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NASA's ambitious but essential Gemini Program was culminated in November 1966 with the launch of Gemini 12 from Kennedy Space enter's Launch Complex 19. This tenth manned Gemini mission was the final opportunity to develop and practice many new techniques that were integral to the upcoming Apollo program. With the successful conclusion of the Gemini 12 mission, veteran astronaut Command Pilot James Lovell had set another new record with a total of 18 days in space, and Pilot Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin held the EVA duration record with an umbilical EVA at the Agena work station of 2 hours and 9 minutes. In all, three EVA (extra-vehicular activity) sessions were performed during the mission. Going into the Gemini 12 mission, many questions of EVA procedure were still unresolved. In the past, astronauts had expended too much energy simply staying in position. In an effort to better develop techniques and train astronauts, for the first time, underwater simulation was incorporated into EVA training. Using a submerged mock-up of the Gemini-Agena spacecraft, EVA training proceeded almost to the eve of launch.;Training in the neutral-buoyancy underwater simulation allowed the astronauts to practice the entire EVA procedure in a single session - just as they would be required to do in space. This was a major advance over simulated weightlessness in aircraft parabolic flights, which provided only 30 seconds of weightlessness at a stretch. Gemini 12 successfully executed a fuelless station-keeping exercise for 4 hours and 20 minutes with the use of a dacron tether between the Gemini and Agena vehicles. Once the tether had been pulled taut, the reaction control systems for both vehicles were turned off, and the slight difference in the Earth's gravitational effect on the two space vehicles was sufficient to keep the tether taut, so the two spacecraft remained at a constant separation, without the use of any reaction control fuel. Despite mission changes brought on by a radar lock-on failure and by a malfunction of the Agena Primary Propulsion System (PPS), the Gemini 12 mission was considered to be a major success, continuing the success story of the entire Gemini program.;Apollo could take man to the Moon only after Gemini had introduced him to the space environment and taught him how to perform there. CD included.
The essential introduction to modern string theory-now fully expanded and revised String Theory in a Nutshell is the definitive introduction to modern string theory. Written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject, this concise and accessible book starts with basic definitions and guides readers from classic topics to the most exciting frontiers of research today. It covers perturbative string theory, the unity of string interactions, black holes and their microscopic entropy, the AdS/CFT correspondence and its applications, matrix model tools for string theory, and more. It also includes 600 exercises and serves as a self-contained guide to the literature. This fully updated edition features an entirely new chapter on flux compactifications in string theory, and the chapter on AdS/CFT has been substantially expanded by adding many applications to diverse topics. In addition, the discussion of conformal field theory has been extensively revised to make it more student-friendly. The essential one-volume reference for students and researchers in theoretical high-energy physics Now fully expanded and revised Provides expanded coverage of AdS/CFT and its applications, namely the holographic renormalization group, holographic theories for Yang-Mills and QCD, nonequilibrium thermal physics, finite density physics, and entanglement entropy Ideal for mathematicians and physicists specializing in theoretical cosmology, QCD, and novel approaches to condensed matter systems An online illustration package is available to professors
The revised second edition of this established dictionary contains over 4,300 up-to-date entries covering all aspects of astronomy. Compiled with the help of over 20 expert contributors under the editorship of renowned author and broadcaster Ian Ridpath, A Dictionary of Astronomy covers everything from space exploration and the equipment involved, to astrophysics, cosmology, and the concept of time. The dictionary also includes biographical entries on eminent astronomers, as well as worldwide coverage of observatories and telescopes. Supplementary material is included in the appendices, such as tables of Apollo lunar landing missions and the constellations, a table of planetary data, and numerous other tables and diagrams complement the entries. The entries have been fully revised and updated for this edition, and new entries have been added to reflect the recent developments within the field of astronomy, including magnetic reconnection, Fornax cluster, luminosity density, and Akatsuki. The content is enhanced by entry-level web links, which are listed and regularly updated on a companion website. A Dictionary of Astronomy is an invaluable reference source for students, professionals, amateur astronomers, and space enthusiasts.
The author has the distinction of being the only wife of a European astronaut who has also worked in the area of human spaceflight. Her story is told from a unique perspective. Lena De Winne provides a first-hand account of the ins and outs of the complex astronaut spaceflight system. This book captures the individual stories of crewmembers Roman Romanenko, Bob Thirsk, Frank De Winne and their spouses Julia, Brenda and Lena, as they prepare and embark on a unique spaceflight mission. Delivered with raw emotional intensity, it reads like a novel, sharing the aspirations, anguish, surprises and disappointments of its subjects. Yet it is resolutely biographical, offering a vivid recollection of events as they happened. An easy but precise overview of space science and technology is also provided. Readers will not only become familiarised with the human space flight program, they will also be left with an exhilarating sense of having been a part of the adventure. The book is suffused with an intimacy and honesty that renders the lives of the crew and their spouses in an unprecedented light.
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solution of the equations, and over to the applications in modern physics and astrophysics. Numerous figures, diagrams, and a variety of exercises aid the material in the book. The most obvious applications of this work range from astrophysics (black holes, neutron stars, gamma-ray bursts, and active galaxies) to cosmology (early-universe hydrodynamics and phase transitions) and particle physics (heavy-ion collisions). It is often said that fluids are either seen as solutions of partial differential equations or as "wet". Fluids in this book are definitely wet, but the mathematical beauty of differential equations is not washed out.
While presenting current knowledge as well as unsolved problems in our understanding of the sun, this book also shows the fascinating interplay between particle physics and astrophysics -- culminating in the discovery of neutrino oscillations. The text begins with an overview of how the model of the sun and thus of stars in general evolved over time, a development accompanied and maintained by some of the greatest discoveries in physics, ranging from the evolution of quantum mechanics, via nuclear physics right up to modern questions in particle physics. Special emphasis is placed on the current generation of solar neutrino observatories, and although neutrino oscillations form the central subject of the book, open questions and problems as well as possible solutions are also discussed.
With the discovery of planets beyond our solar system 25 years ago, exoplanet research has expanded dramatically, with new state-of-the-art ground-based and space-based missions dedicated to their discovery and characterisation. With more than 3,500 exoplanets now known, the complexity of the discovery techniques, observations and physical characterisation have grown exponentially. This Handbook ties all these avenues of research together across a broad range of exoplanet science. Planet formation, exoplanet interiors and atmospheres, and habitability are discussed, providing in-depth coverage of our knowledge to date. Comprehensively updated from the first edition, it includes instrumental and observational developments, in-depth treatment of the new Kepler mission results and hot Jupiter atmospheric studies, and major updates on models of exoplanet formation. With extensive references to the research literature and appendices covering all individual exoplanet discoveries, it is a valuable reference to this exciting field for both incoming and established researchers.
This work is the story of 15 billion years of cosmic evolution, transforming matter and life into consciousness, how science and civilization grew up together and the forces and individuals who helped shape modern science. The book aims to make scientific ideas accesssible and exciting. It is based on the television series of the same name. Subjects covered include the ancient library of Alexandria, the death of the sun, the evolution of galaxies, space missions and hieroglyphics.
In this work the authors gather and present current research in the study of cosmology. The topics discussed include the mysteries of the geometrization of gravitation; relativistic viscous universe models; cosmology and science; a discussion on whether science has established if the cosmos are physically comprehensible?; Mach, Einstein, dark matter and knowability; implementing Hilltop F-term hybrid inflation in supergravity; and relative velocities, geometry and the expansion of space.
Gaia is an ambitious satellite mission to chart a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way. By measuring the proper motions and parallaxes for a billion stars, Gaia is set to transform the way we study the composition, formation and evolution of our galaxy. Concurrently the LAMOST survey facility in China will make a complementary spectral survey of millions of objects in much of the northern sky. This volume, comprising the reviews and contributed talks presented at IAU Symposium 298, is an up-to-date review of what we know about the Milky Way as a galaxy prior to the launch of Gaia. It covers many topics including the status of dynamical simulations, photometric and spectroscopic surveys, and interstellar matter in the Milky Way, as well as detailed studies of stellar atmospheres. The expert reviews will interest all those working on Milky Way astronomy as well as galaxy formation and evolution.
Aimed at the senior undergraduate and graduate level, this textbook
fills the gap between general introductory texts offering little
detail and very technical, advanced books written for
mathematicians and theorists rather than experimentalists in the
Spectroscopy and radiative transfer are rapidly growing fields within atmospheric and planetary science with implications for weather, climate, biogeochemical cycles, air quality on Earth, as well as the physics and evolution of planetary atmospheres in our solar system and beyond. Remote sensing and modeling atmospheric composition of the Earth, of other planets in our solar system, or of planets orbiting other stars require detailed knowledge of how radiation and matter interact in planetary atmospheres. This includes knowledge of how stellar or thermal radiation propagates through atmospheres, how that propagation affects radiative forcing of climate, how atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases produce unique spectroscopic signatures, how the properties of atmospheres may be quantitatively measured, and how those measurements relate to physical properties. This book provides this fundamental knowledge to a depth that will leave a student with the background to become capable of performing quantitative research on atmospheres. The book is intended for graduate students or for advanced undergraduates. It spans across principles through applications, with sufficient background for students without prior experience in either spectroscopy or radiative transfer. Courses based on this book are intended to be accompanied by the development of increasing sophisticated atmospheric and spectroscopic modeling capability (ideally, the student develops a computer model for simulation of atmospheric spectra from microwave through ultraviolet).
Without the mighty Saturn V rocket, the Apollo 11 moon landing would not have been possible in July 1969. Even today, nearly fifty years later, it remains by far the largest and most powerful rocket ever used. Equipped with computers that are easily surpassed today by any mobile phone, the Saturn V was an unprecedented technical achievement. This book, part of the America in Space series, tells the gripping story of the development and creation of the Saturn V in concise, detailed text, and features numerous high-quality color images, technical drawings, and specification/dimension charts. As well as a detailed look at the Saturn V's design and construction, all thirty-two Apollo missions are discussed, including the later Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.
A star finder that allows visible stars to be identified for any date and time for locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Compiled by astronomical experts, Storm Dunlop and Wil Tirion and approved by the astronomers of the Royal Observatory Greenwich. Easy-to-use practical tool to help any astronomers identify the constellations and stars every day of the year. Just dial in the date and time by rotating the inner plastic disk showing the time until it lines up with the relevant day of the year on the outer ring. The part of the sky appearing on the planisphere shows the arrangement of the stars above you. This star chart is suitable for use anywhere in Britain and Ireland, Northern Europe, Canada and Northern USA. Best viewed as near to latitude 50 degrees north as possible. The moveable disk also comes in a wallet which contains further information about stargazing.
Stars presents 20 unique pin-hole constellation cards for helping families and stargazers find the shapes in the night's sky, along with a companion book exploring the significance of these stellar patterns. This portable and interactive kit includes a mix of northern- and southern-hemisphere constellations, such as: Orion Bootes Taurus Virgo Perseus Ursa Major Crux Hydra ... and many more Once you've used the cards to identify the shapes in the night sky, read through the book to learn about their mythological and cultural history, as well as all of the fascinating deep sky objects and celestial events the constellations are home to. Noticing the constellations in the night skies above can foster a sense of curiosity and awe like nothing else on Earth. With a mix of scientific fact and meditative insight, this kit will help you discover how the twinkly skies can connect us all more deeply to our inner selves. This is the perfect gift for a night of stargazing or for those embarking on a stargazing holiday.
What is life? Where do we come from and how did we evolve? What is the universe and how was it formed? What is the nature of the material world? How does it work? How and why do we think? What does it mean to be human? How do we know? There are many different versions of our creation story. This book tells the version according to modern science. It is a unique account, starting at the Big Bang and travelling right up to the emergence of humans as conscious intelligent beings, 13.8 billion years later. Chapter by chapter, it sets out the current state of scientific knowledge: the origins of space and time; energy, mass, and light; galaxies, stars, and our sun; the habitable earth, and complex life itself. Drawing together the physical and biological sciences, Baggott recounts what we currently know of our history, highlighting the questions science has yet to answer.
Now featuring a major new epilogue that brings the story up to date, this classic work by a Nobel Prize-winning physicist is "science writing at its best" (New York Review of Books). Translated in 18 languages.
Make: High-Power Rockets is for all the science geeks who look at the moon and try to figure out where Neil Armstrong walked, watch in awe as rockets lift off, and want to fly their own model rockets. Starting with an overview of mid- and high-power rocketry, readers will start out making rockets with F and G engines, and move on up to H engines.
Dive into a mind-bending exploration of the physics of black holes Black holes, predicted by Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity more than a century ago, have long intrigued scientists and the public with their bizarre and fantastical properties. Although Einstein understood that black holes were mathematical solutions to his equations, he never accepted their physical reality--a viewpoint many shared. This all changed in the 1960s and 1970s, when a deeper conceptual understanding of black holes developed just as new observations revealed the existence of quasars and X-ray binary star systems, whose mysterious properties could be explained by the presence of black holes. Black holes have since been the subject of intense research--and the physics governing how they behave and affect their surroundings is stranger and more mind-bending than any fiction. After introducing the basics of the special and general theories of relativity, this book describes black holes both as astrophysical objects and theoretical "laboratories" in which physicists can test their understanding of gravitational, quantum, and thermal physics. From Schwarzschild black holes to rotating and colliding black holes, and from gravitational radiation to Hawking radiation and information loss, Steven Gubser and Frans Pretorius use creative thought experiments and analogies to explain their subject accessibly. They also describe the decades-long quest to observe the universe in gravitational waves, which recently resulted in the LIGO observatories' detection of the distinctive gravitational wave "chirp" of two colliding black holes--the first direct observation of black holes' existence. The Little Book of Black Holes takes readers deep into the mysterious heart of the subject, offering rare clarity of insight into the physics that makes black holes simple yet destructive manifestations of geometric destiny.
What are you? Obviously, you are a person with human ancestors that can be plotted on a family tree, but you have other identities as well. According to evolutionary biologists, for example, you are a member of the species Homo sapiens. To a microbiologist, though, you are a collection of cells, each of which has its own cellular ancestry. A geneticist might point out that besides these identities, you can be understood as a gene-replication machine, which can be plotted on a "genetic tree." Finally a physicist will give a rather different answer to the identity question: you can be understood as a collection of atoms, each of which has a very long history. Some have been around since the Big Bang, and others are the result of nuclear fusion that took place within a star. Not only that, but most of your atoms belonged to other living things before joining you. From your atoms' point of view, then, you are just a way station on a multibillion-year-long journey. You: A Natural History offers a multi-disciplinary investigation of your hyper-extended family tree, going all the way back to the Big Bang. And while your family tree may contain surprises, your hyper-extended history contains some truly amazing stories. As the result of learning more about who and what you are, and about how you came to be here, you will likely see the world around you with fresh eyes. You will also become aware of all the one-off events that had to take place for your existence to be possible: stars had to explode, the earth had to be hit 4.5 billion years ago by a planetesimal and 65 million years ago by an asteroid, microbes had to engulf microbes, the African savanna had to undergo climate change, and of course, any number of your direct ancestors had to meet and mate. It is difficult, on becoming aware of just how contingent your own existence is, not to feel very lucky to be part of our universe.
From the number one Astronomy publisher, a beautiful astrophotography book, showcasing the most spectacular space photography, taken from locations across the globe. Marvel at the wonders of the universe captured by the most talented astrophotographers. A perfect gift for all interested in exploring the mysteries of our solar system and beyond. Be captivated by 140 winning and shortlisted images from the 2020 Insight Investment Astronomy Photographer of the Year competition, hosted by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. These awe-inspiring images are submitted in several categories: aurorae, galaxies, our Moon, our Sun, people and space, planets, comets and asteroids, skyscapes, stars and nebulae and a young competitor category. Each image is accompanied by caption, photographer, location and technical details. There is also a location map showing the origin of all images and a visual appendix of all images. The judges are from an expert panel of distinguished astronomy experts. The Exhibition The National Maritime Museum hosts an exhibition of the winners of the Astronomy Photographer of the Year competition, showcasing these incredible images of the sky. www.rmg.co.uk/astrophoto
IAU Symposium 285, New Horizons in Time-Domain Astronomy, gave a comprehensive overview of the status quo in 2011, exploring, astronomical variability at both Galactic and extragalactic distances. Several years later, IAU Symposium 339 witnessed a new level of activity and planning, with ambitious instruments that add a new dimension to some of those current in 2011 and ingenious methodology in the emerging field of astroinformatics. Major new instruments, whose output dwarfs those previously available, and analysis techniques that could not have been implemented until very recently, are being coupled with a broadening diversity in wavelengths. IAU S339 introduces the rich potential for new techniques for both analysis and communication, while covering the basic fundamentals such as data quality, standardization and archive access. Many early-career scientists are already central players in these projects: time-domain astronomy is the future and in their hands may it flourish and grow.
What is life and where can it exist? What searches are being made to identify conditions for life on other worlds? If extraterrestrial inhabited worlds are found, how can we explore them? In this book, two leading astrophysicists provide an engaging account of where we stand in our quest for habitable environments, in the Solar System and beyond. Starting from basic concepts, the narrative builds scientifically, including more in-depth material as boxed additions to the main text. The authors recount fascinating recent discoveries from space missions and observations using ground-based telescopes, of possible life-related artefacts in Martian meteorites, extrasolar planets, and subsurface oceans on Europa, Titan and Enceladus. They also provide a forward look to future missions. This is an exciting, informative read for anyone interested in the search for habitable and inhabited planets, and an excellent primer for students in astrobiology, habitability, planetary science and astronomy.
The 2015 centenary of the publication of Einstein's general theory of relativity, and the first detection of gravitational waves have focused renewed attention on the question of whether Einstein was right. This review of experimental gravity provides a detailed survey of the intensive testing of Einstein's theory of gravity, including tests in the emerging strong-field dynamical regime. It discusses the theoretical frameworks needed to analyze gravitational theories and interpret experiments. Completely revised and updated, this new edition features coverage of new alternative theories of gravity, a unified treatment of gravitational radiation, and the implications of the latest binary pulsar observations. It spans the earliest tests involving the Solar System to the latest tests using gravitational waves detected from merging black holes and neutron stars. It is a comprehensive reference for researchers and graduate students working in general relativity, cosmology, particle physics and astrophysics.
Inside the epic quest to find life on the water-rich moons at the outer reaches of the solar system Where is the best place to find life beyond Earth? We often look to Mars as the most promising site in our solar system, but recent scientific missions have revealed that some of the most habitable real estate may actually lie farther away. Beneath the frozen crusts of several of the small, ice-covered moons of Jupiter and Saturn lurk vast oceans that may have been in existence for as long as Earth, and together may contain more than fifty times its total volume of liquid water. Could there be organisms living in their depths? Alien Oceans reveals the science behind the thrilling quest to find out. Kevin Peter Hand is one of today's leading NASA scientists, and his pioneering research has taken him on expeditions around the world. In this captivating account of scientific discovery, he brings together insights from planetary science, biology, and the adventures of scientists like himself to explain how we know that oceans exist within moons of the outer solar system, like Europa, Titan, and Enceladus. He shows how the exploration of Earth's oceans is informing our understanding of the potential habitability of these icy moons, and draws lessons from what we have learned about the origins of life on our own planet to consider how life could arise on these distant worlds. Alien Oceans describes what lies ahead in our search for life in our solar system and beyond, setting the stage for the transformative discoveries that may await us.
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