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A Walk through the Southern Sky is a beautifully illustrated guide to the stars and constellations of the southern hemisphere. By following the simplified and easy-to-use starmaps, readers will be able to identify constellations with no equipment but normal sight and a clear night sky. This book provides clear instructions on how to determine star sizes and the distances between stars, allowing readers to move easily between constellations. The budding astronomer is introduced to the mystery and wonder of the southern sky as the myths and legends of its stars and constellations are wondrously retold. The third edition of this magical book features a new moon map, an updated list of planet positions, additional illustrations and more realistic star maps. It is an invaluable and beautiful guide for beginner stargazers, both young and old.
Throughout history people have sought ways in which to map the heavens. From the sources of mathematics and mythology sprang the classic star chart, the finest examples of which are both scientific documents and works of art. In this beautifully illustrated book, Peter Whitfield reveals some of the ways in which the structure of the universe has been conceived, explained and depicted. With examples ranging from the Stone Age to the Space Age - ancient observatories, the angelic visions of Dante, images from the Copernican revolution, the rationalized heavens of Isaac Newton, and modern deep space technology - Whitfield offers a challenging exploration of the tension between rigorous scientific knowledge and the continuing search for cause, certainty and harmony in the universe. This new edition is updated to include a wider range of stunning maps of the skies in full colour, including imagery from the latest voyages of space exploration.
With this newly revised Ninth Edition of THE SOLAR SYSTEM, the authors' goals are to help you use astronomy to understand science--and use science to understand what we are. Fascinating, engaging, and visually vibrant, this text will help you answer two fundamental questions: What are we? And how do we know?
The award-winning former editor of Science News shows that one of the most fascinating and controversial ideas in contemporary cosmology-the existence of multiple parallel universes-has a long and divisive history that continues to this day. We often consider the universe to encompass everything that exists, but some scientists have come to believe that the vast, expanding universe we inhabit may be just one of many. The totality of those parallel universes, still for some the stuff of science fiction, has come to be known as the multiverse. The concept of the multiverse, exotic as it may be, isn't actually new. In The Number of the Heavens, veteran science journalist Tom Siegfried traces the history of this controversial idea from antiquity to the present. Ancient Greek philosophers first raised the possibility of multiple universes, but Aristotle insisted on one and only one cosmos. Then in 1277 the bishop of Paris declared it heresy to teach that God could not create as many universes as he pleased, unleashing fervent philosophical debate about whether there might exist a "plurality of worlds." As the Middle Ages gave way to the Renaissance, the philosophical debates became more scientific. Rene Descartes declared "the number of the heavens" to be indefinitely large, and as notions of the known universe expanded from our solar system to our galaxy, the debate about its multiplicity was repeatedly recast. In the 1980s, new theories about the big bang reignited interest in the multiverse. Today the controversy continues, as cosmologists and physicists explore the possibility of many big bangs, extra dimensions of space, and a set of branching, parallel universes. This engrossing story offers deep lessons about the nature of science and the quest to understand the universe.
A concise introduction, Optical Astronomical Spectroscopy appeals to the newcomer of astronomical spectroscopy and assumes no previous specialist knowledge. Beginning from the physical background of spectroscopy with a clear explanation of energy levels and spectroscopic notation, the book proceeds to introduce the main techniques of optical spectroscopy and the range of instrumentation that is available. With clarity and directness, it then describes the applications of spectroscopy in modern astronomy, such as the solar system, stars, nebulae, the interstellar medium, and galaxies, giving an immediate appeal to beginners.
Explore the night skies with this beautiful illustrated monthly guide to the stars and planets. This large-format almanac allows you to step outside and track the planets, locate the Milky Way, recognise the constellations of the zodiac and watch meteor showers. Stargazers' Almanac 2020 is a beautiful month-by-month guide to the night skies. It's designed specifically for naked-eye astronomy -- no telescope required! -- making it ideal for beginners, children and backyard astronomers. It is a perennially popular Christmas gift -- and one which lasts the whole year round. Each monthly chart features two views of the night sky, looking north and south, and a visual guide to the phases of the moon and the movements of the planets. Stargazers' Almanac 2020 also features: -- Advice on how to navigate the night sky -- Overhead reference map of the sky -- Reference plan of constellations -- Glossary of constellations and Latin names -- Glossary of brightness of stars -- Guide to the signs of the zodiac and how they relate to the stars -- Loop and eyelet for easy wall hanging; presented in a sturdy cardboard gift envelope Suitable for astronomy enthusiasts throughout the Northern Hemisphere's temperate (non-tropical) latitudes.
A sweeping account of the century of experimentation that confirmed Einstein's general theory of relativity, bringing to life the science and scientists at the origins of relativity, the development of radio telescopes, the discovery of black holes and quasars, and the still unresolved place of gravity in quantum theory. Albert Einstein did nothing of note on May 29, 1919, yet that is when he became immortal. On that day, astronomer Arthur Eddington and his team observed a solar eclipse and found something extraordinary: gravity bends light, just as Einstein predicted. The findings confirmed the theory of general relativity, fundamentally changing our understanding of space and time. A century later, another group of astronomers is performing a similar experiment on a much larger scale. The Event Horizon Telescope, a globe-spanning array of radio dishes, is examining space surrounding Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. As Ron Cowen recounts, one foremost goal of the experiment is to determine whether Einstein was right on the details. Gravity lies at the heart of what we don't know about quantum mechanics, but tantalizing possibilities for deeper insight are offered by black holes. By observing starlight wrapping around Sagittarius A*, the telescope will not only provide the first direct view of an event horizon-a black hole's point of no return-but will also enable scientists to test Einstein's theory under the most extreme conditions. Gravity's Century shows how we got from the pivotal observations of the 1919 eclipse to the Event Horizon Telescope, and what is at stake today. Breaking down the physics in clear and approachable language, Cowen makes vivid how the quest to understand gravity is really the quest to comprehend the universe.
In recent years cosmologists have advanced from largely qualitative models of the Universe to precision modelling using Bayesian methods, in order to determine the properties of the Universe to high accuracy. This timely book is the only comprehensive introduction to the use of Bayesian methods in cosmological studies, and is an essential reference for graduate students and researchers in cosmology, astrophysics and applied statistics. The first part of the book focuses on methodology, setting the basic foundations and giving a detailed description of techniques. It covers topics including the estimation of parameters, Bayesian model comparison, and separation of signals. The second part explores a diverse range of applications, from the detection of astronomical sources (including through gravitational waves), to cosmic microwave background analysis and the quantification and classification of galaxy properties. Contributions from 24 highly regarded cosmologists and statisticians make this an authoritative guide to the subject.
The interstellarum Deep Sky Atlas set a new high standard for modern celestial cartography. The same team now presents the interstellarum Deep Sky Guide, its unique observing companion. Taking an intuitive visual approach, for each spread of the Atlas, the Guide focuses on carefully selected objects, either as colored composite POSS plates or through the authors' own eyepiece sketches. They allow you to estimate the visibility of features in the telescope while planning observations. Stars and other objects in the vicinity are highlighted, so they also serve as finder charts at night. An index map on each spread allows you to quickly find each object's location in the Atlas. The interstellarum Deep Sky Guide takes all the hassle out of preparing for observing sessions - there's no need to print star charts or photos. Simply grab your Atlas and your Guide, and go observe! This Field Edition is produced using waterproof materials.
Amazing 3-D images take readers inside the birth and death of stars.This visually amazing volume, with text and 3-D images, takes readers inside the birthplace of stars--the cosmic clouds called nebulae. Nebulae (from the Latin for "cloud" or "fog") are stellar nurseries, frequently intermingled with clusters of young stars. Seen in the night sky, they glow, energized by the new stars within and around them. Cosmic Clouds 3-D offers hundreds of magnificent images of nebulae captured by ground-based and space telescopes. Along with the high-resolution views of nebulae are unique stereo views that show the nebulae in three dimensions. As we observe the birth of stars in these great clouds of gas, we are peering into the world of infant suns, seeing a process that for our own Sun took place some 4.6 billion years ago. The story of elements in nature, of why we are here, of our cosmic roots, is strongly tied to the story of stars in our galaxy and universe. And that means exploring the lives of stars, how stars come to be, what happens during their lifetimes, and how they, too--like humans--eventually die. We may not all know it, but we are part of the biggest recycling program that exists--the birth, life, and death of stars. A 3-D viewer, designed by astrophysicist (and lead guitarist with the rock group Queen) Brian May, is included with the book.
A monograph on inflationary cosmology and cosmological phase transitions, investigating modern cosmology's relationship to elementary particle physics. This work also includes a non-technical discussion of inflationary cosmology for those unfamiliar with the theory.
In the sixth century BC, Anaximander of Miletus, an associate of Thales, initiated Western philosophy and science with a theory of how the world order arose, heavens and earth formed, and human beings came into existence. This book makes available a work that is of value for students in classics, philosophy, literature, and the history of science.
This book is for amateur astronomers who would like to know the mythology behind the names of astronomical objects in the night sky. It covers the lore and legend behind Ptolemy's 48 constellations, along with significant asterisms, the planets and their moons, the brightest named asteroids and dwarf planets. The revised second edition includes a host of new moons and dwarf planets discovered since 2011. In addition, it now features a new section on major asteroids and their associated myths. While still primarily focused on Greco-Roman mythology, the book now branches out to cover more recently named objects from other cultures, such as Hawaiian, Rapanui, Tongva and Inuit. To assist practical observers, the book gives the location and description of each constellation, including named stars and deep-sky objects. A host of helpful astronomy tips and techniques, as well as a brief introduction to astrophotography, are included to encourage direct observation and imaging of these mythical objects in the night sky.
Cosmology - the science of the Universe at large - has experienced a renaissance in the decades bracketing the turn of the twenty-first century. Exploring our emerging understanding of cosmology, this text takes two complementary points of view: the physical principles underlying theories of cosmology, and the observable consequences of models of Universal expansion. The book develops cosmological models based on fundamental physical principles, with mathematics limited to the minimum necessary to keep the material accessible for students of physics and astronomy at the advanced undergraduate level. A substantial review of general relativity leading up to the Einstein field equations is included, with derivations of explicit formulations connecting observable features of the Universe to models of its expansion. Self-contained and up to date in respect of modern observations, the text provides a solid theoretical grounding in modern cosmology while preparing readers for the changes that will inevitably come from future observations.
Written by an award-winning cosmologist, this brand new textbook provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with coverage of the very latest developments in the observational science of cosmology. The book is separated into three parts; part I covers particle physics and general relativity, part II explores an account of the known history of the universe, and part III studies inflation. Full treatment of the origin of structure, scalar fields, the cosmic microwave background and the early universe are provided. Problems are included in the book with solutions provided in a separate solutions manual. More advanced extension material is offered in the Appendix, ensuring the book is fully accessible to students with a wide variety of background experience. Features: Incorporates the latest experimental results, at a time of rapid change in the field Explores the origin of structure and the Cosmic Microwave Background Includes an extensive number of problems and a corresponding solutions manual
How One Man Masterminded the Soviet Drive Beat America to the Moon.
"Fascinating . . . packed with technical and historical detail for the space expert and enthusiast alike . . . Great stuff!"—New Scientist
"In this exceptional book, James Harford pieces together a most compelling and well-written tale. . . . Must reading."—Space News.
"Through masterful research and an engaging narrative style, James Harford gives the world its first in-depth look at the man who should rightly be called the father of the Soviet space program."—Norman R. Augustine, CEO, Lockheed Martin.
"In Korolev, James Harford has written a masterly biography of this enigmatic 'Chief Designer' whose role the Soviets kept secret for fear that Western agents might 'get at' him."—Daily Telegraph.
"Harford's fluency in Russian and his intimate knowledge of space technology give us insights that few, if any, Americans and Russians have had into this dark history of Soviet space."—Dr. Herbert Friedman, Chief Scientist, Hulburt Center for Space Research Naval Research Laboratory.
"Reveals the complex, driven personality of a man who, despite unjust imprisonment in the Gulag, toiled tirelessly for the Soviet military industrial complex. . . . More than just a biography, this is also a history of the Soviet space program at the height of the Cold War. . . . Highly recommended."—Library Journal.
"For decades the identity of the Russian Chief Designer who shocked the world with the launching of the first Sputnik was one of the Soviet Union's best-kept secrets. This book tells vividly the story of that man, Sergei Korolev, in remarkable detail, with many facts and anecdotes previously unavailable to the West."—Sergei Khrushchev, Visiting Senior Fellow, Center for Foreign Policy Development.
The study of astrochemistry has become an important branch of modern astronomy and astrophysics. Molecules are key tools in exploring topics such as star and planet formation, the origin and evolution of interstellar dust grains, the structure of the interstellar medium in galaxies, and the origin of protogalaxies in the early Universe. This volume contains review papers alongside the latest results in the fast-growing discipline of astrochemistry, bringing together contributions from observers, modellers and laboratory astrochemists. It reports results from new observational facilities, such as the Herschel Space Observatory, ALMA, NOEMA, Rosetta and SOFIA, which are leading to new research areas such as the habitability of exoplanets, the origin of prebiotic chemistry and astrobiology. Interleaved with these observation results is the recent, ground-breaking work of physical chemists and numerical modellers, which provides the fundamental theoretical descriptions required to explain the molecular Universe.
The cycle of day and night and the cycle of seasons are two familiar natural cycles around which many human activities are organized. But is there a third natural cycle of importance for us humans? On 13 March 1989, six million people in Canada went without electricity for many hours: a large explosion on the sun was discovered as the cause of this blackout. Such explosions occur above sunspots, dark features on the surface of the Sun that have been observed through telescopes since the time of Galileo. The number of sunspots has been found to wax and wane over a period of 11 years. Although this cycle was discovered less than two centuries ago, it is becoming increasingly important for us as human society becomes more dependent on technology. For nearly a century after its discovery, the cause of the sunspot cycle remained completely shrouded in mystery. The 1908 discovery of strong magnetic fields in sunspots made it clear that the 11-year cycle is the magnetic cycle of the sun. It is only during the last few decades that major developments in plasma physics have at last given us the clue to the origins of the cycle and how the large explosions affecting the earth arise. Nature's Third Cycle discusses the fascinating science behind the sunspot cycle, and gives an insider's perspective of this cutting-edge scientific research from one of the leaders of the field.
The birth and evolution of our solar system is a tantalizing mystery that may one day provide answers to the question of human origins. From Dust to Life tells the remarkable story of how the celestial objects that make up the solar system arose from common beginnings billions of years ago, and how scientists and philosophers have sought to unravel this mystery down through the centuries, piecing together the clues that enabled them to deduce the solar system's layout, its age, and the most likely way it formed. Drawing on the history of astronomy and the latest findings in astrophysics and the planetary sciences, John Chambers and Jacqueline Mitton offer the most up-to-date and authoritative treatment of the subject available. They examine how the evolving universe set the stage for the appearance of our Sun, and how the nebulous cloud of gas and dust that accompanied the young Sun eventually became the planets, comets, moons, and asteroids that exist today. They explore how each of the planets acquired its unique characteristics, why some are rocky and others gaseous, and why one planet in particular--our Earth--provided an almost perfect haven for the emergence of life. From Dust to Life is a must-read for anyone who desires to know more about how the solar system came to be. This enticing book takes readers to the very frontiers of modern research, engaging with the latest controversies and debates. It reveals how ongoing discoveries of far-distant extrasolar planets and planetary systems are transforming our understanding of our own solar system's astonishing history and its possible fate.
In Exploding Superstars, Alain Mazure and Stephane Basa show how great stellar explosions have become extremely important in recent years to cosmologists trying to understand the evolution of our universe since the Big Bang and the scale of that universe. Recently supernovae and gamma-ray bursters have been used, for example, as "standard candles," illuminating their immediate environs like searchlights and allowing us to study the cosmos between them and us.
In the first three chapters the authors briefly review the great explosions that will form the subject matter of the book--namely, supernovae and gamma-ray bursters. They describe the very early universe, after the Big Bang, and then how "the lights came on all over the universe as the very first stars began to shine." The importance of stellar mass in governing not only the lifetime of a star (the most massive stars live relatively short lives) but also the way in which a star ends its days is also explained.
Chapter 4 describes the explosion of certain massive stars, outlining the various stages at the end of these stars' lives, which result in the cataclysmic explosions known as supernovae. In Chapter 5 the authors introduce the more exotic and spectacular forms of stellar explosion known as gamma-ray bursters. Chapter 6 studies the markers used for cosmic surveys and Hubble's contributions to the field. The penultimate chapter looks at the very distant, highly luminous sources known as quasars and the evolution of our universe from the earliest times. The final chapter shows how observations of distant supernovae have revealed that the expansion of the universe is in fact accelerating--one of the most exciting and remarkable discoveries in recent years. It was this discovery that lead to the idea that 70% of the universe is made up of mysterious dark energy.
The story of the search for life on Mars-and the moral issues confronting us as we prepare to send humans there Does life exist on Mars? The question has captivated humans for centuries, but today it has taken on new urgency. NASA plans to send astronauts to Mars orbit by the 2030s. SpaceX wants to go by 2024, while Mars One wants to land a permanent settlement there in 2032. As we gear up for missions like these, we have a responsibility to think deeply about what kinds of life may already inhabit the planet--and whether we have the right to invite ourselves in. This book tells the complete story of the quest to answer one of the most tantalizing questions in astronomy. But it is more than a history. Life on Mars explains what we need to know before we go. David Weintraub tells why, of all the celestial bodies in our solar system, Mars has beckoned to us the most. He traces how our ideas about life on Mars have been refined by landers and rovers, terrestrial and Mars-orbiting telescopes, spectroscopy, and even a Martian meteorite. He explores how finding DNA-based life on the Red Planet could offer clues about our distant evolutionary past, and grapples with the profound moral and ethical questions confronting us as we prepare to introduce an unpredictable new life form-ourselves-into the Martian biosphere. Life on Mars is also a book about how science is done-and undone-in the age of mass media. It shows how Mars mania has obscured our vision since we first turned our sights on the planet and encourages a healthy skepticism toward the media hype surrounding Mars as humanity prepares to venture forth.
Humanity has long been fascinated by the planet Mars. Was its climate ever conducive to life? What is the atmosphere like today and why did it change so dramatically over time? Eleven spacecraft have successfully flown to Mars since the Viking mission of the 1970s and early 1980s. These orbiters, landers and rovers have generated vast amounts of data that now span a Martian decade (roughly eighteen years). This new volume brings together the many new ideas about the atmosphere and climate system that have emerged, including the complex interplay of the volatile and dust cycles, the atmosphere-surface interactions that connect them over time, and the diversity of the planet's environment and its complex history. Including tutorials and explanations of complicated ideas, students, researchers and non-specialists alike are able to use this resource to gain a thorough and up-to-date understanding of this most Earth-like of planetary neighbours.
This book offers an exercise in theoretical planetology, presenting five different scenarios to assess the evolution of habitable conditions on Mars to assess planetary terraforming potential and to give insight into the ongoing search for habitable exoplanets. Four of the scenarios involve Martian satellite capture models, in which gravitational capture via tidal deformation and energy dissipation processes are measured to predict a pathway of biological evolution, while the fifth scenario analyzes the possible model that led to the Mars that we have today (i.e. with no life forms). In ten chapters, readers will learn how a Mars-like terrestrial planet can be transformed into a habitable planet, and what conditions must be assessed when searching for exoplanets in a star-centered orbit to support life. The book is intended for planetologists, and general enthusiasts of planetary evolution and our solar system.
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