplinary approaches. Moreover, future objectives and areas for research are clearly addressed. This book will prove an absorbing read for scholars, researchers and students working on accessibility issues across various academic fields including civil engineering, economics, geography, and the social sciences. Transport and urban planners will also find the book to be an invaluable reference tool.
This book examines the funding of roads and highways in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England and Wales, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, South Africa, and Sweden. It provides a description of the infrastructure in the jurisdiction, information on the ownership and responsibility of the roads, and taxes or other ways of collecting money to fund the nation's infrastructure. By revealing a multiplicity of approaches to the funding of road infrastructure, the report provides an opportunity to determine whether lessons can be learned from the experiences of other countries in funding roads and highways.
The Road to Inequality shows how policies that shape geographic space change our politics, focusing on the effects of the largest public works project in American history: the federal highway system. For decades, federally subsidized highways have selectively facilitated migration into fast-growing suburbs, producing an increasingly non-urban Republican electorate. This book examines the highway programs' policy origins at the national level and traces how these intersected with local politics and interests to facilitate complex, mutually-reinforcing processes that have shaped America's growing urban-suburban divide and, with it, the politics of metropolitan public investment. As Americans have become more polarized on urban-suburban lines, attitudes towards transportation policy - a once quintessentially 'local' and non-partisan policy area - are now themselves driven by partisanship, endangering investments in metropolitan programs that provide access to opportunity for millions of Americans.
The transport sector has been singularly unsuccessful in becoming low carbon and less resource intensive. This book takes an innovative and holistic social, cultural and behavioural perspective, as well as covering the more conventional economic and technological dimensions, to provide a more complete understanding of the mobility and transport system and its progress towards high carbon mobility. The book uses this platform to explore the means to achieve low carbon mobility through outlining alternative pathways, through an investigation of theories of change, and through alternative visions of the low carbon transport city. The book's core message is that the complexity of the mobility and transport system should not encourage inaction, but strong and immediate action. In addition to implementing a wide range of policy measures, the book argues for a fundamental change in 'thinking' when it comes to transport policy, governance and analysis approaches, before low carbon mobility becomes a reality. Bringing together the latest thinking on transport, mobility and the environment, this book will appeal to researchers and students interested in sustainability issues and sustainable transport and transport related areas in particular, including policy makers as well as a more general professional audience.
A dynamically written visual history of the world's largest transit system in all its intriguing, colorful, and even seedy glory packed with compelling information, as well as fascinating graphics and illustrations. New York wouldn't be New York without the subway. This one-time engineering marvel that united and expanded the city has been a cultural touchstone for the last 114 years. Subway is a complete, concise history of the transit system, from the technical obstacles and corruption which impeded plans for an underground rail line in the late 1800s, to the current state of the systems and plans for the future. Interspersed throughout are sidebars and stand-alone sections including profiles of characters who helped make the subway what it is today; graphics and imagery showing the evolution of subway cars, tokens and MetroCards, graffiti, and even subway etiquette ads; how the subway has been characterized in movies, television, and music; a look at abandoned cars and stations and more. A passion project for writer and train-buff John Morris, he brings wit and a journalist's instinct to the book, grabbing readers' attention with fascinating facts and anecdotes, conveying a sense of wonder and fun about the world's largest transit system. With engrossing imagery and a dynamic design, Subway will be a visual feast and must-have gift book for history buffs and train fanatics.
Unlike many United States industries, railroads are intrinsically linked to American soil and particular regions. Yet few Americans pay attention to rail lines, even though millions of them live in an economy and culture ""waiting for the train."" In ""Train Time: Railroads and the Imminent Reshaping of the United States Landscape"", John R. Stilgoe picks up where his acclaimed work ""Metropolitan Corridor"" left off, carrying his ideas about the spatial consequences of railways up to the present moment. Arguing that the train is returning, ""an economic and cultural tsunami about to transform the United States,"" Stilgoe posits a future for railways as powerful shapers of American life. Divided into sections that focus on particular aspects of the impending impact of railroads on the landscape, ""Train Time"" moves seamlessly between historical and contemporary analysis. From his reading of what prompted investors to reorient their thinking about the railroad industry in the late 1970s, to his exploration of creative solutions to transportation problems and land-use planning and development in the present, Stilgoe expands our perspective of an industry normally associated with bad news. Urging us that ""the magic moment is now,"" he observes, ""Now a train is often only a whistle heard far off on a sleepless night. But romantic or foreboding or empowering, the whistle announces return and change to those who listen."" For scholars with an interest in American history in general and railroad and transit history in particular, as well as general readers concerned about the future of transportation in the United States, ""Train Time"" is an engaging look at the future of our railroads.
The European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) is intended to increase the safety of international transport of dangerous goods by road. Regularly amended and updated since its entry into force, it contains the conditions under which dangerous goods may be carried internationally. This version has been prepared on the basis of amendments applicable as from 1 January 2019.
Pollution, alternative fuels, congestion, intelligent transportation systems, and the shift from construction to maintenance all call for a reconsideration of the existing highway revenue mechanisms, especially the gas tax. David Levinson explores the fundamental theoretical basis of highway finance, in particular the use of tolls, and supports that theory with empirical evidence. The author examines highway finance from the perspective of individual jurisdictions and travellers, and considers their interactions rather than specifying a single optimal solution. Congestion pricing has long been a goal of transportation economists, who believe it will result in a more efficient use of resources. Levinson argues that if the governance were to become more decentralized, and collection costs continue to drop, tolls could return to prominence as the preferred means of financing roads for both local and intercity travel. An approach that creates the local winners necessary to implement road pricing is required before it can be expected to become widespread. Economists, civil engineers, planners, students and policymakers will find this detailed examination of transportation networks enlightening and useful.
Maritime Transport Security offers a multidisciplinary framework and a comparative analysis of maritime transport security policies and practices in several key countries. Policy makers and industry stakeholders have established a set of international measures, procedures and benchmarks for maritime security. Yet the way these are designed and implemented often diverge due to technical, market and policy issues. This unique book considers problems such as this through an interdisciplinary survey of the main concerns related to maritime security and an examination of a number of relevant country case studies. Providing a comprehensive study of the critical themes, issues and frameworks surrounding maritime transport security, this book will be of great interest to practitioners and academics in the field. It will also be of great value to institutions that provide courses or programs in maritime management and related issues.
Almost all commercial service airports in the United States are owned by local and state governments, or by public entities such as airport authorities or multipurpose port authorities. In 1996, Congress established the Airport Privatization Pilot Program (APPP) to explore the prospect of privatising publicly owned airports and using private capital to improve and develop them. In addition to reducing demand for government funds, privatisation has been promoted as a way to make airports more efficient and financially viable. Privatisation refers to the shifting of governmental functions, responsibilities, and sometimes ownership, in whole or in part, to the private sector. With respect to airports, "privatisation" can take many forms up to and including the transfer of an entire airport to private operation and/or ownership. This book examines the issues and options for Congress with airport privatisation. It describes the experience with the APPP; examines the challenges airport owners and investors face to full airport privatisation; describes the potential effects of airport privatisation; and, discusses reasons why airport privatisation is more prevalent outside of the U.S. and stakeholder views on the APPP.
Showcases several exciting design projects of pedestrian and cyclist paths across a range of environments. Walking and cycling are becoming a fashionable lifestyle choice - both as a low-impact exercise and a healthy means of travel. There is ever-growing demand for the construction of pedestrian and cyclist paths internationally, and it's the rate of growth that highlights new challenges as well as opportunities for landscape designers. This book showcases several exciting design projects of pedestrian and cyclist paths across a range of environments, from cities to local communities, urban to larger national parks. The book includes an informative design guide and a set of criteria that should provide strong reference materials for professionals and students in related design fields. SELLING POINTS: - Pedestrian and cycle paths are important issues in enviromental construction. More attention is being paid to green commuting and keeping fit - walking and cycling are becoming more and more popular. Thus, the design of pedestrian and cyclist paths are drawing more attention from landscape designers 400 col., 10 b/w
Este Manual proporciona experiencia para abordar desafios tecnicos, institucionales y financieros con los que se enfrentan tomadores de decisiones sobre proyectos ferroviarios urbanos.
Cities around the globe struggle to create better and more equitable access to important destinations and services, all the while reducing the energy consumption and environmental impacts of mobility. An Introduction to Sustainable Transportation illustrates a new planning paradigm for sustainable transportation through case studies from around the world with hundreds of valuable resources and references, color photos, graphics and tables. The second edition builds and expands upon the highly acclaimed first edition, with new chapters on urban design and urban, regional and intercity public transportation, as well as expanded chapters on automobile dependence and equity issues; automobile cities and the car culture; the history of sustainable and unsustainable transportation; the interrelatedness of technologies, infrastructure energy and functionalities; and public policy and public participation and exemplary places, people and programs around the globe. Among the many valuable additions are discussions of autonomous vehicles (AVs), electric vehicles (EVs), airport cities, urban fabrics, urban heat island effects and mobility as a service (MaaS). New case studies show global exemplars of sustainable transportation, including several from Asia, a case study of participative and deliberative public involvement, as well as one describing life in the Vauban ecologically planned community of Freiburg, Germany. Students in affiliated sustainability disciplines, planners, policymakers and concerned citizens will find many provides practical techniques to innovate and transform transportation.
Robert A. Van Wyck, mayor of the greater city of New York, broke ground for the first subway line by City Hall on March 24, 1900. It took four years, six months, and twenty-three days to build the line from City Hall to West 145th Street in Harlem. Things rarely went that quickly ever again. The Routes Not Taken explores the often dramatic stories behind the unbuilt or unfinished subway lines, shedding light on a significant part of New York City's history that has been almost completely ignored until now. Home to one of the world's largest subway systems, New York City made constant efforts to expand its underground labyrinth, efforts that were often met with unexpected obstacles: financial shortfalls, clashing agendas of mayors and borough presidents, battles with local community groups, and much more. After discovering a copy of the 1929 subway expansion map, author Joseph Raskin began his own investigation into the city's underbelly. Using research from libraries, historical societies, and transit agencies throughout the New York metropolitan area, Raskin provides a fascinating history of the Big Apple's unfinished business that until now has been only tantalizing stories retold by public-transit experts. The Routes Not Taken sheds light on the tunnels and stations that were completed for lines that were never fulfilled: the efforts to expand the Hudson tubes into a fullfledged subway; the Flushing line, and why it never made it past Flushing; a platform underneath Brooklyn's Nevins Street station that has remained unused for more than a century; and the 2nd Avenue line-long the symbol of dashed dreams-deferred countless times since the original plans were presented in 1929. Raskin also reveals the figures and personalities involved, including why Fiorello LaGuardia could not grasp the importance of subway lines and why Robert Moses found them to be old and boring. By focusing on the unbuilt lines, Raskin illustrates how the existing subway system is actually a Herculean feat of countless political compromises. Filled with illustrations of the extravagant expansion plans, The Routes Not Taken provides an enduring contribution to the transportation history of New York City.
Transport economics and policy analysis is a field which has seen major advances in methodology in recent decades. The transport sector has many unique characteristics - non-storability, economies of scale and scope, indivisibilities and the extensive production of positive and negative externalities - that need careful consideration in any analysis. The aim of this Handbook is to provide an overview of the essential research methods with illustrations of how they are applied in practice. The book is divided into six sections - transport costs, externalities, transport demand, pricing and investment, deregulation and privatisation, and transport policy impacts. Each section comprises several chapters, divided by mode of transport or other relevant factor. Some of the unique features include: * a comprehensive overview of methods used in transport economics and policy analysis from leading researchers in the field * up-to-date methodology for analysing transport costs and demand * examples of how to value the full range of externalities of transport, including both costs and benefits * guidance on how to assess the impact of privatisation and (de)regulation, with examples from local public transport, rail and air * identification of the relevant factors involved in transport pricing, including roads, public transport, ports and airports * an analysis of the neglected topic of equity in transport. This illustrative overview of research methods will be essential to researchers, students and practitioners in academia, government and business.
This book by Adriano Maccone and Alessandro Martinelli concerns the image of the city at the terminal stations of various underground mass-transit systems in Europe and the Far East. With the objective of documenting and understanding what constitutes the margin of the urban phenomenon in an age of globalisation and urbanisation, the book collects and complements a selection of materials from a photographic project that has been developed by Adriano Maccone over a number of years.
Poor roads and transport infrastructure are key factors in the marginalization of women and other disempowered groups, but there is little understanding of the many ways in which a lack of mobility affects people s lives. In South-east Asia, huge strides are being made in highway development and regional economic integration, and the connections between mobility and livelihood are extremely dynamic. The complex interplay of factors makes these connections both interesting and challenging for study. Do roads necessarily bring economic opportunities and prosperity? How does the possible change in mobility transform the lives of women and marginalized groups? How does the differential impact of these changes on people depend on geographical, social, and historical factors and people s own capacities to make optimum use of the new resource? "Gender, Roads and Mobility in Asia" is a collection of case-based research in developing countries exploring the inter-relations between gender, poverty and mobility, especially in the context of transportation development. It brings together stories from different points of transformation; what emerges is a nuanced picture of how people s own positions and capabilities gender, age, ethnicity, literacy, and education influence the impact of the infrastructure development on their lives.This book should be read by policy makers, transportation planners, development practitioners and researchers, undergraduates, postgraduates, and academics in the areas of gender and development studies and transportation planning and management."
This topical book examines the issues surrounding climate change and sustainability in relation to the freight transport sector. Written by an interdisciplinary team of contributors, the book approaches the topic from a multitude of perspectives, demonstrating that the sector will need to undergo significant changes in order to meet climate change targets. In addition to examining the challenges facing the transport sector, chapters also offer practical suggestions as to how the sector can achieve the required transformation. Legal methods are considered along with the application of new technologies and the implementation of alternative incentive structures as ways to promote sustainability and reduce emissions. Featuring contributions from leading authors from logistics, business, law and sustainability backgrounds, Sustainable and Efficient Transport demonstrates that a more integrated approach is needed at an EU level, to bring about the paradigm shift required for reducing transport emissions and making the sector more sustainable. This book will be a valuable resource for researchers working in both sustainability and transport. Lawyers, industry professionals and policy-makers will also benefit from insights in to the effectiveness of current policies and alternative solutions to contemporary challenges.
What happens when a functional building is decommissioned? This book investigates liminal spaces: areas we occupy between here and there; structures that exist only as a place to be passed through, rather than as a destination in themselves. Its onus is buildings that have fallen to the wayside, and no longer channel continuous flows of human traffic. Combining architectural insight with a study of the transitory human condition, Airports on Hold analyses a number of obsolete airport infrastructures. As well as exploring how design impacts on an airport's success, this book investigates the relationship between small and medium airports and territories through a series of case studies. The research included herein has been compiled from the author's experiences at numerous universities. Especial thanks go out to the Harvard Graduate School of Design, the University IUAV of Venice, the University of Genoa, and the Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, for supporting the creation of this book.
Policymakers at all levels of government are debating a wide range of options for addressing the nation's faltering economic conditions. One option that is once again receiving attention is accelerated investments in the nation's public infrastructure - that is, highways, mass transit, airports, water supply and wastewater, and other facilities - in order to create jobs while also promoting long-term economic growth. This book examines policy issues associated with using infrastructure as a mechanism to benefit economic recovery. Discussed are airline fees; factors which influence the extent of transit-oriented development; current law and legislative history of the federal excise tax on motor fuels and the highway trust fund; long-term financing of the highway trust fund; the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing (RRIF) Program; vehicle safety inspections; and seat belt use among long-haul truck drivers.
Urban planners in developed countries are pushing hard for closer integration of land use and transport. At the same time, gaps in knowledge and understanding are becoming more apparent, as the traditional focus has been on the shape of the city, rather than how it functions as a place to live and visit. How Great Cities Happen addresses this challenge by developing a wider, all-encompassing agenda for more productive, inclusive and sustainable cities. This book's innovative approach to land use and transport planning covers such issues as: urban planning for productivity growth; social inclusion and wellbeing (including what makes a great city for children); and environmental sustainability. Extensive discussions of affordable housing and analyses of funding opportunities for increased investment in urban public transport are also provided. In addition, the book offers a review of the governance frameworks that can best integrate top-down strategic thinking and bottom-up approaches into a more holistic strategy. The authors adopt a meticulous yet non-technical approach, grounded in a blend of academic and real-world experience of cities. The work will appeal to students in urban planning, policy, economics, transport economics and social and environmental policy. Professional planners and urban policymakers will also benefit from the strong policy orientation.
Planning at a metropolitan scale is important for effective management of urban growth, transportation systems, air quality, and watershed and green-spaces. It is fundamental to efforts to promote social justice and equity. Best Practices in Metropolitan Transportation Planning shows how the most innovative metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) in the United States are addressing these issues using their mandates to improve transportation networks while pursuing emerging sustainability goals at the same time. As both a policy analysis and a practical how-to guide, this book presents cutting-edge original research on the role accessibility plays - and should play - in transportation planning, tracks how existing plans have sought to balance competing priorities using scenario planning and other strategies, assesses the results of various efforts to reduce automobile dependence in cities, and explains how to make planning documents more powerful and effective. In highlighting the most innovative practices implemented by MPOs, regional planning councils, city and county planning departments and state departments of transportation, this book aims to influence other planning organizations, as well as influence federal and state policy discussions and legislation.
The federal government collect revenues from taxes paid by highway users, mostly from those levied on gasoline and diesel fuel, and credits them to the Highway Trust Fund. Those revenues and others are subsequently used for federal spending on highways and transit. In fiscal year 2010, the trust fund's revenues totalled about $35 billion. Some policymakers and transportation analysts have expressed interest in developing new sources of funding. This book analyses the effects of alternative approaches to funding highways and compares the effects of current fuel taxes and of possible new taxes on the number of miles highway users drive.
This comprehensive and accessible textbook introduces the basic concepts of transport policy and decision-making to students of transport policy, transport planning, urban transport, transport evaluation and public policy. It presents the foundations and rationale of transport policy, incorporating a review of the policy formulation process and models of decision-making appropriate to public sector policy-makers. Topics covered include: * The basics of transport planning and traffic theory deemed necessary to understand policy implications of issues including congestion, safety and parking. * Potential solutions to problems such as road user charges, travel demand management, voluntary travel behaviour change, transport system management and public transport investment. * Prescriptions for technological change. * Discussion of the need for an integrated land transport policy along with a case study to illustrate how this might be developed for a typical metropolitan area.
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