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This book offers an advanced introduction to the increasingly robust fields of extrasolar planets and astrobiology. No other text currently available applies this level of mathematics and physics, while also providing an extensive grounding in key issues of chemistry, biology, and geophysics. With extensive references to the literature and chapter-ending exercises, this book can be used as the core text for teaching undergraduate or introductory graduate level courses. The text will also provide astrobiologists with an indispensable "User's Manual" when quick reference to key mathematical and physical techniques is needed. A continually updated online component, fully cross referenced with the text, is also available. Foreword by Geoff Marcy. KEY FEATURES *Over 150 images and illustrations. *Extensive bibliographies for each chapters. *Exercises for each chapter, ranging from straightforward calculation problems to more far-ranging research-oriented exercises. *An online component for users that includes new exercises and a continually updated blog of exciting scientific news items, fully cross-referenced with the book to allow course instructors to integrate the most recent developments into their course material.
This beautiful follow-up to The Story of Life brings to life the story of our universe for younger children. Using bitesize text and beautifully bright illustrations this is the perfect book for little ones everywhere who are keen to learn more about the mysterious, dark and sparkling space. Space suits at the ready? Then let's jet set off an incredible journey as we whiz past planets near and far and learn all we can about the story of space. Overflowing with a kaleidoscope of fascinating facts and intergalactic illustrations, this is the perfect introduction to space for the youngest of readers. Before the Big Bang there was NOTHING AT ALL. No galaxies, no space, no light and no sound. Then suddenly, 13.8 billion years ago, IT ALL BEGAN... Travel back in time to the Big Bang, see galaxies and stars form, watch the birth of our planet and how life begins, join the first man on the moon, and wonder what mysteries are still waiting to be discovered. Children will love this brilliant first book about space, sure to provide entertainment for the whole family.
Magnetic fields pervade the universe and play an important role in many astrophysical processes. However, they require specialised observational tools, and are challenging to model and understand. This volume provides a unified view of magnetic fields across astrophysical and cosmological contexts, drawing together disparate topics that are rarely covered together. Written by the lecturers of the XXV Canary Islands Winter School, it offers a self-contained introduction to cosmic magnetic fields on a range of scales. The connections between the behaviours of magnetic fields in these varying contexts are particularly emphasised, from the relatively small and close ranges of the Sun, planets and stars, to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, as well as on cosmological scales. Aimed at young researchers and graduate students, this up-to-date review uniquely brings together a subject often tackled by disconnected communities, conveying the latest advances as well as highlighting the limits of our current understanding.
The aim of this research was to use the X-ray satellite Suzaku to establish a picture of a central engine that effectively converts the gravitational energy of accreting matter onto the supermassive black hole to a huge amount of radiation in an active galactic nucleus. Although the engine is known to consist of a Comptonizing corona and an accretion disk, its image has remained unclear because primary emissions, coming directly from the engine, cannot be identified in X-ray spectra without models. The book describes a technique of time variability assisted spectral decomposition to model-independently examine X-ray signals, and how this was applied to the Suzaku archive data of active galactic nuclei. As a result, at least three distinct primary X-ray components have been discovered in an X-ray from an active galactic nucleus, presumably indicating a novel picture that the engine is composed of multiple coronae with different physical properties in an accretion flow. Furthermore, the determination of the spectral shapes of the primary X-rays has a significant impact on estimations of black hole spins, because it is essential to quantify reprocessed X-ray spectra. The successful model-independent decomposition of X-ray spectral components with flux variations of active galactic nuclei is likely to be effective in future data analyses from the soon-to-be-launched Japanese X-ray satellite ASTRO-H, which is capable of achieving unprecedented fine spectros copy and broad energy band coverage.
The Sun is our nearest star; it is a dynamic star, which changes with time. Solar variations have significant influence on Earth's space environment and climate through the Sun's magnetic field, irradiation and energetic particles. Long-term and reliable historical datasets of solar and stellar activity indices are crucial for understanding the variations and predicting the future solar cycle. IAU Symposium 340 brings together scientists from diverse, interdisciplinary areas to address the latest discoveries from these long-term datasets for the understanding of solar and stellar magnetic cycles. They make comparisons between different datasets and discuss how to make uniform databases. The proceedings of IAU S340 contain a selection of presentations and reviews from internationally renowned experts. They provide an up-to-date account of this field of importance to researchers and advanced students in solar, stellar, space and heliospheric physics.
This most recent book from lunar expert Charles J. Byrne combines the latest comprehensive imagery, topography and gravity data from all three recent Moon missions, Kaguya, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and GRAIL. These major polar-orbit surveys are presented here in compact form for the convenience of amateur and practical astronomers concerned with the Moon. Chosen from the Near and Far Side's large craters and basins over 200 km in diameter, each of the 71 highlighted features is depicted with a two-page presentation of the data that includes false color topographic maps next to the mission images. Additionally, the features are presented in the estimated chronological sequence of their creation, based on a consideration of stratigraphy (overlapping layers from neighboring features) and the relative degradation of surface features. Using this sequence as a way to convey the relative ages of lunar features, the author presents various theories concerning the Moon's impact and thermal history e.g. the available evidence allows for constraints to be placed on the duration of the Late Heavy Bombardment period. The relationships between impact dynamics and variations in the gravity field of the Moon are also discussed. The new mission data makes possible this renewed conjecture about the history and evolution of the Moon, which is presented here with much worthwhile information for amateurs and professionals alike.
What happens to space and matter near a black hole? Where did the moon come from? How do we know what stars are made of? Are we alone in the universe? In Exploding Stars and Invisible Planets, Fred Watson, an award-winning astronomer, presents the most up-to-date knowledge on hot topics in astronomy and space science, providing a fascinating and entertaining account of the latest research. Watson explains how to find invisible planets around other stars, why dark matter matters, and the future of citizen space travel, all while recounting the seismic shifts in understanding that have taken place during his illustrious career. The book features illuminating discussions of microbes in space; the dividing line between day and night; exploding stars and light echoes; fast radio bursts and signals from space; meteors, meteorites, and space dust; what happened to the Martian ocean; the seas and lakes of Titan; and the birth of the universe.
Humanity is confronted by and attracted to extremes. Extreme events shape our thinking, feeling, and actions; they echo in our politics, media, literature, and science. We often associate extremes with crises, disasters, and risks to be averted, yet extremes also have the potential to lead us towards new horizons. Featuring essays by leading intellectuals and public figures arising from the 2017 Darwin College Lectures, this volume explores 'extreme' events, from the election of President Trump, the rise of populism, and the Brexit referendum, to the 2008 financial crisis, the Syrian war, and climate change. It also celebrates 'extreme' achievements in the realms of health, exploration, and scientific discovery. A fascinating, engaging, and timely collection of essays by renowned scholars, journalists, and intellectuals, this volume challenges our understanding of what is normal and what is truly extreme, and sheds light on some of the issues facing humanity in the twenty-first century.
Few launch vehicles are as iconic and distinctive as NASA's behemoth rocket, the Saturn V, and none left such a lasting impression on those who watched it ascend. Developed with the specific brief to send humans to the Moon, it pushed rocketry to new scales. Its greatest triumph is that it achieved its goal repeatedly with an enviable record of mission success. Haynes' Saturn V Manual tells the story of this magnificent and hugely powerful machine. It explains how each of the vehicle's three stages worked; Boeing's S-IC first stage with a power output as great as the UK's peak electricity consumption, North American Aviation's S-II troubled second stage, Douglas's workhorse S-IVB third stage with its instrument unit brain - as much a spacecraft as a rocket. From the decision to build it to the operation of its engines' valves and pumps, this lavishly illustrated and deeply informative book offers a deeper appreciation of the amazing Saturn V.
The scientific life of Fred Hoyle (1915 2001) was truly unparalleled. During his career he wrote groundbreaking scientific papers and caused bitter disputes in the scientific community with his revolutionary theories. Hoyle is best known for showing that we are all, literally, made of stardust in his paper explaining how carbon, and then all the heavier elements, were created by nuclear reactions inside stars. However, he constantly courted controversy and two years later he followed this with his 'steady state' theory of the universe. This challenged another model of the universe, which Hoyle called the 'big bang' theory. Fred Hoyle was also famous amongst the general public. He popularised his research through radio and television broadcasts and wrote best-selling novels. Written from personal accounts and interviews with Hoyle's contemporaries, this book gives valuable personal insights into Fred Hoyle and his unforgettable life.
Gravitational waves were predicted 100 years ago by Einstein as part of his general theory of relativity. This volume contains the exciting results presented at IAU Symposium 338, following the announcement of the first results of the observation of the collision of neutron stars by the LIGO and Virgo Advanced detectors, and follow-up observations by many ground-based and space telescopes. These observations provided an incredible context for the talks, posters and discussions at the meeting, fostering new interactions and collaborations between physicists and astronomers in an exciting new era of multimessenger astrophysics. For the first time, space-time messengers (gravitational waves) and electromagnetic ones (visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, x-rays, gamma-rays, radio waves) can be correlated, to increase our understanding of binary systems of compact objects, rotating or exploding stars and other astrophysical phenomena. A new window has opened through which we can view the cosmos.
Voted the Best Space Book of 2018 by the Space Hipsters The dramatic inside story of the epic search and recovery operation after the Columbia space shuttle disaster. On February 1, 2003, Columbia disintegrated on reentry before the nation's eyes, and all seven astronauts aboard were lost. Author Mike Leinbach, Launch Director of the space shuttle program at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center was a key leader in the search and recovery effort as NASA, FEMA, the FBI, the US Forest Service, and dozens more federal, state, and local agencies combed an area of rural east Texas the size of Rhode Island for every piece of the shuttle and her crew they could find. Assisted by hundreds of volunteers, it would become the largest ground search operation in US history. This comprehensive account is told in four parts: Parallel Confusion Courage, Compassion, and Commitment Picking Up the Pieces A Bittersweet Victory For the first time, here is the definitive inside story of the Columbia disaster and recovery and the inspiring message it ultimately holds. In the aftermath of tragedy, people and communities came together to help bring home the remains of the crew and nearly 40 percent of shuttle, an effort that was instrumental in piecing together what happened so the shuttle program could return to flight and complete the International Space Station. Bringing Columbia Home shares the deeply personal stories that emerged as NASA employees looked for lost colleagues and searchers overcame immense physical, logistical, and emotional challenges and worked together to accomplish the impossible. Featuring a foreword and epilogue by astronauts Robert Crippen and Eileen Collins, and dedicated to the astronauts and recovery search persons who lost their lives, this is an incredible, compelling narrative about the best of humanity in the darkest of times and about how a failure at the pinnacle of human achievement became a story of cooperation and hope.
Indulge your curiosity with this humorous and fascinating book that demystifies the surprising myths about space.
In the latest book from the Everything You Know is Wrong series, Matt Brown brings you a compendium of amazing facts about our planet, the universe, and everything in between! Thanks to popular sci-fi films and TV shows, there have been many misconceptions about the cosmos – from travelling through worm-holes to blowing up asteroids. In Everything You Know About Space is Wrong, you'll find a plethora of myths, legends and misquotes that have shaped the way you view the universe today. Think that the vacuum of space would make your blood boil and your head explode? It won't, and there have been people who have survived without wearing a suit in space. Think that astronauts float in space because there is zero-gravity? They're actually constantly falling towards the Earth. Think that the colour of space is black? It's actually predominantly green.
Chock-full of facts about the cosmos, how it works (and how it doesn't!), this illuminating book will guide you through the mine of misinformation to answer such questions as whether we will meet aliens in our lifetime (SETI predicts we'll find evidence of ET by 2040!), what happens in the centre of the black hole, and why Mercury is not the hottest planet in the solar system. Discovering untruths about popular science, Everthing You Know About Space is Wrong provides a hugely entertaining insight into our universe.
The story behind the elite scientists, technologists, SF enthusiasts, and billionaires who believe that humanity's destiny is to populate the stars . . . Does humanity have a destiny "in the stars?" Should a species triggering massive extinctions on its own planet instead stay put? This new book traces the waxing and waning of interest in space settlement through the decades, and offers a journalistic tour through the influential subculture attempting to shape a multiplanetary future. What motivates figures such as billionaires Elon Musk and Yuri Milner? How important have science fiction authors and filmmakers been in stirring enthusiasm for actual space exploration and settlement? Is there a coherent motivating philosophy and ethic behind the spacefaring dream? Star Settlers offers both a historical perspective and a journalistic window into a peculiar subculture packed with members of the scientific, intellectual, and economic elite. This timely work captures the extra-scientific zeal for space travel and settlement, places it in its historical context, and tackles the somewhat surreal conceptions underlying the enterprise and prognoses for its future.
Observations from the first spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury have transformed our understanding of the origin and evolution of rocky planets. This volume is the definitive resource about Mercury for planetary scientists, from students to senior researchers. Topics treated in depth include Mercury's chemical composition; the structure of its crust, lithosphere, mantle, and core; Mercury's modern and ancient magnetic field; Mercury's geology, including the planet's major geological units and their surface chemistry and mineralogy, its spectral reflectance characteristics, its craters and cratering history, its tectonic features and deformational history, its volcanic features and magmatic history, its distinctive hollows, and the frozen ices in its polar deposits; Mercury's exosphere and magnetosphere and the processes that govern their dynamics and their interaction with the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field; the formation and large-scale evolution of the planet; and current plans and needed capabilities to explore Mercury further in the future.
Covering the first five decades of the exploration of Mars, this atlas is the most detailed visual reference available. It brings together, for the first time, a wealth of information from diverse sources, featuring annotated maps, photographs, tables, and detailed descriptions of every Mars mission in chronological order, from the dawn of the space age to Mars Express. Special attention is given to landing site selection, including reference to some missions that were planned but never flew. Phobos and Deimos, the tiny moons of Mars, are covered in a separate section. Contemporary maps reveal our improving knowledge of the planet's surface through the latter half of the twentieth century. Written in non-technical language, this atlas is a unique resource for anyone interested in planetary sciences, the history of space exploration, and cartography, while the detailed bibliography and chart data are especially useful for academic researchers and students.
Canonical methods are a powerful mathematical tool within the field of gravitational research, both theoretical and experimental, and have contributed to a number of recent developments in physics. Providing mathematical foundations as well as physical applications, this is the first systematic explanation of canonical methods in gravity. The book discusses the mathematical and geometrical notions underlying canonical tools, highlighting their applications in all aspects of gravitational research from advanced mathematical foundations to modern applications in cosmology and black hole physics. The main canonical formulations, including the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism and Ashtekar variables, are derived and discussed. Ideal for both graduate students and researchers, this book provides a link between standard introductions to general relativity and advanced expositions of black hole physics, theoretical cosmology or quantum gravity.
Of all the natural disasters that could befall us, only an Earth impact by a large comet or asteroid has the potential to end civilization in a single blow. Yet these near-Earth objects also offer tantalizing clues to our solar system's origins, and someday could even serve as stepping-stones for space exploration. In this book, Donald Yeomans introduces readers to the science of near-Earth objects--its history, applications, and ongoing quest to find near-Earth objects before they find us. In its course around the sun, the Earth passes through a veritable shooting gallery of millions of nearby comets and asteroids. One such asteroid is thought to have plunged into our planet sixty-five million years ago, triggering a global catastrophe that killed off the dinosaurs. Yeomans provides an up-to-date and accessible guide for understanding the threats posed by near-Earth objects, and also explains how early collisions with them delivered the ingredients that made life on Earth possible. He shows how later impacts spurred evolution, allowing only the most adaptable species to thrive--in fact, we humans may owe our very existence to objects that struck our planet. Yeomans takes readers behind the scenes of today's efforts to find, track, and study near-Earth objects. He shows how the same comets and asteroids most likely to collide with us could also be mined for precious natural resources like water and oxygen, and used as watering holes and fueling stations for expeditions to Mars and the outermost reaches of our solar system.
This well-received textbook has been designed by a team of experts for introductory courses in astronomy and astrophysics. Starting with a detailed discussion of our Galaxy, the Milky Way, it goes on to give a general introduction to normal and active galaxies including models for their formation and evolution. The second part of the book provides an overview of cosmological models, discussing the Big Bang, dark energy and the expansion of the Universe. This second edition has been updated to reflect the latest developments and observations, while still probing the unresolved questions at the forefront of research. It contains numerous learning features such as boxed summaries, exercises with full solutions, a glossary and a supporting website hosting further teaching materials. Written in an accessible style that avoids complex mathematics, and illustrated in colour throughout, this text is suitable for self-study and will appeal to amateur astronomers as well as students.
This book presents a vivid argument for the almost lost idea of a unity of all natural sciences. It starts with the "strange" physics of matter, including particle physics, atomic physics and quantum mechanics, cosmology, relativity and their consequences (Chapter I), and it continues by describing the properties of material systems that are best understood by statistical and phase-space concepts (Chapter II). These lead to entropy and to the classical picture of quantitative information, initially devoid of value and meaning (Chapter III). Finally, "information space" and dynamics within it are introduced as a basis for semantics (Chapter IV), leading to an exploration of life and thought as new problems in physics (Chapter V). Dynamic equations - again of a strange (but very general) nature - bring about the complex familiarity of the world we live in. Surprising new results in the life sciences open our eyes to the richness of physical thought, and they show us what can and what cannot be explained by a Darwinian approach. The abstract physical approach is applicable to the origins of life, of meaningful information and even of our universe.
A Walk through the Southern Sky is a beautifully illustrated guide to the stars and constellations of the southern hemisphere. By following the simplified and easy-to-use starmaps, readers will be able to identify constellations with no equipment but normal sight and a clear night sky. This book provides clear instructions on how to determine star sizes and the distances between stars, allowing readers to move easily between constellations. The budding astronomer is introduced to the mystery and wonder of the southern sky as the myths and legends of its stars and constellations are wondrously retold. The third edition of this magical book features a new moon map, an updated list of planet positions, additional illustrations and more realistic star maps. It is an invaluable and beautiful guide for beginner stargazers, both young and old.
Throughout history people have sought ways in which to map the heavens. From the sources of mathematics and mythology sprang the classic star chart, the finest examples of which are both scientific documents and works of art. In this beautifully illustrated book, Peter Whitfield reveals some of the ways in which the structure of the universe has been conceived, explained and depicted. With examples ranging from the Stone Age to the Space Age - ancient observatories, the angelic visions of Dante, images from the Copernican revolution, the rationalized heavens of Isaac Newton, and modern deep space technology - Whitfield offers a challenging exploration of the tension between rigorous scientific knowledge and the continuing search for cause, certainty and harmony in the universe. This new edition is updated to include a wider range of stunning maps of the skies in full colour, including imagery from the latest voyages of space exploration.
In April 1970, during the glory days of the Apollo space program, NASA sent Navy Captain Jim Lovell and two other astronauts on America's fifth mission to the moon. Only fifty-five hours into the flight of Apollo 13, disaster struck: a mysterious explosion rocked the ship, and soon its oxygen and power began draining away. Written with all the color and drama of the best fiction, APOLLO 13 (previously published as Lost Moon) tells the full story of the moon shot that almost ended in catastrophe. Minutes after the explosion, the three astronauts are forced to abandon the main ship for the lunar module, a tiny craft designed to keep two men alive for just two days. As the hours tick away, the narrative shifts from the crippled spacecraft to Mission Control, from engineers searching desperately for a way to fix the ship to Lovell's wife and children praying for his safe return. The entire nation watches as one crisis after another is met and overcome. By the time the ship splashes down in the Pacific, we understand why the heroic effort to rescue Lovell and his crew is considered by many to be NASA's finest hour. Now, thirty years after the launch of the mission, Jim Lovell and coauthor Jeffrey Kluger add a new preface and never-before-seen photographs to Apollo 13. In their preface, they offer an incisive look at America's waxing and waning love affair with space exploration during the past three decades, culminating only recently when the Apollo 13 spacecraft itself, long consigned to an aviation museum outside Paris, was at last returned to its rightful home in the United States. As inspiring today as it was thirty years ago, the story of Apollo 13 is a timeless tribute to the enduring American spirit and sparkling individual heroism.
With this newly revised Ninth Edition of THE SOLAR SYSTEM, the authors' goals are to help you use astronomy to understand science--and use science to understand what we are. Fascinating, engaging, and visually vibrant, this text will help you answer two fundamental questions: What are we? And how do we know?
The award-winning former editor of Science News shows that one of the most fascinating and controversial ideas in contemporary cosmology-the existence of multiple parallel universes-has a long and divisive history that continues to this day. We often consider the universe to encompass everything that exists, but some scientists have come to believe that the vast, expanding universe we inhabit may be just one of many. The totality of those parallel universes, still for some the stuff of science fiction, has come to be known as the multiverse. The concept of the multiverse, exotic as it may be, isn't actually new. In The Number of the Heavens, veteran science journalist Tom Siegfried traces the history of this controversial idea from antiquity to the present. Ancient Greek philosophers first raised the possibility of multiple universes, but Aristotle insisted on one and only one cosmos. Then in 1277 the bishop of Paris declared it heresy to teach that God could not create as many universes as he pleased, unleashing fervent philosophical debate about whether there might exist a "plurality of worlds." As the Middle Ages gave way to the Renaissance, the philosophical debates became more scientific. Rene Descartes declared "the number of the heavens" to be indefinitely large, and as notions of the known universe expanded from our solar system to our galaxy, the debate about its multiplicity was repeatedly recast. In the 1980s, new theories about the big bang reignited interest in the multiverse. Today the controversy continues, as cosmologists and physicists explore the possibility of many big bangs, extra dimensions of space, and a set of branching, parallel universes. This engrossing story offers deep lessons about the nature of science and the quest to understand the universe.
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